Web Checklist 6.1 to 5.2 Comparison and Impact Analysis

The following tables show the checkpoints of the IBM Accessibility Checklist for Web, version 6.1 and how checkpoints of the 5.2 Web checklist and Section 508 requirements relate to them. The largest single change is in the numbering schema, to match the WCAG 2.0 standard. Almost all checkpoints match 1:1 with the prior checklist, and for these the impact for development teams is none or minimal.

IBM Accessibility Checklist for Web 6.1  Relevant 5.2 checkpoints Impact Analysis Comments and guidance

WCAG 2.0 to 5.2 checkpoint comparison

1.1.1 Non-text Content. All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose. (Level A) 1.1a: Text Alternatives.
All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose.
1.1b: Non-text Content
A descriptive label is provided for time-based media, including live audio-only and live video-only content. Non-text content that is used to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer is available in different forms to accommodate multiple disabilities.
Minimal No new requirements, but there is a need to include a descriptve label for time-based media (previously a separate checkpoint, 1.1b, in 5.2) as part of a single checkpoint. A trivial change in this and all checkpoints is the relocation of the "exception" language from the short description of the checkpoint to a separate, consistently positioned "Exception" paragraph.
1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded). For prerecorded audio-only or video-only media, an alternative provides equivalent information. (Level A) 1.2b: Audio and Video (Prerecorded)
An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such..
Minimal No new requirements. The 1.2.1 requirements are captured in 1.2b's "For audio-only" and "For video-only" techniques.
1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded): Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media. (Level A) 1.2a: Captions
Captions are provided for pre-recorded multimedia.
Minimal No new requirements. 1.2.2 and 1.2a are equivalent.
1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded). An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media. (Level A) 1.2b: Audio and Video (Prerecorded)
An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labeled as such..
Minimal No new requirements. 1.2.3 is captured in 1.2b's "For video with audio" and "Media alternative" requirements.
1.2.4 Captions (Live): Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media. (Level AA) 1.2c: Live Multimedia
Captions are provided for live multimedia.
Minimal No new requirements. 1.2c and 1.2.4 are equivalent.
1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded). Audio descripion is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media. (Level AA) AA1.2.5 Audio Description
Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.
No impact No impact; the same guidance.
1.3.1 Info and Relationships. Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text. (Level A) 1.3a: Information and Relationships
Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.
Minimal Moved detailed guidance on ARIA Landmarks to 2.4.1 Bypass Blocks. Moved guidance for Required Fields to 3.3.2 Labels and Instructions. New supplemental information regarding use of the title attribute.
1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence. When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined. (Level A) 1.3c: Meaningful Sequence
When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically
Minimal  No new requirements. 1.3c and 1.3.2 are equivalent
1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics. Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound. (Level A) 1.3g: Sensory Characteristics
Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.
 Minimal No new requirements. 1.3g and 1.3.3 are equivalent
1.4.1 Use of Color. Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element. (Level A) 1.4a: Use of Color
Color is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.
Minimal No new requirements.
1.4.2 Audio Control. If any audio plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level. (Level A) 1.4b: Audio Control
If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.
Minimal No new requirements.1.4.2 and 1.4b are equivalent.
1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum). The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, with a 3:1 ratio for large-scale text. (Level AA) AA1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum)
The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for large print and images of large print, which must have a contrast ratio of 3:1. Decorative images and logotypes are exempt from this requirement.
No impact  
1.4.4 Resize text. Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality. (Level AA) AA1.4.4 Resize text
Text (but not images of text) can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.
No impact  
1.4.5 Images of Text. If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text. (Level AA) AA1.4.5 Images of Text Use text to convey information rather than images. An image of text may be used when it is essential to the information being conveyed and the image can be visually customized to the user's requirements. No impact  
2.1.1 Keyboard. All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes. (Level A) 2.1a: Keyboard.
All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user's movement and not just the endpoints.
Minimal  No new requirements. 2.1.1 and 2.1a are equivalent.
2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap. If keyboard focus can be moved to a component using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away. (Level A) 2.1d: No Keyboard Trap.
If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.
Minimal  No new requirements. 2.1.2 and 2.1d are equivalent.
2.2.1 Timing Adjustable. For each time limit that is set by the content, the user can turn off, adjust, or extend the limit. (Level A) 2.2a: Adjust time response.
The user is allowed to turn off, adjust or extend all time limits that are not a real-time, essential or 20 hour exception.
Minimal Required Script techniques now align with WCAG. Added in an additional situation to the WCAG situations: Where feasible, consider a non-timed response in the design.
2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide. For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, the user can pause, stop, hide, or adjust the information. (Level A) 2.2b: Pause, Stop, Hide.
The user is allowed to pause, stop, or hide moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information unless it is an essential part of an activity.
Minimal  No new requirements. 2.2.2 and 2.2b are equivalent.
2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold. Content does not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds. (Level A) 2.3a: Flashing Content or Below Threshold.
Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.
Minimal  The required techniques now align with WCAG.
2.4.1 Bypass Blocks. A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages, or in sets of documents or software programs. (Level A) * N/A for most Software 2.4a: Navigational features.
A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.
2.4b: Navigate to main content.
Methods are provided for skipping over navigation links to get to the main content of the page.
2.4c: Frames.
A title and an accessible frame source are provided for each frame.
Minimal The existing requirement to use ARIA will continue, so there is little changed in the techniques or testing. The requirement to supplement HTML5 structural elements with ARIA has been clarified.
2.4a, 2.4b and 2.4c are covered by techniques in 2.4.1.
2.4.2 Page Titled. Web pages, non-web documents, and software have titles that describe topic or purpose. (Level A) 2.4d: Page Titles.
Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose.
 Minimal No new requirements. 2.4.2 and 2.4d are equivalent.
2.4.3 Focus Order. If content can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability. (Level A) 2.4e: Focus Order.
If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.
Minimal A new supplemental General technique on Maintaining a User's Point of Regard, which clarifies existing guidance from Web 5.2, has been added.
2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context). The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context. (Level A) 2.4f: Link Purpose.
The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.
Minimal We removed the recommendation to use aria-describedby to provide additional information about the link.
2.4.5 Multiple Ways. More than one way is available to locate an item in a set of items, whether it is a Web page within a set of Web pages, a document within a set of non-web documents, or a program within a set of software programs. (Level AA) *N/A for most Software AA2.4.5 Multiple Ways
More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process.
No impact  
2.4.6 Headings and Labels. Headings and labels describe topic or purpose. (Level AA) AA2.4.6 Headings and Labels
Headings and labels describe topic or purpose.
Minimal Moved techniques for required fields to 3.3.2 Labels or Instructions
2.4.7 Focus Visible. Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible. (Level AA) AA2.4.7 Focus Visible
Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible.
Minimal Enhanced technique with information regarding the contrast of a highly visible focus indicator.
3.1.1 Language of Page. The default human language of Web pages, non-Web documents, or software can be programmatically determined. (Level A) 3.1a: Language of Page.
The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.
Minimal  No new requirements.
3.1.2 Language of Parts. The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined. (Level AA)  AA3.1.2 Language of Parts
The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.
No impact  
3.2.1 On Focus. When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context. (Level A) 3.2a: On Focus.
When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.
Minimal  No new requirements.
3.2.2 On Input. Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component. (Level A)  3.2b: On Input.
Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behavior before using the component.
Minimal  No new requirements.
3.2.3 Consistent Navigation. Navigational mechanisms that are repeated throughout content occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user. (Level AA) *N/A for most Software AA3.2.3 Consistent Navigation
Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user.
No impact  
3.2.4 Consistent Identification. Components that have the same functionality within a set of content are identified consistently. (Level AA) *N/A for most Software AA3.2.4 Consistent Identification
Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently.
No impact  
3.3.1 Error Identification. If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text. (Level A) 3.3a: Error Identification.
If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text.
 Minimal Removed some techniques about required fields, which properly belong in 3.3.2.
3.3.2 Labels or Instructions. Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. (Level A) 3.3b: Labels or Instructions.
Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input. For all user interface components, the name and role can be programmatically determined, values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set, and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies
Minimal Changed the General guidance language to be "one or more" techniques used in combination, since in many cases more than one technique must be used.
Concentrated guidance on indicating required fields in this checkpoint.
3.3.3 Error Suggestion. If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content. (Level AA) AA3.3.3 Error Suggestion
If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.
Minimal Moved use of aria-invalid to 3.3.1 Error Identification
3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data). For content that causes legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, the user can reverse, correct, or confirm the action. (Level AA) AA3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)
Web pages used for legal commitments or financial transactions, that modify or delete user-controllable data in a data storage system, or submit user test responses must 1) allow the user to reverse the submission, OR 2) be checked for input errors and provide the user with the ability to correct input before submission OR 3) allow the user to review, confirm and correct information before finalizing the submission.
No impact  
4.1.1 Parsing. In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features. (Level A) 4.1a: Parsing.
In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.
Minimal  No new requirments.
4.1.2 Name, Role, Value. For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies. (Level A) 4.1b: Name, Role, Value.
For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.
Minimal  No new requirements.
4.1.3 Accessibility-supported technologies only. Use accessibility supported technologies. Any information or functionality that is implemented in technologies that are not accessibility supported must also be available via technologies that are accessibility supported.  4.2b: Accessibility-Supported Technologies Only.
Use accessibility supported technologies. Any information or functionality that is implemented in technologies that are not accessibility supported must also be available via technologies that are accessibility supported.
Minimal  
Section 508 Legacy Requirement  Relevant 5.2 checkpoints Impact Analysis Comments and guidance

