When it comes to container technologies, two names emerge as open source leaders: Kubernetes and Docker. A lot of people want to know which option is better, but that question is based upon a misconception. They are, in fact, fundamentally different technologies and don’t compete—it’s not an either/or question. And while they excel in their respective areas, they also are complementary and can be powerful when combined.
In this post, we’ll explore the fundamentals of Docker and Kubernetes and take a look at the advantages of using them individually and in tandem. To do so, it’s important to start with the foundational technology that ties them together: containers.
What is a container?
A container is an executable unit of software that packages application code with its dependencies, enabling it to run on any IT infrastructure. A container stands alone; it is abstracted away from the host operating system (OS)—usually Linux—which makes it portable across IT environments.
One way to understand the concept of a container is to compare it to a virtual machine (VM). Both are based on virtualization technologies, but while a container virtualizes an OS, a VM leverages a hypervisor—a lightweight software layer between the VM and a computer’s hardware—to virtualize physical hardware.
With traditional virtualization, each VM contains a full copy of a guest operating system (OS), a virtual copy of the hardware needed to run the OS, as well as an application and its associated libraries and dependencies. A container, on the other hand, includes only an application and its libraries and dependencies. The absence of a guest host significantly reduces the size of a container, making it lightweight, fast, and portable.
Engineers can use containers to quickly develop applications that run consistently across a large number of machines and software environments. The portability of containers eliminates many of the conflicts that come from differences in tools and software between functional teams.
This makes them particularly well-suited for DevOps, easing the way for developers and IT operations to work together across environments. Small and lightweight, containers are also ideal for microservices architectures, in which applications are made up of loosely coupled, smaller services. And containerization is often the first step in modernizing applications and migrating them to the cloud.
What is Docker?
Docker is an open source containerization platform. Basically, it’s a toolkit that makes it easier, safer, and faster for developers to build, deploy, and manage containers. Although it began as an open source project, Docker today also refers to Docker, Inc., the company that produces the commercial Docker product. Currently, it is the most popular tool for creating and running Linux containers.
Container technologies were available for decades prior to Docker’s release in 2013. In the early days, Linux Containers, or LXC, were the most prevalent of these. Docker was built on LXC, but Docker’s customized technology quickly overtook LXC to become the most popular containerization platform.
Among Docker’s key attributes is its portability. Docker containers can run across any desktop, data center, or cloud environment. Only one process can run in each container, so an application is able to run continuously while one part of it is undergoing an update or being repaired.
Other Docker features include the ability to automatically track and roll back container images, use existing containers as base images for building new containers, and build containers based on application source code. Docker is backed by a vibrant developer community that has access to an open source registry with thousands of user-contributed containers.
But while Docker does well with smaller applications, large enterprise applications can involve a huge number of containers—sometimes hundreds or even thousands—which becomes overwhelming for IT teams tasked with managing them. That’s where container orchestration comes in. Docker has its own orchestration tool, Docker Swarm, but by far the most popular and robust option is Kubernetes. (See “Docker Swarm vs. Kubernetes: A Comparison” for a closer look at how the two match up.)
What is Kubernetes?
Kubernetes is an open source container orchestration platform for scheduling and automating the deployment, management, and scaling of containerized applications. Containers operate in a multiple container architecture called a “cluster.” A Kubernetes cluster includes a container designated as a “master node” that schedules workloads for the rest of the containers—or “nodes”—in the cluster.
The master node determines where to host applications (or Docker containers), decides how to put them together, and manages their orchestration. By grouping containers that make up an application into clusters, Kubernetes facilitates service discovery and enables management of high volumes of containers throughout their lifecycles.
Google introduced Kubernetes as an open source project in 2014. Since then, it has quickly become the most widely adopted container orchestration platform worldwide. Its pervasiveness is due in part to its robust functionality, active Kubernetes community and ecosystem with thousands of contributors, and support and portability across leading cloud providers.
Key Kubernetes functions include the following:
Deployment: Schedules and automates deployment of containers to specified hosts and keeps containers running in a desired state.
Service discovery and load balancing: Exposes a container on the internet and employs load balancing when traffic spikes occur to maintain stability.
Self-healing capabilities: Restarts, replaces, or reschedules containers when they fail or when nodes die, and kills containers that don’t respond to user-defined health checks.
Automated rollouts and rollbacks: Rolls out application changes and monitors application health for any issues, rolling back changes if something goes wrong.
Storage orchestration: Automatically mounts a persistent local or cloud storage system of choice as needed.
For more information, see our video “Kubernetes Explained”:
Kubernetes and Docker: Finding your best container solution
Although Kubernetes and Docker are distinct technologies, they are highly complementary and make a powerful combination. Docker provides the containerization piece, enabling developers to easily package applications into small, isolated containers. Developers can then run those applications across their IT environment, without having to worry about compatibility issues. If an application runs on a local machine during testing, it will run anywhere.
When demand surges, Kubernetes provides orchestration of Docker containers, scheduling and automatically deploying them to scale across IT environments in a uniform way. Kubernetes provides the additional benefits of load balancing, self-healing, and automated rollouts and rollbacks.
For companies that anticipate scaling their infrastructure in the future, it might make sense to make the move to Kubernetes early. And for those already using Docker, Kubernetes makes use of existing containers and workloads while taking on the complex issues involved in moving to scale.
For more information, watch “Kubernetes vs. Docker: It’s Not an Either/Or Question”:
Integration to better automate and manage applications
Later versions of Docker have built-in integration with Kubernetes. This feature enables development teams to more effectively automate and manage all the containerized applications that Docker helped them build.
An example of this type of integration is the IBM Cloud Pak for Applications, which uses Docker, Kubernetes, and IBM integration technologies to help users build cloud applications, protect data, and move applications to the cloud, all from behind their organization’s firewall.
In addition, IBM Cloud Pak for Multicloud Management—the enterprise-grade multicloud management solution for Kubernetes—increases visibility across your multicloud infrastructures, offers built-in support for your compliance management, and provides consistent application management.
We’ve all been there. You have an amazing idea that’s really exciting. Maybe it’s a home improvement project, or perhaps it’s a new business idea. You think about all the details required to make it real. But, once you get to the seventh action item, you’re not so excited anymore. Sometimes when we realize the […]
Cars have always been built for travel, but the experience of driving has changed dramatically over the last few decades. Today’s connected cars are not only equipped with seamless internet, but usually have a wireless local area network (WLAN) that allows the car to access data, send data and communicate with Internet of Things (IoT) […]
How productive would your company employees be if they could save two hours a day on regular tasks? With the growth and evolution of today’s digital economy, companies face the challenge of managing increasingly complex business processes that involve massive amounts of data. This has also led to repetitive work, like requiring employees to manually […]