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QRadar: Enable Debugging Mode in SSH to Troubleshoot Connectivity Issues

Troubleshooting


Problem

QRadar communicates between the Console and Managed Hosts using SSH connections. Encryption allows  QRadar to tunnel services that are not encrypted through an SSH connection. This article talks about how to enable SSH debug to identify SSH issues between the Console and Managed hosts.

Symptom

Trying to establish an SSH connection from the Console to a Managed Host fails with a similar error:

[root@Console-1 ~]# ssh 192.0.2.11 22
ssh: connect to host 192.0.2.11 port 22: No route to host
ssh: connect to host 192.0.2.11 port 22: Connection timed out.
ssh: connect to host 192.0.2.11 port 22: Connection refused
 

Cause

There are several potential issues why the SSH session could not establish:

  • firewall blocking port 22 to host
  • host is not up and running
  • host is up but there are NIC issues (IP address misconfiguration, NIC down, etc)
  • host cannot be reached due to network configuration issues (e.g. routing)
  • host is up but SSH service is not running
  • host is up, SSH is running but SSH negotiation fails (e.g. key mismatch)

Diagnosing The Problem

To enable SSH debug, run the SSH command with the -v, -vv, or -vvv option:
In this example, you can see what a successful SSH connection would look like with the complete back and forth communication between the hosts.

