Three-tier architecture, which separates applications into three logical and physical computing tiers, is the predominant software architecture for traditional client-server applications.
Three-tier architecture is a well-established software application architecture that organizes applications into three logical and physical computing tiers: the presentation tier, or user interface; the application tier, where data is processed; and the data tier, where the data associated with the application is stored and managed.
The chief benefit of three-tier architecture is that because each tier runs on its own infrastructure, each tier can be developed simultaneously by a separate development team, and can be updated or scaled as needed without impacting the other tiers.
For decades three-tier architecture was the prevailing architecture for client-server applications. Today, most three-tier applications are targets for modernization, using cloud-native technologies such as containers and microservices, and for migration to the cloud.
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The application tier, also known as the logic tier or middle tier, is the heart of the application. In this tier, information collected in the presentation tier is processed - sometimes against other information in the data tier - using business logic, a specific set of business rules. The application tier can also add, delete or modify data in the data tier.
The application tier is typically developed using Python, Java, Perl, PHP or Ruby, and communicates with the data tier using API calls.
The data tier, sometimes called database tier, data access tier or back-end, is where the information processed by the application is stored and managed. This can be a relational database management system such as PostgreSQL, MySQL, MariaDB, Oracle, DB2, Informix or Microsoft SQL Server, or in a NoSQL Database server such as Cassandra, CouchDB or MongoDB.
In a three-tier application, all communication goes through the application tier. The presentation tier and the data tier cannot communicate directly with one another.
In discussions of three-tier architecture, layer is often used interchangeably – and mistakenly – for tier, as in 'presentation layer' or 'business logic layer.'
They aren't the same. A 'layer' refers to a functional division of the software, but a 'tier' refers to a functional division of the software that runs on infrastructure separate from the other divisions. The Contacts app on your phone, for example, is a three-layer application, but a single-tier application, because all three layers run on your phone.
The difference is important, because layers can't offer the same benefits as tiers.
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Again, the chief benefit of three-tier architecture its logical and physical separation of functionality. Each tier can run on a separate operating system and server platform - e.g., web server, application server, database server - that best fits its functional requirements. And each tier runs on at least one dedicated server hardware or virtual server, so the services of each tier can be customized and optimized without impact the other tiers.
Other benefits (compared to single- or two-tier architecture) include:
In web development, the tiers have different names but perform similar functions:
While three-tier architecture is easily the most widely-adopted multi-tier application architecture, there are others you might encounter in your work or your research.
Two-tier architecture is the original client-server architecture, consisting of a presentation tier and a data tier; the business logic lives in the presentation tier, the data tier or both. In two-tier architecture the presentation tier - and consequently the end user - has direct access to the data tier, and the business logic is often limited. A simple contact management application, where users can enter and retrieve contact data, is an example of a two-tier application.
N-tier architecture - also called or multi-tier architecture - refers to any application architecture with more than one tier. But applications with more than three layers are rare, because additional layers offer few benefits and can make the application slower, harder to manage and more expensive to run. As a result, n-tier architecture and multi-tier architecture are usually synonyms for three-tier architecture.
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