Domain Name System (DNS) is what makes it possible for users to connect to websites using Internet domain names and searchable URLs rather than numerical Internet protocol addresses. Rather than having to remember an IP address like 18.104.22.168, users can instead search for www.example.com.
The technology behind DNS can be likened to the way telephone contacts are managed on smartphones. Instead of needing to remember individual phone numbers, users can store and locate numbers easily by storing them in their contact lists—easily searchable by first and last names.
The translation technology behind DNS also has completely defined how businesses utilize the Internet, especially when creating their brand identity and presenting themselves to their customers. Without the use of a Domain Name System, customers could quickly lose track of which websites they were looking for. And while IP addresses can change from time to time, domain names are easy to remember and stay consistent.
It’s important to differentiate between using a public and a private DNS.
In the majority of cases, users will rely on public DNS when converting hostnames into IP addresses. Here is a high-level overview of how that process works:
The DNS has become critical to the core functionality of the Internet, helping users easily navigate a sea of IP addresses by way of resource records. Without these essential processes, it would be practically impossible to support all of the features we use on a daily basis online and would limit our capabilities when it comes to setting up mail services, website redirects, or recognizing complex IPv4 and IPv6 web addresses. But what makes DNS lookups so amazing is that regardless of how complex the process may be, all search queries and server redirects happen in mere milliseconds, without impacting the client side.
Many organizations find it beneficial to own their own DNS servers. There are several advantages to this approach, but ultimately, it comes down to better consistency and control over your own web properties. Since you are the administrator of the server, you’re able to set all parameters for your machines, including lookup processes, security protocols, and performance capabilities.
When deciding on which type of DNS server to use, two of the most important considerations are the scalability and performance that the server provides. The speed with which a DNS server responds to queries depends on a number of variables, including the user's geographic location in relation to the server, load-balancing configurations, and query filtering.
Another option that users have is to rely on a DDI solution—a centralized platform that integrates and manages all DNS, DHCP, and IPAM services. DDI gives enterprises the ability to simplify and automate the management of increasing volumes of IP addresses while adequately provisioning and integrating other cloud orchestration systems.
While most modern DNS servers are quite secure, older systems that were designed many years ago can come with their own business security challenges. Here are a couple of common risks associated with the use of these DNS servers.
Also known as a redirection attack, DNS hijacking occurs when DNS queries are incorrectly resolved and redirect users to fake and malicious websites. This is done by installing malware on users' computers that take over routers or hijack DNS communications as they occur.
DNS cache poisoning occurs when a hacker actually gets control of a DNS server itself and compromises IP address entries. These false entries are then spread globally to the Internet service providers, where they're cached and used in public DNS lookups.
One way you can effectively combat these risks is through the use of DNSSec. DNSSec uses a secure domain name system and assigns cryptographic signatures to DNS records, ensuring records cannot be altered from their original state. Similar to HTTPS, DNSSec adds an additional layer of security for accessing DNS records without the need for heavy encryption that slows down the querying process.
Regardless of the type of DNS services that you choose to use, there are a few best practices you can follow to avoid presenting an attack surface and to minimize any potential security issues: