Alain J.P. Belda, 70
is a managing director at Warburg Pincus LLC, a global private equity and investment firm. He is a member of IBM's Executive Compensation and Management Resources Committee. Mr. Belda joined Alcoa in 1969 and subsequently held various executive positions. From 1979 to 1994, he was president of Alcoa Aluminio S.A. in Brazil, Alcoa's Brazilian subsidiary. He was named executive vice president of Alcoa Inc. in 1994, vice chairman in 1995, president and chief operating officer in 1997 and president and chief executive officer in 1999. Mr. Belda was chairman and chief executive officer from 2001 until 2008; he remained chairman until his retirement in 2010. He is a director of Renault S.A., Omega Energia Renovavel S.A., Banco Indusval Partners, Pet Center Marginal and Dudalina. Additionally, during the past five years, he served as a director of Citigroup Inc. Mr. Belda became an IBM director in 2008.
William R. Brody, 70
is president of the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, a non-profit scientific research institution. He is a member of IBM's Directors and Corporate Governance Committee. From 1987 to 1994, Dr. Brody was the Martin Donner Professor and director of the Department of Radiology, professor of electrical and computer engineering, and professor of biomedical engineering at The Johns Hopkins University and radiologist-in-chief of The Johns Hopkins Hospital. He was the provost of the Academic Health Center at the University of Minnesota from 1994 until 1996. Dr. Brody was president of The Johns Hopkins University from 1996 to 2009. He is a director of all T. Rowe Price fund companies and Biomed Realty Trust. Dr. Brody is a trustee of the W.M. Keck Foundation and Stanford University. Additionally, during the past five years, he served as a director of Novartis AG. Dr. Brody became an IBM director in 2007.
Kenneth I. Chenault, 62
is chairman and chief executive officer of American Express Company, a financial services company. Mr. Chenault joined American Express in 1981 and was named president of the U.S. division of American Express Travel Related Services Company, Inc. in 1993, vice chairman of American Express Company in 1995, president and chief operating officer in 1997 and chairman and chief executive officer in 2001. He is a director of The Procter & Gamble Company. Mr. Chenault became an IBM director in 1998.
Michael L. Eskew, 64
is retired chairman and chief executive officer of United Parcel Service, Inc., a provider of specialized transportation and logistics services. He is chair of IBM's Audit Committee and a member of IBM's Executive Committee. He will become IBM's Presiding Director effective May 1, 2014. Mr. Eskew joined United Parcel Service in 1972. He was named corporate vice president for industrial engineering in 1994, group vice president for engineering in 1996, executive vice president in 1999, vice chairman in 2000, and he was chairman and chief executive officer from 2002 until his retirement at the end of 2007. Mr. Eskew remains on the board of United Parcel Service, and he is also a director of Eli Lilly and Company and 3M Company. In addition, he is chairman of the Annie E. Casey Foundation. Mr. Eskew became an IBM director in 2005.
David N. Farr, 59
is chairman and chief executive officer of Emerson Electric Co., a diversified manufacturing and technology company. He is a member of IBM's Audit Committee. Mr. Farr joined Emerson in 1981 and subsequently held various executive positions. He was named senior executive vice president and chief operating officer in 1999, chief executive officer in 2000 and chairman and chief executive officer in 2004. Mr. Farr was named chairman, president and chief executive officer in 2005 and chairman and chief executive officer in 2010. He is a director of the US-China Business Council. Additionally, during the past five years, he served as a director of Delphi Corporation. Mr. Farr became an IBM director in 2012.
Shirley Ann Jackson, 67
is president of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. She is a member of IBM's Directors and Corporate Governance Committee. Dr. Jackson was a theoretical physicist at the former AT&T Bell Laboratories from 1976 to 1991, professor of theoretical physics at Rutgers University from 1991 to 1995, and chairman of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission from 1995 until she assumed her current position in 1999. Dr. Jackson is a director of FedEx Corporation, Marathon Oil Corporation, Medtronic, Inc., and Public Service Enterprise Group Incorporated. She is a member of the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology and a member of the International Security Advisory Board to the United States Secretary of State. Dr. Jackson is a fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering (U.K.), the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a trustee of the Brookings Institution and a past president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the National Academy of Engineering, the American Philosophical Society and the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. Additionally, during the past five years, she served as a director of NYSE Euronext. Dr. Jackson became an IBM director in 2005.
