Smarter quality management

The fast track to competitive advantage


How to improve the quality of software delivery while reducing time to market

2 min read


The nature of software development

The creative and collaborative nature of software development brings risk

2 min read


Quality management in the software development lifecycle

Advantages of testing early in the development process

2 min read


The optimal time to release

Identifying the ideal release scenario for your development process

5 min read


It’s more than simply testing

Test management is key to reducing risk in software delivery and increasing ROI

4 min read


The overall business impact of quality management

Test management best practices can benefit the overall business in measurable ways

4 min read


Better quality + lower cost = improved competitiveness

IBM Watson IoT solutions can help you realize the benefits described in this paper

1 min read


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Test Management best practices

Smarter quality



2 min read

Organizations that create and deliver software — whether for their own IT operations, for the packaged applications market, or as the core of their final product, as in the systems space — must grapple not only with today’s competitive landscape, but also with increased complexity in their processes and supply chains. Many factors serve to complicate software delivery, but differentiation lies at the heart of managing this complexity.

Two men using computers

Here are a few examples. In the products arena, customers demand more from the software components designed for the latest hardware, often with requirements that change rapidly, even as software projects are under way. Keeping track of changes while meeting aggressive (and unaltered) deadlines is difficult, if not impossible. In the IT space, more businesses are focused on their operational software for capturing and providing value to their customers and lines of businesses. Ecommerce websites compete to improve customer relations and simplify online business; businesses that create highly optimized supply chains supporting fast, efficient ecosystem of partners quickly rise in the marketplace.

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What does this competitive environment mean for businesses seeking to deliver high-quality products and services?

Effective quality management creates opportunities to deliver key business benefits, such as improved market share, higher customer satisfaction, and increased brand equity. But top quality in the completed product cannot serve as the single guiding principle by which products are produced and delivered. Time to market is also key; costs and risk factors must also be part of the balancing act. Get these things wrong, and you may face unsustainable costs, missed windows of opportunity, unhappy customers, even a massive recall or the complete failure of a system at a critical moment. Get these things right, and you can achieve a positive operational return on investment from efficiencies gained in development activities.

One of the biggest challenges related to test management is how to invest intelligently to minimize risk, while improving time to market.

Companies need to figure out:

How to relate quality to business outcomes?

What constitutes the right level of quality?

This paper introduces a practical approach to test management (TM) that helps reduce cycle time without sacrificing quality. The underlying concepts presented here will be familiar to software project managers, especially those with TM experience. Read on to understand the fundamentals and essential processes of test and quality management.

02 The nature of software development

Smarter quality


The nature of software development

2 min read

Here’s one way to understand the “soft” in software: it is relatively easy to change. But for software designed for the commercial space, where the competitive pressures described above govern a software project’s success or failure, the “soft” feature happens to be one of its riskiest attributes.

Software engineer

That’s because software projects are seldom designed and manufactured as in traditional engineering projects — a bridge, for example. While a bridge is engineered through traditional planning and architecture based on the laws of physics, then produced according to an organized plan with a division of labor, software on the other hand is, at its essence, simply information.

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Software development typically resembles a more creative process than one bound by the laws of nature.

Many industry leaders compare software production to movie production: a collaboration involving a team of craftsmen and emerging from the naturally creative process of artistic yet technical people.

Coworkers using laptops

Over the past two decades, this unique feature of software has been understood and embraced by iterative development practitioners, who now tend to develop software in stages called “iterations.” Each iteration delivers a working, functional version of the software under development, so it can be reviewed, tested, and vetted by stakeholders and other teams seeking adherence to the original project requirements.

This allows project managers to make smaller, incremental course corrections during the project lifecycle — thus ensuring the final deliverable is close to expectations — as opposed to having separate teams work according to a plan, assemble various components near project end, and discover major failures due to integration or deployment complexities.


For testing teams, the iterative development process integrates quality management and continuous testing across all stages of the project work flow, as opposed to relegating test activity to the end of the project. We will describe the role of iterative development-based quality management and continuous testing more fully in future sections.

03 Test management in the software development lifecycle

Smarter quality


Test management in the software development lifecycle

2 min read

What is the role of the test management team during the iterative lifecycle? What do they test for, and how do they know what is supposed to change from one iteration to the next?

Coworkers writing on a board

As previously noted, traditional software testing only occurs late in the lifecycle, after multiple coding teams have spent much time and effort to deliver their components toward the complete project. Because these traditionally managed projects proceed according to strictly described requirement sets, and various component teams focus on their portions alone, it is up to the testers to discover the discontinuities and malfunctions as these components are assembled — then it’s the testers who must deliver the bad news that much rework has to be done in order to get the project back on track.

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Iterative software development techniques improve on that scenario by introducing test teams to the process much sooner.

