Configuring Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) support in non-Java Db2 clients
You can configure Db2 database clients, such as CLI, CLP, and .Net Data Provider clients, to support Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) for communication with the Db2 server.
Before you begin
- If both the client and the server are on the same physical computer, you do not need to install
GSKit, because GSKit is automatically installed with the Db2 server. Starting with Version 9.7 Fix Pack 1, when you install the 64-bit version of the Db2 server, the 32-bit GSKit libraries are automatically included in the installation. To use these libraries, on Linux and UNIX operating systems you must ensure that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH, LIBPATH, or SHLIB_PATH environment variable is correctly set. On Windows operating systems, ensure that the PATH environment variable is correctly set, as shown in the following table.
Application Operating system Location of GSKit libraries Environment variable setting 32-bit Linux and UNIX 64-bit $INSTHOME/sqllib/lib32/gskit Include $INSTHOME/sqllib/lib32/gskit in the LD_LIBRARY_PATH, LIBPATH, or SHLIB_PATH environment variable 64-bit Linux and UNIX 64-bit $INSTHOME/sqllib/lib64/gskit Include $INSTHOME/sqllib/lib64/gskit in the LD_LIBRARY_PATH, LIBPATH, or SHLIB_PATH environment variable 32-bit Windows 64-bit C:\Program Files (x86)\IBM\GSK8\lib Include C:\Program Files (x86)\IBM\GSK8\lib in PATH environment variable 64-bit Windows 64-bit C:\Program Files\IBM\GSK8\lib64 Include C:\Program Files\IBM\GSK8\lib64 in PATH environment variable
SSL communication will always be in FIPS mode.
On non-Windows platforms, the Db2 database manager installs GSKit locally, and for a given instance, the GSKit libraries would be located in sqllib/lib/gskit or sqllib/lib64/gskit. It is unnecessary to have another copy of GSKit installed in a global location. If a global copy of GSKit does exist, keep the version of the global GSKit at the same version of the local GSKit.
- If the client is being installed in a separate computer, for "C" based clients, you must install
GSKit if the clients use SSL to communicate with the servers. You can install the GSKit libraries
from the IBM®
Files for SSL Functionality DVD. Alternatively, you can install from an image that you downloaded
from Passport Advantage®.
- Ensure that the path to the IBM Global
Security Kit (GSKit) libraries appears in the PATH environment variable on Windows and in the LIBPATH,
SHLIB_PATH or LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables on Linux and UNIX. For
example, on Windows, add the GSKit bin
and lib directories to the PATH environment variable:
set PATH="C:\Program Files\ibm\gsk8\bin";%PATH% set PATH="C:\Program Files\ibm\gsk8\lib";%PATH%
- Ensure that the path to the IBM Global Security Kit (GSKit) libraries appears in the PATH environment variable on Windows and in the LIBPATH, SHLIB_PATH or LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variables on Linux and UNIX. For example, on Windows, add the GSKit bin and lib directories to the PATH environment variable:
From Db2 V10.5 FP5 onwards, if the client is being installed on a separate computer and uses SSL to communicate with servers, ignore numbers two and three of the Procedure section. GSK also does not need to be installed for CLI, .NET, and open source drivers. You can pass the SSL Certificate to these client drivers using the SSLServerCertificate keyword in the CLI connection string, db2cli.ini file, or db2dsdriver.cfg file. The client driver will create an internal key database and add the certificate to it. You do not need to modify any environment variable.Note: GSK is still required for Certificate-based authentication, such as two-way authentication supported by Db2 for z/OS.
- Documentation for the GSKit tool: GSKCapiCmd
For information about the GSKit tool GSKCapiCmd, see the GSKCapiCmd User's Guide, available for download from the Reference section of the Db2 V11.1 English manuals page.
About this task
The SSL communication will always be in FIPS mode.
To configure SSL support in a Db2 client:
- Obtain the signer certificate of the server digital certificate
on the client. The server certificate can either be a self-signed
certificate or a certificate signed by a certificate authority (CA).
- If your server certificate is a self-signed certificate, you must extract its signer certificate to a file on the server computer and then distribute it to computers running clients that will be establishing SSL connections to that server. See Configuring Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) support in a Db2 instance for information about how to extract the certificate to a file.
- If your server certificate is signed by a well known CA, your client key database might already contain the CA certificate that signed your server certificate. If it does not, you must obtain the CA certificate, which is usually done by visiting the website of the CA.