[root@Con731-primary ~]# ssh -vvv 9.55.216.115
OpenSSH_7.4p1, OpenSSL 1.0.2k-fips  26 Jan 2017
debug1: Reading configuration data /etc/ssh/ssh_config
debug1: /etc/ssh/ssh_config line 58: Applying options for *
debug2: resolving "9.55.216.115" port 22
debug2: ssh_connect_direct: needpriv 0
debug1: Connecting to 9.55.216.115 [9.55.216.115] port 22.
debug1: Connection established.
debug1: permanently_set_uid: 0/0
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa type 1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_rsa-cert type -1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_dsa type -1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_dsa-cert type -1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_ecdsa type -1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_ecdsa-cert type -1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_ed25519 type -1
debug1: key_load_public: No such file or directory
debug1: identity file /root/.ssh/id_ed25519-cert type -1
debug1: Enabling compatibility mode for protocol 2.0
debug1: Local version string SSH-2.0-OpenSSH_7.4
debug1: Remote protocol version 2.0, remote software version OpenSSH_7.4
debug1: match: OpenSSH_7.4 pat OpenSSH* compat 0x04000000
debug2: fd 3 setting O_NONBLOCK
debug1: Authenticating to 9.55.216.115:22 as 'root'
debug3: hostkeys_foreach: reading file "/root/.ssh/known_hosts"
debug3: record_hostkey: found key type ECDSA in file /root/.ssh/known_hosts:9
debug3: load_hostkeys: loaded 1 keys from 9.55.216.115
debug3: order_hostkeyalgs: prefer hostkeyalgs: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521
debug3: send packet: type 20
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT sent
debug3: receive packet: type 20
debug1: SSH2_MSG_KEXINIT received
debug2: local client KEXINIT proposal
debug2: KEX algorithms: curve25519-sha256,curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group16-sha512,diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha256,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,diffie-hellman-group1-sha1,ext-info-c
debug2: host key algorithms: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521-cert-v01@openssh.com,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp384,ecdsa-sha2-nistp521,ssh-ed25519-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-rsa-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-dss-cert-v01@openssh.com,ssh-ed25519,rsa-sha2-512,rsa-sha2-256,ssh-rsa,ssh-dss
debug2: ciphers ctos: chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com,aes128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc
debug2: ciphers stoc: chacha20-poly1305@openssh.com,aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr,aes128-gcm@openssh.com,aes256-gcm@openssh.com,aes128-cbc,aes192-cbc,aes256-cbc
debug2: MACs ctos: umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1
debug2: MACs stoc: umac-64-etm@openssh.com,umac-128-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-512-etm@openssh.com,hmac-sha1-etm@openssh.com,umac-64@openssh.com,umac-128@openssh.com,hmac-sha2-256,hmac-sha2-512,hmac-sha1
debug2: compression ctos: none,zlib@openssh.com,zlib
debug2: compression stoc: none,zlib@openssh.com,zlib
debug2: languages ctos: 
debug2: languages stoc: 
debug2: first_kex_follows 0 
debug2: reserved 0 
debug2: peer server KEXINIT proposal
debug2: KEX algorithms: curve25519-sha256,curve25519-sha256@libssh.org,ecdh-sha2-nistp256,ecdh-sha2-nistp384,ecdh-sha2-nistp521,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha256,diffie-hellman-group16-sha512,diffie-hellman-group18-sha512,diffie-hellman-group-exchange-sha1,diffie-hellman-group14-sha256,diffie-hellman-group14-sha1,diffie-hellman-group1-sha1
debug2: host key algorithms: ssh-rsa,rsa-sha2-512,rsa-sha2-256,ecdsa-sha2-nistp256,ssh-ed25519
debug2: ciphers ctos: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr
debug2: ciphers stoc: aes128-ctr,aes192-ctr,aes256-ctr
debug2: MACs ctos: hmac-sha1,hmac-ripemd160
debug2: MACs stoc: hmac-sha1,hmac-ripemd160
debug2: compression ctos: none,zlib@openssh.com
debug2: compression stoc: none,zlib@openssh.com
debug2: languages ctos: 
debug2: languages stoc: 
debug2: first_kex_follows 0 
debug2: reserved 0 
debug1: kex: algorithm: curve25519-sha256
debug1: kex: host key algorithm: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256
debug1: kex: server->client cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha1 compression: none
debug1: kex: client->server cipher: aes128-ctr MAC: hmac-sha1 compression: none
debug1: kex: curve25519-sha256 need=20 dh_need=20
debug1: kex: curve25519-sha256 need=20 dh_need=20
debug3: send packet: type 30
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_KEX_ECDH_REPLY
debug3: receive packet: type 31
debug1: Server host key: ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 SHA256:vWG8e6abBrJqI5TvY3/adO9EVUwRWcAgQuzitwZD9UI
debug3: hostkeys_foreach: reading file "/root/.ssh/known_hosts"
debug3: record_hostkey: found key type ECDSA in file /root/.ssh/known_hosts:9
debug3: load_hostkeys: loaded 1 keys from 9.55.216.115
debug1: Host '9.55.216.115' is known and matches the ECDSA host key.
debug1: Found key in /root/.ssh/known_hosts:9
debug3: send packet: type 21
debug2: set_newkeys: mode 1
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS sent
debug1: expecting SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS
debug3: receive packet: type 21
debug1: SSH2_MSG_NEWKEYS received
debug2: set_newkeys: mode 0
debug1: rekey after 4294967296 blocks
debug2: key: /root/.ssh/id_rsa (0x5650ae27d730)
debug2: key: /root/.ssh/id_dsa ((nil))
debug2: key: /root/.ssh/id_ecdsa ((nil))
debug2: key: /root/.ssh/id_ed25519 ((nil))
debug3: send packet: type 5
debug3: receive packet: type 7
debug1: SSH2_MSG_EXT_INFO received
debug1: kex_input_ext_info: server-sig-algs=<rsa-sha2-256,rsa-sha2-512>
debug3: receive packet: type 6
debug2: service_accept: ssh-userauth
debug1: SSH2_MSG_SERVICE_ACCEPT received
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug3: receive packet: type 51
debug1: Authentications that can continue: publickey,password
debug3: start over, passed a different list publickey,password
debug3: preferred gssapi-keyex,gssapi-with-mic,publickey,keyboard-interactive,password
debug3: authmethod_lookup publickey
debug3: remaining preferred: keyboard-interactive,password
debug3: authmethod_is_enabled publickey
debug1: Next authentication method: publickey
debug1: Offering RSA public key: /root/.ssh/id_rsa
debug3: send_pubkey_test
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug2: we sent a publickey packet, wait for reply
debug3: receive packet: type 60
debug1: Server accepts key: pkalg rsa-sha2-512 blen 535
debug2: input_userauth_pk_ok: fp SHA256:msozjuTd7R/Ma1EsbsaYBo6Kmt7hXbseDnWxPTAOyzA
debug3: sign_and_send_pubkey: RSA SHA256:msozjuTd7R/Ma1EsbsaYBo6Kmt7hXbseDnWxPTAOyzA
debug3: send packet: type 50
debug3: receive packet: type 52
debug1: Authentication succeeded (publickey).
Authenticated to 9.55.216.115 ([9.55.216.115]:22).
debug1: channel 0: new [client-session]
debug3: ssh_session2_open: channel_new: 0
debug2: channel 0: send open
debug3: send packet: type 90
debug1: Requesting no-more-sessions@openssh.com
debug3: send packet: type 80
debug1: Entering interactive session.
debug1: pledge: network
debug3: receive packet: type 80
debug1: client_input_global_request: rtype hostkeys-00@openssh.com want_reply 0
debug3: receive packet: type 91
debug2: callback start
debug2: fd 3 setting TCP_NODELAY
debug3: ssh_packet_set_tos: set IP_TOS 0x10
debug2: client_session2_setup: id 0
debug2: channel 0: request pty-req confirm 1
debug3: send packet: type 98
debug1: Sending environment.
debug3: Ignored env XDG_SESSION_ID
debug3: Ignored env HOSTNAME
debug3: Ignored env TERM
debug3: Ignored env SHELL
debug3: Ignored env HISTSIZE
debug3: Ignored env SSH_CLIENT
debug3: Ignored env MIBDIRS
debug3: Ignored env SSH_TTY
debug3: Ignored env USER
debug3: Ignored env LS_COLORS
debug3: Ignored env MAIL
debug3: Ignored env PATH
debug3: Ignored env PWD
debug3: Ignored env JAVA_HOME
debug1: Sending env LANG = en_US.UTF-8
debug2: channel 0: request env confirm 0
debug3: send packet: type 98
debug3: Ignored env PS1
debug3: Ignored env HISTCONTROL
debug3: Ignored env SHLVL
debug3: Ignored env HOME
debug3: Ignored env NVA_CONF
debug3: Ignored env LOGNAME
debug3: Ignored env SSH_CONNECTION
debug3: Ignored env LESSOPEN
debug3: Ignored env XDG_RUNTIME_DIR
debug3: Ignored env IMQ_JAVAHOME
debug3: Ignored env _
debug2: channel 0: request shell confirm 1
debug3: send packet: type 98
debug2: callback done
debug2: channel 0: open confirm rwindow 0 rmax 32768
debug3: receive packet: type 99
debug2: channel_input_status_confirm: type 99 id 0
debug2: PTY allocation request accepted on channel 0
debug2: channel 0: rcvd adjust 2097152
debug3: receive packet: type 99
debug2: channel_input_status_confirm: type 99 id 0
debug2: shell request accepted on channel 0
Last login: Mon Sep  2 00:49:46 2019 from 9.55.216.114

