What is quantum computing?

Quantum computers could spur the development of new breakthroughs in science, medications to save lives, machine learning methods to diagnose illnesses sooner, materials to make more efficient devices and structures, financial strategies to live well in retirement, and algorithms to quickly direct resources such as ambulances.

But what exactly is quantum computing, and what does it take to achieve these quantum breakthroughs? Here’s what you need to know.

What is quantum computing? What is quantum computing?
A new kind of computing

We experience the benefits of classical computing every day. However, there are challenges that today’s systems will never be able to solve. For problems above a certain size and complexity, we don’t have enough computational power on Earth to tackle them.

To stand a chance at solving some of these problems, we need a new kind of computing. Universal quantum computers leverage the quantum mechanical phenomena of superposition and entanglement to create states that scale exponentially with number of qubits, or quantum bits.

Learn more about one of the first, most promising application areas of quantum computing:

Quantum molecules Quantum molecules
Quantum computing fundamentals

All computing systems rely on a fundamental ability to store and manipulate information. Current computers manipulate individual bits, which store information as binary 0 and 1 states. Quantum computers leverage quantum mechanical phenomena to manipulate information. To do this, they rely on quantum bits, or qubits.

Here, learn about the quantum properties leveraged by qubits, how they're used to compute, and how quantum systems scale.

Illustration showing the relationship between the number of qubits and error rate.

Learn more about quantum computing fundamentals

Quantum properties

Quantum computation

Scaling quantum systems

IBM Quantum Circuit Composer and Qiskit side by side

Enterprise-wide Access, Anytime

IBM Quantum provides cloud-based software for your team to acess our quantum computers anytime. No matter how big your team is, large or small, IBM Quantum Experience platform is ready to support your team as they explore the potential of quantum.

IBM Q System One
Inside a quantum computer

There are a few different ways to create a qubit. One method uses superconductivity to create and maintain a quantum state. To work with these superconducting qubits for extended periods of time, they must be kept very cold. Any heat in the system can introduce error, which is why quantum computers operate at temperatures close to absolute zero, colder than the vacuum of space.

Take a look at how a quantum computer’s dilution refrigerator, made from more than 2,000 components, creates such a cold environment for the qubits inside.

Dig deeper

You've learned the basics. Now build on your understanding of quantum computing with the resources below.