On the Db2
client computer, use the GSKCapiCmd tool to create a key database, of CMS type.
The GSKCapiCmd tool is a non-Java-based command-line tool (Java™ does not need to be installed on your system to use this tool).
You invoke GSKCapiCmd using the gskcapicmd command, as described in the GSKCapiCmd User's Guide. The path for the command is sqllib/gskit/bin on Linux and UNIX operating systems, and C:\Program Files\IBM\GSK8\bin on both 32-bit and 64-bit Windows operating systems. (On 64-bit operating systems, the 32-bit GSKit executable files and libraries are also present; in this case, the path for the command is C:\Program Files (x86)\IBM\GSK8\bin.)For example, the following command creates a key database called mydbclient.kdb and a stash file called mydbclient.sth:
gsk8capicmd_64 -keydb -create -db "mydbclient.kdb" -pw "myClientPassw0rdpw0" -stash
The -stash option creates a stash file at the same path as the key database, with a file extension of .sth. At connect time, GSKit uses the stash file to obtain the password to the key database.
- Add the signer certificate into the client key database
For example, the following gsk8capicmd command imports the certificate from the file mydbserver.arm into the key database called mydbclient.kdb:
gsk8capicmd_64 -cert -add -db "mydbclient.kdb" -pw "myClientPassw0rdpw0" -label "dbselfsigned" -file "mydbserver.arm" -format ascii -fips
- For your client application, set the appropriate connection string or configuration parameters, as shown in the applicable example for your client.
- CLP and embedded SQL clients
CLP clients and embedded SQL clients can connect to a database on a remote host that has been added to the node catalog using the CATALOG TCPIP NODE command. Issue the CATALOG TCPIP NODE command with the SECURITY keyword set to SSL to specify SSL for that connection.
The following example demonstrates how to catalog a node and database so that a CLP client can connect to them using an SSL connection.
First, catalog the node and database so that client applications can establish SSL connections to them:
catalog TCPIP NODE mynode REMOTE 127.0.0.1 SERVER 50001 SECURITY SSL catalog DATABASE sample AS myssldb AT NODE mynode AUTHENTICATION SERVERNext, use the ssl_clnt_keydb and ssl_clnt_stash configuration parameters to specify the client key-database and the stash file. You set the ssl_clnt_keydb configuration parameter to the fully qualified path of the key database file (.kdb) and the ssl_clnt_stash configuration parameter to the fully qualified path of the stash file:
db2 update dbm cfg using SSL_CLNT_KEYDB /home/test1/sqllib/security/keystore/clientkey.kdb SSL_CLNT_STASH /home/test1/sqllib/security/keystore/clientstore.sth
If either the ssl_clnt_keydb or ssl_clnt_stash configuration parameter is null (unset), the connection fails and returns error SQL10013N with token GSKit Error: GSKit_return_code.Then, connect to the server from the CLP client:
db2 connect to myssldb user user1 using password
Alternatively, an embedded SQL application could use the following statement to connect:
Strcpy(dbAlias,"myssldb"); EXEC SQL CONNECT TO :dbAlias USER :user USING :pswd;
- CLI/ODBC client applications
Depending in which environment you are running your CLI application, you use either connection string parameters (SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash) or Db2 configuration parameters (ssl_clnt_keydb and ssl_clnt_stash) to specify the path for the client key database and for the stash file.
From Db2 V10.5 FP5 onwards, the SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash keywords are not needed in the connection string, db2cli.ini file, FileDSN, or db2dsdriver.cfg file. If you have not set or passed values for the SSLClientKeystoreddb and SSLClientKeystash keywords, the CLI/ODBC client driver will create a default key database internally during the first SSL connection. The Client driver will call GSKit API's to create a key database populated with the default root certificates. If the application has passed the signer certificate of the server (*.arm file)using the SSLServerCertificate keyword, the client driver will add this certificate to this default key database and proceed for the SSL connection. In this case, the application needs to use the Security=SSL and SSLServerCertificate=<certificate file name> as in below connection string.
- If you are using the IBM Data Server Driver for
ODBC and CLI, you use
connection string parameters, as shown in this example:Call SQLDriverConnect with a connection string that contains the
SECURITY=SSLkeyword. For example:
"Database=sampledb; Protocol=tcpip; Hostname= myhost; Servicename=50001; Security=ssl; SSLClientKeystoredb=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.kdb; SSLClientKeystash=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.sth;"
In this case, because
Security=sslis specified, the SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash connection string parameters must be set, otherwise the connection will fail.
