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== DEBUGGING CORE FILES [07] == STACK TRACE <-> SOURCE CODE [EXAMPLE 2]

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Abstract

== DEBUGGING CORE FILES [07] == STACK TRACE <-> SOURCE CODE [EXAMPLE 2]

Body


== DEBUGGING CORE FILES [07] == STACK TRACE <-> SOURCE CODE [EXAMPLE 2]

C program  : example2.c [see at the end of entry]
Platform   : LINUX X86
Compilation: cc -m64 example2.c -o example2
Execution  : ./example2 example2.c 12

  # example2 example2.c 12
  start time: 1519019133sec 111769nsec
  line = (null) [loop 5246992]
  Memory fault(coredump)

Let's load the core file and print the stack:

  # gdb example2 mycore
  ...
  (no debugging symbols found)...done.
  Loaded symbols for /lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2
  Failed to read a valid object file image from memory.
  Core was generated by `example2 example2.c 12'.
  Program terminated with signal 11, Segmentation fault.
  #0  0x00002aaaaac3bce0 in strlen () from /lib64/libc.so.6
  (gdb) where
  #0  0x00002aaaaac3bce0 in strlen () from /lib64/libc.so.6
  #1  0x00002aaaaac0db31 in vfprintf () from /lib64/libc.so.6
  #2  0x00002aaaaac1339a in printf () from /lib64/libc.so.6
  #3  0x0000000000400891 in main ()

So here we fail in 'strlen()' and that's in a system library. We don't
have the source code for the library but most likely we passed some
wrong arguments to 'strlen()'. Since we don't have the source for
'printf()' either what we can do is locate the 'printf()' call in
our source for 'example2.c':

We use the return address '0x0000000000400891' to locate the portion
of assembly that performs the call. In 'gdb' if you just disassemble
the address it will by default disassemble the whole function:

  (gdb) disas 0x0000000000400891
  ...
  0x000000000040086c <+260>:   mov    $0x200,%esi
  0x0000000000400871 <+265>:   callq  0x400640 <fgets@plt>
  0x0000000000400876 <+270>:   test   %rax,%rax
  0x0000000000400879 <+273>:   je     0x40089d <main+309>
  0x000000000040087b <+275>:   mov    -0x18(%rbp),%rdx
  0x000000000040087f <+279>:   mov    -0x4(%rbp),%esi
  0x0000000000400882 <+282>:   mov    $0x400a61,%edi
  0x0000000000400887 <+287>:   mov    $0x0,%eax
  0x000000000040088c <+292>:   callq  0x400650 <printf@plt>
  0x0000000000400891 <+297>:   addl   $0x1,-0x4(%rbp)

We have multiple 'printf()' calls in our source file but in the assembly
above we clearly see the call to 'fgets()' a few lines above. Also
if we look at the registers used to pass arguments we see that we are using
3 of them meaning we pass 3 arguments to 'printf()'. As well, the first
argument ($rdi) is set to a numeric value '0x400a61'. Since it is the
first argument we should find the formate string:

  (gdb) x/s 0x400a61
  0x400a61:        "line = %s [loop %d]\n"

So indeed this is the following call that causes the SEGV:

     46     while (num < max) {
     47
     48         if (fgets(bf, BUFSIZE, fp) == 0)
     49             break;
     50
     51         printf("line = %s [loop %d]\n", num, bf);

The reason is that arguments 'bf' and 'num' have been passed in the
wrong order. According to the format it should be 'bf' first followed
by 'num'.

== Source code for example2.c ==

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <strings.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <errno.h>


#define BUFSIZE 512


int
main(int ac, char **av)
{
    FILE                    *fp;
    char                    *bf;
    char                    *fname;
    int                      max;
    int                      num;
    struct timeval           t;


    if (ac < 3) {
        printf("Usage: %s <filename> <maxloops>\n", av[0]);
        exit(1);
    }

    fname = av[1];
    max = atoi(av[2]);

    if ((bf = (char *) malloc(BUFSIZE)) == 0) {
        printf("[error] malloc(bf), [errno = %d]\n", errno);
        exit(1);
    }

    gettimeofday(&t, 0);
    printf("start time: %ldsec %ldnsec\n", t.tv_sec, t.tv_usec);

    if ((fp = fopen(fname, "r")) == 0) {
        printf("[error] fopen(%s), [errno = %d]\n", fname, errno);
        exit(1);
    }

    num = 0;
    while (num < max) {

        if (fgets(bf, BUFSIZE, fp) == 0)
            break;

        printf("line = %s [loop %d]\n", num, bf);

        num++;
    }

    fclose(fp);

    gettimeofday(&t, 0);
    printf("end time  : %ldsec %ldnsec\n", t.tv_sec, t.tv_usec);

    exit(0);
}

[{"Business Unit":{"code":"BU029","label":"Data and AI"}, "Product":{"code":"SSEPGG","label":"DB2 for Linux- UNIX and Windows"},"Component":"","Platform":[{"code":"PF025","label":"Platform Independent"}],"Version":"","Edition":""}]

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