Andrew N. Liveris, 60
is President, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of The Dow Chemical Company, a global technology company focused on developing innovative solutions at the intersections of the physical, materials, polymer and biological sciences with 2013 annual sales of more than $57 billion. He is a member of IBM's Executive Compensation and Management Resources Committee. Mr. Liveris joined Dow in 1976 and subsequently held various executive positions, including vice president of specialty chemicals from 1998 to 2000, business group president for performance chemicals from 2000 to 2003, and president and chief operating officer from 2003 to 2004. Mr. Liveris was named president and chief executive officer of Dow in 2004 and chairman in 2006. Liveris serves as Co-Chair of U.S. President Obama’s Advanced Manufacturing Partnership steering committee. He is the author of Make It in America, which presents a comprehensive set of practical policy solutions and business strategies for reviving the manufacturing sector. Liveris also sits on the Board of Special Olympics, is Chairman of the U.S. Business Council, Vice Chair of the Business Roundtable and a member of the U.S. President's Export Council. He serves as a trustee for the Herbert H. and Grace A. Dow Foundation, California Institute of Technology and the United States Council for International Business.
W. James McNerney, Jr., 64
is chairman and chief executive officer of The Boeing Company, an aerospace company and manufacturer of commercial jetliners and military aircraft. He is a member of IBM's Executive Compensation and Management Resources Committee. Mr. McNerney joined Boeing in his current role in 2005. Beginning in 1982, he served in management positions at General Electric Company, including as president and chief executive officer of GE Aircraft Engines from 1997 to 2000. From 2001 to 2005, he served as chairman and chief executive officer of 3M Company. Mr. McNerney is chairman of the President's Export Council. He is also a director of The Procter & Gamble Company. Mr. McNerney became an IBM director in 2009.
James W. Owens, 68
is retired chairman and chief executive officer of Caterpillar Inc., a manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines and industrial gas turbines. He is a member of IBM's Audit Committee. Mr. Owens joined Caterpillar in 1972 as a corporate economist and subsequently held various management positions, including chief financial officer. He was named group president in 1995 and vice chairman in 2003. Mr. Owens served as chairman and chief executive officer of Caterpillar from 2004 until his retirement in 2010. He is a director of Alcoa Inc. and Morgan Stanley. Mr. Owens is chairman of the executive committee of the Peterson Institute for International Economics, a director of the Council on Foreign Relations and a senior advisor at KKR & Co. L.P. He is a trustee of North Carolina State University and was a member of the President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board. Mr. Owens became an IBM director in 2006.
Virginia M. Rometty, 56
is chairman, president and chief executive officer of IBM and chair of IBM's Executive Committee. Mrs. Rometty joined IBM in 1981. She was elected senior vice president of Global Business Services in 2005, senior vice president of Sales and Distribution in 2009, senior vice president and group executive of Sales, Marketing and Strategy in 2010, president and chief executive officer in early 2012 and chairman in late 2012. She is a member of the Business Roundtable, the Council on Foreign Relations, the President's Export Council, the Board of Trustees of Northwestern University and the Board of Overseers and Managers of Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. Additionally, during the past five years, she served as a director of American International Group, Inc. Mrs. Rometty became an IBM director in 2012.
Joan E. Spero, 69
is an adjunct senior research scholar at Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs. She is a member of IBM's Audit Committee. Ms. Spero served as U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations for Economic and Social Affairs from 1980 to 1981. From 1981 to 1993, she held several positions with American Express Company, the last being executive vice president, corporate affairs and communications. From 1993 to 1996, Ms. Spero served as U.S. Under Secretary of State for Economic, Business and Agricultural Affairs, and from 1997 through 2008, she was president of the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. She is a director of Citigroup Inc. and International Paper Company. From 2009 to 2010 she was a visiting fellow at the Foundation Center. She is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, and the American Philosophical Society, a trustee emeritus of Columbia University, an honorary trustee of the Brookings Institution, and a trustee of the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation and the International Center for Transitional Justice. Additionally, during the past five years, she served as a member of the supervisory board of ING Group. Ms. Spero became an IBM director in 2004.