A relatively modest, first iteration may only address 15 percent of the full set of project requirements, but as a functional module of working code, the completed iteration can be demonstrated, and tested. So, any defects discovered by test teams at this early stage have a proportionally small impact on the larger development team, who make the fixes, then proceed to the next iteration where more of the requirements can be incorporated into the working version (iteration) of the software.


The number of iterations required by any software project depends on many factors, of course, such as the complexities of the team’s supply chain, the complexity of the software under development, the physical location of team members (are they geographically distributed, perhaps internationally? or are they co-located under a single roof?), and the competitive demands that determine optimum time to market.

“When do we release?”

Alpha, beta, release Points

During any software delivery process, “When do we release?” is a key question with no simple answer. You must consider project-specific variables, such as the cost of delays, the opportunity value of early delivery, marketplace quality expectations, and the costs associated with defects. Ultimately, the delivery strategy will be based on the actual or perceived importance of each variable.

04 The optimal time to release

Smarter quality


The optimal time to release

5 min read

The optimal time to release is when the total risk exposure is minimal, typically around the time where the risk associated with competitive threats starts to outweigh the risk reduction associated with further quality improvements, as illustrated in Figure 1.

Minimal risk exposure is when opportunity cost and competitive threats outweigh risk reduction related to quality improvements

Figure 1: Minimal risk exposure is when opportunity cost and competitive threats outweigh risk reduction related to quality improvements. Teams must be focused on zero failure feature requirements because the cost of failure, such as crash, or injury or death, is simply not an option.

The best time to release varies widely based on your software delivery strategy and your target market. Software delivery for both IT (internal business systems) and smart products (products using embedded software, including “system-of-systems” design) is typically dominated by one of two motivators, depending on the organization’s target market: time to market (schedule-driven), or quality impact (quality-driven).

Schedule-driven delivery

Schedule-driven delivery implies “deliver on time, regardless of other factors” and is often used in industries where “Time to market is king.” Consumer electronics is one good example, as well as automotive, segments of the medical industry, and other markets, where product teams try to gain a first-mover advantage over their competitors, (almost) regardless of the risk associated with inadequate quality. It should also be noted that schedule-driven delivery is not limited to the systems space (that is, the many embedded software devices industries). Many IT development teams use schedule-driven delivery when trying to enhance their end user experience and increase market share, taking away from their competitors, often risking quality in the process.

Risk vs time graph

Figure 2: The blue dots show possible release points, with points of minimal risk moving forward as competition intensifies (red lines).

Figure 2 represents the risks associated with software delivery. The green line represents the risks associated with the delivery of your product being reduced over time. The red lines represent the risk of competitors stealing your market away, going up as time goes by, as well as risks associated with opportunity costs.

The intersection is the point in time where the sum of both lines, that is, the total risk, is the lowest. As seen in Figure 2, this point moves to the left as the environment you are in is more competitive in nature. (Notice that the intersection point is moving up as well.)

Quality issues are often magnified in a schedule-driven lifecycle, given that software contractors frequently get paid on a time and materials basis, regardless of the quality of software they deliver. In many cases, you may even end up paying extra for the delivery team to fix their own defects, so the potential costs of defects to the end user can add up quickly. And here’s an interesting statistic: According to the Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, “Data indicate that 60-80 percent of the cost of software development is in rework.”1

Quality-driven delivery

Quality-driven delivery can also be costly but for different reasons. As shown in Figure 3, the more critical any defects might be regarding quality, the longer it takes to get to an optimum release point.

Critically efects graph

Figure 3: The more critical the implications of defects are, the more time it takes to get to the lowest risk point where release is possible.

The release timing for this approach is governed by achieving the right quality, moving the optimal time to release further to the right — but how do you define that? Zero defects is practically impossible to achieve, given that there is no way to determine how many defects still exist in a piece of code or the probability of detecting those defects in use. A target based on “defects fixed” might be more realistic — but it’s still impossible to know the number of remaining defects in the product. One approach is to release after a percentage of test cases have been completed successfully, which is another way of viewing “defects fixed.”

Risk-driven delivery

Risk-driven delivery implies delivering your software when the risk is minimal. But in practice, we always need to release “early” — earlier than we can. Which typically implies increasing the risk, right? At least this is a commonly held view, but is it always the case?

Within the risk-driven model, the optimal release time is when risks are sufficiently reduced (not completely eliminated) and time to market has not been wasted. In other words, some time is needed to reduce the most significant risks, but the company cannot afford to address every known risk and still get to market. In some industries there are two types of risks: some that cannot be ignored no matter what, and others that can be sacrificed for time to market.

So, the question is, how can we get to this point sooner? How do we compress the release date from the optimal intersection (shown as a blue circle in Figure 4) to a point earlier in time?