- If you are using the IBM data server client or IBM Data Server Runtime
can use either connection string parameters or Db2 configuration
parameters to set the path for the client key database and for the stash file. If the
SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash connection
string parameters are set, they override any values set by the ssl_clnt_keydb
or the ssl_clnt_stash configuration parameters. This example uses the db2cli.ini file to set connection string parameters:
[sampledb] Database=sampledb Protocol=tcpip Hostname=myhost Servicename=50001 Security=ssl SSLClientKeystoredb=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.kdb SSLClientKeystash=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.sthThis example uses the FileDSN CLI/ODBC keyword to identify a DSN file that contains the database connectivity information, which sets the connection string parameters. For example, the DSN file may look like this:
[ODBC] DRIVER=IBM DB2 ODBC DRIVER – DB2COPY1 UID=user1 AUTHENTICATION=SERVER PORT=50001 HOSTNAME=myhost PROTOCOL=TCPIP DATABASE=SAMPLEDB SECURITY=SSL SSLClientKeystoredb=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.kdb SSLClientKeystash=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.sth
In these cases, because
Security=sslis specified, if the SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash connection string parameters are not set, and also the ssl_clnt_keydb and ssl_clnt_stash configuration parameters are not set, the connection will fail.
If both SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLServerCertificate keywords are used, the client driver will add the certificate file to the key database which the SSLClientKeystoredb points to and then proceed for SSL connection.
- If you are using the IBM Data Server Driver for ODBC and CLI, you use connection string parameters, as shown in this example:
- Certificate-based authentication
The certificate-based authentication allows you to use SSL client authentication without the need of providing database passwords on the database client. When certificate-based authentication is configured to supply authentication information, a password cannot be specified in any other way (as in the db2dsdriver.cfg configuration file, in the db2cli.ini configuration file, or in the connection string). Since the authentication parameter needs a label to be specified, a new data server driver configuration parameter SSLClientLabel is also introduced. If the CERTIFICATE authentication is specified, then the new label parameter SSLCLientLabel must also be specified in the CLI configuration file, db2cli.ini, or in the data server driver configuration file, db2dsdriver.cfg.
The SSLClientKeyStoreDBPassword keyword sets the keystore database password. The configuration parameters SSLClientKeystash and SSLClientKeyStoreDBPassword are mutually exclusive. When the SSLClientKeystash configuration parameter and the SSLClientKeyStoreDBPassword configuration parameter are both specified in either the CLI configuration file or the data server driver configuration file, error CLI0220E is returned. Hence, for a successful certificate-based authentication, it is recommended to specify only one of the keywords but not both.An example of the IBM data server driver configuration file (db2dsdriver.cfg) entry follows:
<parameter name="Authentication" value="CERTIFICATE"/>
- Db2 .Net Data Provider applications
A Db2 .Net Data Provider application can establish an SSL connection to a database by specifying the path for the client key database and for the stash file by defining the connection string parameters, SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash. The connection string must also contain
Security=SSL. For example:
Then, as shown in the following C# code fragment, to connect to a database, pass this connectString to the DB2Connection constructor and use the Open method of the DB2Connection object to connect to the database identified in connectString:
String connectString = "Server=myhost:50001;Database=sampledb;Security=ssl; SSLClientKeystoredb=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.kdb; SSLClientKeystash=/home/test1/keystore/clientstore.sth";
DB2Connection conn = new DB2Connection(connectString); Conn.Open(); Return conn;
If either the SSLClientKeystoredb or SSLClientKeystash connection string parameter is null (unset), the connection fails and returns error SQL10013N with token GSKit Error: GSKit_return_code.From Db2 V10.5FP5 onwards, you do not need to use the SSLClientKeystoredb and SSLClientKeystash keywords in the SSL connection. However, the connection string must also contain Security=SSL. The connection string can be used as below:
String connectString = "Server=myhost:50001;Database=sampledb;Security=ssl;SSLServerCertificate=server.arm;";
- When a self-signed client certificate created in a keystore database is extracted, the extract command extracts the public key data from the keystore database and places it into an identified file. However, no information that is related to the private key is extracted. If such a certificate is imported into another keystore database, only the public key data is imported and the private key data is not present in the new keystore database. So, an authentication of a client using the new keystore database fails. As a solution, either the entire keystore database needs to be shared by various applications or different client certificates need to be generated for each client.