Sidney Taurel, 65
is senior advisor at Capital Royalty L.P., a private equity firm. He is chair of IBM's Executive Compensation and Management Resources Committee and a member of IBM's Executive Committee. Mr. Taurel joined Eli Lilly in 1971 and held management positions in the company's operations in South America and Europe. He was named president of Eli Lilly International Corporation in 1986, executive vice president of the Pharmaceutical Division in 1991, executive vice president of Eli Lilly and Company in 1993, and president and chief operating officer in 1996. He was named chief executive officer of Eli Lilly and Company in 1998 and chairman of the board in 1999. Mr. Taurel retired as chief executive officer in early 2008 and as chairman in late 2008. He is a director of McGraw Hill Financial, Inc. He is also a member of The Business Council and the Board of Overseers of the Columbia Business School and a trustee of the Indianapolis Museum of Art. Mr. Taurel became an IBM director in 2001.
About the board
IBM's Board of Directors is responsible for supervision of the overall affairs of the Company. To assist it in carrying out its duties, the Board has delegated certain authority to several committees. Following the Annual Meeting in 2014, the Board will consist of 13 directors. In the interim between Annual Meetings, the Board has the authority under the by-laws to increase or decrease the size of the Board and to fill vacancies. The Board held nine meetings during 2013. The Board and the Directors and Corporate Governance Committee recognize the importance of director attendance at Board and committee meetings. In 2013, overall attendance at Board and committee meetings was over 97%. Attendance was at least 75% for each director. Information about board attendance at the Company's 2013 Annual Meeting of Stockholders and the Company's policy with regard to board members' attendance at annual meetings of stockholders is available at http://www.ibm.com/investor/governance/board-of-directors/about-the-board.html.
IBM's Board of Directors has long adhered to governance principles designed to assure the continued vitality of the Board and excellence in the execution of its duties. Since 1994, the Board has had in place a set of governance guidelines reflecting these principles, including the Board's policy of requiring a majority of independent directors, the importance of equity compensation to align the interests of directors and stockholders, and regularly scheduled executive sessions, including sessions of non-management directors without members of management. An executive session with independent directors is held at least once a year, and the non-management directors met in executive session eight times in 2013. The IBM Board Corporate Governance Guidelines reflect the Company's principles on corporate governance matters. These guidelines are available at http://www.ibm.com/investor/governance/corporate-governance-guidelines.html.
The Directors and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for leading the search for qualified individuals for election as directors to ensure the Board has the right mix of skills, expertise and background. The Board believes that the following attributes are key to ensuring the continued vitality of the Board and excellence in the execution of its duties: experience as a leader of a business, firm or institution; mature and practical judgment; the ability to comprehend and analyze complex matters; effective interpersonal and communication skills; and strong character and integrity. Each of the Company's directors has these attributes. In identifying potential director candidates, the Committee and the Board also focus on ensuring that the Board reflects a diversity of experiences, backgrounds and individuals.
The IBM Board is composed of a diverse group of leaders in their respective fields. Many of the current directors have leadership experience at major domestic and international companies with operations inside and outside the United States, as well as experience on other companies' boards, which provides an understanding of different business processes, challenges and strategies. Other directors have experience as presidents of significant academic, research and philanthropic institutions, which brings unique perspectives to the Board. Further, the Company's directors also have other experience that makes them valuable members, such as prior public policy or regulatory experience that provides insight into issues faced by companies.
The Directors and Corporate Governance Committee and the Board believe that the above-mentioned attributes, along with the leadership skills and other experiences of its Board members described in the table below, provide the Company with the perspectives and judgment necessary to guide the Company's strategies and monitor their execution.
W.J. McNerney, Jr.
Under the IBM Board Corporate Governance Guidelines, the Directors and Corporate Governance Committee and the full Board annually review the financial and other relationships between the non-management directors and IBM as part of the annual assessment of director independence. The Directors and Corporate Governance Committee makes recommendations to the Board about the independence of non-management directors, and the Board determines whether those directors are independent. The independence criteria established by the Board in accordance with New York Stock Exchange requirements and used by the Directors and Corporate Governance Committee and the Board in their assessment of the independence of directors is available at http://www.ibm.com/investor/governance/director-independence-standards.html. Applying those standards for the non-management directors standing for election, the Committee and the Board have determined that each of the following directors has met the independence standards: A.J.P. Belda, W.R. Brody, M.L. Eskew, D.N. Farr, S.A. Jackson, A.N. Liveris, W.J. McNerney, Jr., J.W. Owens, J.E. Spero, S. Taurel, and L.H. Zambrano. The Committee and the Board have determined that K.I. Chenault does not qualify as an independent director in view of the commercial relationships between IBM and American Express Company. As a result, Mr. Chenault does not participate on any committee of the Board and does not participate in the determination or approval of the compensation level for the Company's CEO. The Company holds an executive session of the Board at least once a year that includes only independent directors. Otherwise, Mr. Chenault continues to participate fully in the Board's activities and to provide valuable expertise and advice. Mr. Eskew's son is employed by the Company and is not an executive officer. He was hired over a year before Mr. Eskew joined the Company's Board, and his compensation and other terms of employment are determined on a basis consistent with the Company's human resources policies. Based on the foregoing, the Board has determined that this relationship does not preclude a finding of independence for Mr. Eskew.