We cannot simply cut the time requirement, because as we move left on the green line, the risk goes higher. But what if we could compress the curve described by the green line — push it down, so to speak? Then we could not only deliver sooner but lower the overall risk as well. The intersection point will move down and to the left. This improved scenario is shown in Figure 4.

Optimal graph

Figure 4: To deliver early, at an improved quality, reduce your risk at an earlier point in the lifecycle.


For the remainder of this paper, we will assume that the software delivery lifecycle is based on a risk-driven approach. We will explore how to bend the green curve shown in Figure 4 downward and to the left, for reduced time to market without compromising the risk profile.

05 Understanding test management: It’s more than simply testing

Smarter quality


Understanding test management: It’s more than simply testing

4 min read

If a faster reduction in risk is the goal, how do you achieve it? The answer is not through testing, which is focused simply on discovering defects. In traditional testing practices, testing is considered a late stage activity, squeezed between an often-late development handoff date and an immovable ship date. Not only does this practice fail to yield the benefits of incremental, iterative development techniques explained earlier; it also minimizes, or at best reduces, the amount of time spent on quality assurance, and makes fixes all the more difficult unless you’re willing to compromise the release date.

As noted earlier, iterative development techniques greatly improves on this scenario, by having functional units tested incrementally, in stages, throughout the lifecycle, rather than leaving the testing phase until project completion. And test management takes this improvement a step further. 2

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Test management, which is the implementation of best practices to proactively reduce risk, throughout the whole lifecycle, is a risk reduction mechanism in its own right.

By choosing test and quality management practices with the potential to deliver a positive ROI within a relative short amount of time, you can justify risk reduction measures from not only a quality standpoint but also a financial standpoint.

Approaching quality from a full lifecycle perspective — as opposed to assuming that testing activity will suffice — should not seem like such a radical idea. After all, testing a product is an engineering task just like development: the requirements need to be analyzed by the test architect, its testing strategy has to be defined, the relevant test benches and test frameworks need to be built (designed and implemented), and more. These engineering development processes are very similar to the ones followed during product development. In fact, product development and testing can be viewed as two parallel development threads emanating from the same requirements, with many synchronization points between the threads, up to the point of the testing activity itself where a verdict is made based on meeting expectations or not (as expressed in the test cases). This applies to both the traditional development process as well as Agile methods (with variants such as Test-First Development and Test-Driven Design). The important point is that TM is a thread that must run in parallel to development, especially in Agile development.


Although a complete discussion of TM is beyond the scope of this paper, we can show how TM reduces risk — and thus allows earlier software delivery without compromising quality — by demonstrating how one of the test management best practices can improve iterative testing within the software development lifecycle.

Continuous testing and service virtualization to avoid the “big bang”

It has already been shared that in traditional development practices, teams typically defer testing until late in the development lifecycle. But why does this happen? The logical explanation is that teams simply can’t test critical business scenarios end-to-end until all the components have been developed and deployed in a test environment. However, when all of the “pieces” are brought together for the first time, many organizations experience what is referred to as the “big bang” and a large number of defects are discovered. Some of the defects are so major, teams are forced to rethink their application architecture or design decisions and return to the drawing board. Some may even consider starting over. So, it might be said that deferring testing until later is injecting unnecessary risk and could delay software release.

As a way to address this risk, Agile techniques, like test-driven development, force teams to write tests before a single line of code is developed. However, to what level do these tests validate the application as a whole? Are the developers really writing tests which validate the dependencies between application components? One technique your organization may have undertaken is to create mocks or stubs for simulating missing functionality, but this ad hoc practice is not a very good use of a developer’s time or your money. Organizations will also soon realize that this approach to enabling continuous integration testing is not scalable and cannot be easily incorporated into one’s automated build and deployment process. Yet many believe the combination of continuous testing and continuous deployment is a critical need. So, how do teams make the unavailable available for earlier and continuous testing without having to write ad hoc stubs?

This is where service virtualization comes in. Service virtualization simulates the behavior functionality and performance of select components within an application to enable end-to-end testing of the application as a whole.

By creating and deploying virtual components to simulate the missing functionality, functionality provided by components unavailable due to a number of reasons, development teams can achieve continuous testing of the application end-to-end much earlier, discover defects sooner, and reduce project risk so teams can release software more often.

One must also look at the value service virtualization can bring to an organization when considering the cost of quality. Testing is expensive, and that cost is increasing as applications become more complex. You need not look beyond the cost of provisioning a test environment to see how service virtualization can save money and time. Test teams spend a large portion of their time dealing with testing interruptions — interruptions like waiting for test environments to be available, recycling test environments, or deploying the latest build so they can begin testing.

In fact, this could account for 40 percent or more of the tester’s time. Service virtualization decreases the amount of time testers spend on dealing with interruptions. Taking it to the next level, teams that incorporate automated and continuous testing as part of the deployment process receive constant feedback on the quality of the latest release. This approach also frees up the tester’s time and allows them to increase the level of testing by executing more value-added activities like exploratory testing — which means testing applications to determine how they actually work and where significant defects are discovered.

