# Kappa parameter for Promax Rotation in Factor procedure

## Problem

I am setting up a factor analysis with the Factor procedure, under Analyze->Data Reduction->Factor, and click on the Rotation button to choose a factor rotation method. If I click on Promax under Method, then the Kappa box becomes enabled. The pop-up Help box for Kappa says "Kappa is a parameter which controls the calculation of the promax rotation. The default value is 4. This value is appropriate for most analysis." Please provide a fuller description of how this Kappa parameter affects the promax rotation and how I would choose a value for Kappa.

## Resolving The Problem

See:
Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor Analysis (2nd Ed.). Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum. (Chapter 9).
Hendrickson, A.E., & White, P.O. (1964). Promax: A quick method for rotation to oblique simple structure. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 17(1), 65-70.

Also, see the Factor algorithms, available via Help>Algorithms>FACTOR Algorithms, for the implementation of promax rotation, including the Kappa parameter, in IBM SPSS Statistics.

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33136

Modified date:
16 April 2020

swg21474970