Legacy Non-WCAG 508 to 5.2 checkpoint comparison

These checkpoints represent 508 requirements that are not covered by WCAG techniques and need to be tested for all teams

1194.22 (d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet. 1.3f Cascading style sheets
Web pages are readable without requiring style sheets.
No impact Compliance can still be met by Equivalent Facilitation (via Windows High Contrast mode).
1194.22 (f) Client-side image maps shall be provided instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape. 1.1c Image maps
Client-side image maps are used and alternative text is provided for image map hot spots. Equivalent text links are provided if a server-side image map is used.
No impact Almost no applications use image maps, so this should affect very few applications. Teams that are affected must carry out techniques and tests documented for 1.1c Image maps.
1194.22 (k) A text-only page, with equivalent information or functionality, shall be provided to make a web site comply with the provisions of these standards, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way. The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes. 4.2a Text-only page
If accessibility cannot be accomplished in any other way, a text-only page with equivalent information or functionality is provided.
No impact Where teams are unable to provide a fully accessible application, they must provide a text-only page if it is possible to provide equivalent information or functionality in this way.
Section 508 Legacy Requirement  Relevant 5.2 checkpoints Impact Analysis Comments and guidance

Legacy 508 requirements to 5.2 checkpoint comparison

These checkpoints represent Section 508 requirements that are subsets of WCAG requirements. If teams pass all WCAG checkpoints, the following can all be reported as compliant; however, if teams fail certain WCAG checkpoints described in the final 'Comments and guidance' column, they must provide information on the relevant 5.2 checkpoints so that applications properly report 508 compliance.

1194.22 (g) Row and column headers shall be identified for data tables. 1.3e Tables
Table cells and relationships between cells can be programmatically determined.
Minimal 1.3.1 already includes all (g) requirements. If a team passes 1.3.1, they can automatically mark (g) as passed. Otherwise, they must carryout techniques and tests documented for 1.3e Tables.
1194.22 (h) Markup shall be used to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of row or column headers. 1.3e Tables
Table cells and relationships between cells can be programmatically determined.
Minimal 1.3.1 already includes all (h) requirements. If a team passes 1.3.1, they can automatically mark (h) as passed. Otherwise, they must carryout techniques and tests documented for 1.3e Tables.
1194.22 (i) Frames shall be titled with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation. 2.4c Frames
A title and an accessible frame source are provided for each frame.
 Minimal 2.4.1 and 4.1.2 include all (i) requirements. If a team pases these two WCAG checkpoints, then they can automatically mark (i) as passes. Otherwise, they must carryout techniques and tests documented for 2.4c Frames.
1194.22 (l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be ready by assistive technology. 2.1b Scripts
Scripts are keyboard accessible. If the content affected by scripting is not accessible, an alternative is provided.
 Minimal If an application passes 1.3.1, 2.1.1, 2.1.2, 3.3.2, 4.1.1 and 4.1.2, then (l) can be marked as passed. Otherwise, all techniques and testing for 2.1b must be met.
1194.22 (m) When a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content, the page must provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with 1194.21 (a) through (l). 2.1c Applets, plug-ins, and non-HTML content
A link is provided to a directly accessible applet, plug-in or other application. Alternate content is provided for those applets, plug-ins or other applications that are not directly accessible.
 Minimal If an application passes 2.1.1 and 2.1.2, then (m) can be marked as passed. Otherwise, all techniques for 2.1c must be met.
1194.22 (n) When electronic forms are designed to be completed on-line, the form shall allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues. 1.3d Forms
Form element labels can be programmatically determined.
 Minimal If an application passes  1.3.1, 3.3.1, 3.3.2 and 3.3.3, then (n) can be  marked as passed. Otherwise, all techniques and testing for 1.3d must be met.
IBM Accessibility Checklist for Web 6.1  Relevant Documentation for web checkpoint Impact Analysis Comments and guidance

508 Refresh Documentation

The checklist contains a new checkpoint on documentation. Rather than having an entirely separate checklist for web-based documentation, this single checkpoint captures the essential 508 Refresh requirement for documentation. IBM teams continue to complete a separate web and web-based documetation checklist (with the 602.2 checkpoint only present on the latter). External web teams which incorporate documentation directly into their application can include all application and documentation testing into a single checklist. For teams that have a standalone help system, its accessibility can be captured by completing the 6.1 checklist a second time.

602.2 Documentation lists and explains accessibility and compatibility features, including keyboard access. 2.2.1 Provide documentation on all accessibility features including keyboard access. Minimal Rather than having an entirely separate checklist for web-based documentation, this single checkpoint captures essential 508 requirements for documentation. External web teams which incorporate documentation directly into their application can report all application and documentation testing into a single checklist. For teams that have a standalone help system -- or non-web Software teams who are using web-based documentation -- the 6.1 checklist including checkpoint 602.2 can be used in place of the old Documentation for Web checklist..