Improved collaboration between the test team and other stakeholders:

From talking to customers, we learned that in average, a tester spends only about 60 percent of the time performing actual testing, test planning, or test reporting. The other 40 percent is related to activities that are collaborative in nature, such as clearing up the requirements with domain experts or business analysts or exchanging emails and phone calls with members of the development team. This gets worse in distributed organizations. If you could track and manage the collaboration, it will not only reduce your risk associated with lack of communications and misunderstandings, but also reduce the time for collaborative tasks by 20-50 percent.

Automated reporting

Creating a report, especially one that goes to high-level management, requires data collection from many sources, often from teams in different time zones, and then formatting this data appropriately. If you could automate this activity, your team would probably use it more often and take the appropriate decisions in “real time,” thus reducing your risk. How much would this save you?


These are some of the test management best practices, each of which contributes to risk reduction and therefore increased quality and reduced cost. Now, let’s consider the overall impact of test management on the defects density and the cost of fixing them.

06 The overall business impact of test management

Smarter quality


The overall business impact of test management

4 min read

Test management best practices center on quality synchronization points across the whole development lifecycle. We have discussed the benefits of traceability to requirements, and we have briefly noted collaboration between stakeholders and the test team, as well as automated reporting. Other best practices include: allowing quality professionals to contribute to the team effort from the very beginning of a project; the integration of practitioners testing as part of test management; and the use of consolidated quality dashboards.

Graphing percentage of defects detected (Y axis) against an organization’s software development maturity level (X axis).

Together, these test management best practices can benefit the overall business in measurable ways. Using CMMI3 as a proxy for the maturity of the development process, Figure 5 shows that the overall business impact of test management is quite compelling.

QM impact graph

Figure 5: Graphing percentage of defects detected (Y axis) against an organization’s software development maturity level (X axis).

Let’s assume an organization at CMMI level 2, with 1,000 defects detected during functional testing. Figure 5 shows that on average, without QM practices, about 30 percent of the defects are being detected in functional testing (the left, blue bar), and therefore the total number of defects is 3300. However, by applying TM practices, the defect detection rate increases to 58 percent (the right, green bar), therefore detecting 1914 (58 percent of 3,300), or 914 more defects.

As fixing defects during User Acceptance Testing (UAT) is about 7 times more expensive than during Unit/Integration test, and assuming a fix cost of $120 per defect during unit/integration test, fixing 914 defects in UAT is already increasing the cost by over half a million dollars.

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And this does not even take into account the reduction in the number of defects that result from applying TM practices in the first place, which makes the savings even more significant.

This also does not take into account less-tangible savings, such as increased quality, customer retention, and other implications of quality as a differentiating asset.

Man looking at computer screen

As most of the development teams are around CMMI levels 2 and 3, the benefits and the savings that were described above apply to most of the industry. But as development teams become more mature, apply TM practices and move up to CMMI levels 4 and 5, the focus shifts into less tangible benefits (but for some, even more important) such as reduction in the number of defects that are introduced in the first place, measured improvements around planning/execution of quality related activities, customer retention, and leveraging quality as a differentiating asset.

07 Better quality + lower cost = improved competitiveness

Smarter quality


Better quality + lower cost = improved competitiveness

1 min read

In this paper, we have described several improvements to methods used by software teams in the design, testing, and deployment of software for systems or IT. Teams may use these test management methods to deploy that software more quickly, while mitigating quality-related risks throughout the lifecycle. The multi-disciplined practice of test management is breaking the functional and organizational silos that are so common in today’s companies. It encourages an analytical process that’s closely integrated with the development lifecycle.

Woman using laptop

Analyzing the market and best practices shows that business outcomes can be optimized, and that smart improvements within the realm of proven best practices for requirements management and traceability, collaborative test planning and automated reporting — a combination of disciplines that defines test management — can help address the need for increased innovation with more competitive products and services to your customers.

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The IBM organization is ready to demonstrate these techniques to you.

With straightforward adjustments to your test management processes, deployment practices and tooling, we can help you realize significant savings that help improve the customer’s bottom line.

We look forward to working with you.

About the author

Moshe Cohen is the market manager for IBM Engineering Quality Management offerings. In his current role, he is working very closely with customers, management and practitioners, to drive IBM Quality Management offerings in both IT and Embedded Systems space. Prior to this, he was with Telelogic, defining and driving its Model Driven Testing solutions. Moshe has extensive hands-on experience in the specification, development and testing of C3I, Medical and Telecomm applications, including technology adoptions and driving process improvements programs. Moshe got his EE and his M.Sc. in Mathematics and Computer Sciences, both with honors from Beer-Sheva University in Israel.

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