 

Resolving The Problem

Based on where the SSH message stack gets interrupted, you can investigate that specific problem.

Here is a layout of how to interpret where the failure occurs with the ssh -v flags:

  • ssh -v: will tell you what is happening mostly on your end
  • ssh -vv: will tell you low level on both ends
  • ssh -vvv: will tell you almost everything from both ends.


Hence the conversation:

  • debug1: Some useful information from 1
  • debug2: Some useful information from 2
  • debug1: Some useful information from 1
  • debug3: Some useful information about what is passing between both and more.

First successful SSH connection:

In this example, you can see what a successful SSH connection would look like on your first attempt. You can see that you are prompted to accept the RSA key on the first connection.

[root@Console-1]# ssh 192.0.2.11
The authenticity of host '192.0.2.11 (192.0.2.11)' can't be established.
RSA key fingerprint is bd:36:16:a8:00:2a:c9:56:6d:e2:26:eb:8d:66:3f:d5.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added '192.0.2.11' (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
This server was upgraded to QRadar 7.2.6.20151107134559 on Thu Apr 14 21:42:58 EDT 2016.


For more information on possible SSH connection issues, see Technote 10960602 - QRadar: Troubleshooting SSH connections and tunnels issues

Document Location

Worldwide

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Document Information

Modified date:
08 January 2021

UID

ibm10960862