As noted below, the Directors and Corporate Governance Committee is responsible for the continuing review of the governance structure of the Board, and for recommending to the Board those structures and practices best suited to the Company and its stockholders. The Committee and the Board recognize that different structures may be appropriate under different circumstances. Mrs. Rometty serves as IBM's Chairman and CEO, a structure which the Directors and Corporate Governance Committee and the Board believe is in the best interests of the Company and its stockholders. Additionally, and on the recommendation of Mrs. Rometty, the Board has amended the IBM Board Corporate Governance Guidelines, creating the role of Presiding Director, to be elected by the independent members of the Board, to become effective May 1, 2014. The Presiding Director will have the following responsibilities:
- Preside at all meetings of the Board at which the Chairman is not present, including executive sessions of the independent directors
- Serve as liaison between the Chairman and the independent directors
- Approve information sent to the Board
- Approve meeting agendas for the Board
- Approve meeting schedules to assure that there is sufficient time for discussion of all agenda items
- Have authority to call meetings of the independent directors, and
- If requested by major stockholders, ensure that he or she is available, as necessary after discussions with the Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, for consultation and direct communication.
The Directors and Corporate Governance Committee and the Board as a whole accepted the recommendation of Mrs. Rometty and believe that this leadership structure will provide the Company with the continued benefits of combining the leadership role of Chairman and CEO, while also recognizing the unique strengths and capabilities of IBM's Board members. An independent Presiding Director with the clearly defined duties and responsibilities outlined above will further enhance the contributions of IBM's independent directors, which have been and will continue to be substantial. Implementation of the Presiding Director position in May, after the 2014 Annual Meeting, will allow the Company to achieve all these objectives and to begin the new Board term with this process and organization.
The independent directors of the Board have elected Michael L. Eskew to become the Company's first Presiding Director, effective May 1, 2014. Mr. Eskew has significant global business, leadership and oversight experience as the former chairman and chief executive officer of United Parcel Service, Inc., the current chairman of the Annie E. Casey Foundation, and a board member of Eli Lilly and Company, 3M Company and United Parcel Service, Inc.
In recent years, much attention has been given to the subject of risk and how companies assess and manage risks across the enterprise. At IBM, we believe that innovation and leadership are impossible without taking risks. We also recognize that imprudent acceptance of risk or the failure to appropriately identify and mitigate risks could be destructive of stockholder value. Senior management is responsible for assessing and managing the Company's various exposures to risk on a day-to-day basis, including the creation of appropriate risk management programs and policies. IBM has developed a consistent, systemic and integrated approach to risk management to help determine how best to identify, manage and mitigate significant risks throughout the Company. The Board is responsible for overseeing management in the execution of its responsibilities and for assessing the Company's approach to risk management. The Board exercises these responsibilities periodically as part of its meetings and also through the Board's three committees, each of which examines various components of enterprise risk as part of their responsibilities. The Audit Committee periodically reviews the Company's enterprise management framework, including the Company's enterprise risk management processes. In addition, an overall review of risk is inherent in the Board's consideration of the Company's long-term strategies and in the transactions and other matters presented to the Board, including capital expenditures, acquisitions and divestitures, and financial matters. The Board's role in risk oversight of the Company is consistent with the Company's leadership structure, with the CEO and other members of senior management having responsibility for assessing and managing the Company's risk exposure, and the Board and its committees providing oversight in connection with those efforts.
The process by which stockholders and other interested parties may communicate with the Board or non-management directors of the Company is available at http://www. ibm.com/investor/governance/contact-the-board.html.
(The information pertaining to the board of directors reflects the 2014 Proxy Statement.)