IBM CEX7S / 4769 frequently asked questions

This page provides answers to frequently asked questions by customers of IBM's latest generation of PCIe hardware security module (HSM), the IBM CEX7S / 4769.

Which platforms are supported?

The IBM 4769 is available on the following platforms:

  • CPACF Enablement (Central Processor Assist for Cryptographic Functions). CPACF is a set of cryptographic instructions providing improved performance IBM Z® mainframes (IBM z15® only) as crypto feature Crypto Express7S (CEX7S), feature code (FC) 0898 / 0899. Note: FC 0898 / 0899 require FC 3863 - through hardware acceleration. Using the cryptographic hardware, you gain security from using the CPACF and the Crypto feature through in-kernel cryptography APIs and, for Linux on z Systems, the libica cryptographic functions library. Cryptographic keys must be protected by your application system, as required.
  • x64 servers as an IBM Z® machine type-model (MTM) 4769-001 (4769).

What operating system can I use?

The CEX7S crypto feature is supported on IBM z15 mainframe running one of these 64-bit operating systems:

  • IBM z/OS®
  • IBM Linux® on IBM Z®

The 4769 is supported on x64 servers running 64-bit Red Hat® Enterprise Linux (RHEL). See the x64 servers page for information about supported servers and RHEL versions.

How can I learn about the IBM CEX7S / 4769 and its specifications?

See the CEX7S /4769 overview page.

How can I obtain performance data?

Obtain 4769 performance measurements here.

How can I find news about IBM's crypto products?

Important news for our current customers is posted here.

How can I find out if there are any software updates to CCA?

Learn about software updates to the CCA software here.

How can I ask the Crypto team a question or get help for a problem?

Ask the Crypto team a question, make a comment, or report a problem.

Why do I have to wait for the adapter to be ready to use?

Any time that the coprocessor is reset, it goes through an extensive set of power-on self-test (POST) functions. POST carefully tests all parts of the coprocessor. This includes special tests required for a device that is certified under FIPS 140 at Level 4. The coprocessor is a complex device that contains cryptographic hardware which must be carefully tested. These tests can take up to several minutes to run. The coprocessor is not available for use by any application programs until the POST tests complete.

On most servers, waiting for a reset will not be a problem when the server is booting. This is because the coprocessor POST runs at the same time. The coprocessor is usually available before the server is finished booting.

Do any IBM cryptographic adapters use the Dual_EC_DRBG method?

No. No IBM CCA cryptographic coprocessors have ever used the Dual_EC_DBRG method, and thus customers using these coprocessors are not exposed to any weakness that might be in that algorithm. Coprocessors running CCA Release 4.4 or later use the SHA-256 based method from NIST SP 800-90, and older releases of CCA used a SHA-1 based method from ANSI X9.31.

IBM implements algorithms that are recommended by standards bodies and industry experts as the best practices, and updates those algorithms over time as recommendations change. For example, changes have occurred over time from DES to Triple-DES to AES and increases in RSA key size from 1024 to 4096 bits. Our current version of CCA implements the algorithms that are recognized as best practices today. To the best of our knowledge, and as supported by multiple crypto experts, there are no known weaknesses in the algorithms themselves. If industry recommendations change based on new analysis, IBM will consider moving to the newly recommended algorithms as we have always done in the past.

How do I enhance throughput with CCA and the IBM CEX7S / 4769?

The following describes how to enhance throughput of the IBM PCIe Cryptographic Coprocessor when using the IBM Common Cryptographic Architecture application programming interface. There are characteristics of your CCA host application program that can affect performance and throughput of the coprocessor. To better understand how to enhance throughput, consider these areas before designing your CCA applications:

  • Multi-threading and multi-processing
  • Caching of AES, DES, and PKA keys

Multi-threading and multi-processing

IBM cryptographic coprocessors are hardware security modules (HSMs). An IBM PCIe HSM can process multiple CCA requests simultaneously. This is because the HSM has several independent hardware elements that enable it to multi-process. These elements include the RSA engine, DES engine, CPU, random number generator, and PCIe communications interface. All of these elements work independently, and each can process a part of a different CCA verb at the same time. By being able to work on several CCA API calls at the same time, the HSM can keep some or all of its hardware elements busy. Keeping all of the hardware elements busy maximizes overall system throughput.

In order for an application to take advantage of the multi-processing capability of the coprocessor, the host system must send multiple CCA requests at the same time. These requests need to be sent without waiting for each one to finish before sending the next one. One option is to have several independent host application programs all using the coprocessor at the same time. The best way to accomplish this is to design CCA host application programs that are multi- threading. Every thread would independently send CCA requests to the HSM, such as when a Web server application starts a new thread for each request that it receives over the network. This results in enhanced utilization and maximum system throughput.

Incoming requests are automatically managed, and it is not possible to overload the HSM.

Caching AES, DES, and PKA keys

The HSM can optionally keep ready-to-use keys in a memory cache. Using cached keys enhances throughput, but can have an adverse effect. Here is an explanation about how caching keys enhances throughput, followed by how using cache can cause problems.

When a wrapped key is used, it incurs the overhead of being validated and unwrapped. The hardware security module (HSM) can optionally store a finite number of unwrapped symmetric or asymmetric keys in a memory cache, safely stored and ready to use within the encapsulated secure module. When caching keys is activated, any retained RSA key that is used is also stored in cache. Even though retained keys are never wrapped, uncached retained keys incur the overhead of being retrieved from internal flash EPROM memory. As a result of using key caching, applications that reuse a common set of keys can run much faster than those that use different keys for each transaction. Typical CCA applications use a common set of AES, DES, and PKA keys. This makes caching very effective at improving throughput. It should be noted that PKA public keys and uncached keys that are in the clear are not cached because they have very low overhead.

To improve performance, the CCA implementation provides caching of key records obtained from key storage within the CCA host code. However, the host cache is unique for each host process. Caching can be a problem if different host processes access the same key record. An update to a key record caused in one process does not affect the contents of the key cache held for other processes. To avoid this problem, caching of key records within the key storage system can be suppressed so that all processes will access the most current key records. To suppress caching of key records, use the export system command to set the environment variable CSUCACHE to 'N' or 'n' or to any string that begins with either of those letters.