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Reference / Glossary

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Cross References
71 Introduced in 1928, the IBM Type 71 Vertical Sorter automatically grouped cards of similar classification and at the same time arranged such classifications in a numerical sequence. It was equipped with 12 pockets, corresponding to the 12 punching positions on a card, with a capacity of 80 cards each at a speed of 150 cards a minute.
75 [1] The IBM System/360 Model 75 was introduced in April 1965, with the first delivery, to the NASA Institute of Space Study, following in January 1966.
75 [2] A powerful processor for integrated data management and processing, the Model 75 had a storage capability of up to 1,048,576 bytes. The machine had a memory cycle time of 750 nanoseconds, and it featured four-way interleaving of memory for faster effective access. (Interleaving is a technique in which the computer's memory is implemented by two or more electronically independent units, any one of which can be accessed while the others are still responding to previous requests.)
75 [3] The Model 75 was withdrawn from marketing in March 1977. A console from one of the machines has been preserved in the IBM Collection of Historical Computers, and is currently being exhibited at the company's corporate headquarters in Armonk, N.Y.
701 [1] The 701 Electronic Data Processing Machines System, introduced in 1952, was IBM's first commercially available scientific computer and the first IBM machine in which programs were stored in an internal, addressable electronic memory.
701 [2] Using cathode ray tube (Williams tube) memory for speed and flexibility, the 701 could process more than 2,000 multiplications and divisions a second. From the 701 technology came not only the 702, 704, 705 and 709 computers but also a new orientation to the electronic stored-program computer.
704 [1] The IBM 704 Electronic Data Processing Machine, introduced in 1954, was the first large-scale commercially available computer to employ fully automatic floating point arithmetic commands. It was a large-scale, electronic digital computer used for solving complex scientific, engineering and business problems.
704 [2] Input and output could be binary, decimal, alphabetic or special character code, such as binary coded decimal which includes decimal, alphabetic and special characters. A key feature of the 704 was FORTRAN (Automatic Formula Translation), which was an advanced program for automatically translating mathematical notation to optimum machine programs.
704 [3] A contemporary IBM publication listed the following features for the 704: 32,768, 8,192 or 4,096 words of high-speed magnetic core storage. (A word consists of 36 binary digits -- slightly larger than a 10 decimal digit number); Any word is individually addressable; Any word in magnetic core storage can be located and transferred in 12 millionths of a second;Single address type stored program controls all operations; Internal number system is binary;
704 [4] Executes most instructions at a rate of 40,000 per second; Built-in instructions provide maximum flexibility with minimum programming; A parallel machine, it operates on a full word simultaneously; Magnetic tape input-output units permit masses of data to enter and leave the internal memory of the machine at high speed; Auxiliary tape-to-card, card-to-tape, and tape-to-printer operations can be performed with additional IBM equipment.
705 [1] When the IBM 705 Electronic Data Processing Machine was launched in 1954, it was one of the most powerful data processing systems then available, and with the IBM 704, the first commercial machines with core memories.
705 [2] Developed primarily to handle business data, it could multiply numbers as large as one billion at a rate of over 400 per second. The 705 was made up of a Central Processing Unit and various types and combinations of input and output units.
705 [3] The computer's memory consisted of tiny ferrite cores strung on frameworks of wire. Some 20,000 or 40,000 alphabetic and numerical characters were stored on magnetized cores. Words, numbers or instructions were represented by the magnetic or neutral state of groups of cores, and were available for calculation in millionths of a second -- the fastest electronic storage of the time. Problems which had previously required weeks or months to solve could be handled by the 705 in a matter of minutes.
705 [4] In a 1954 IBM publication, the 705 was credited with the following features: Forty thousand or twenty thousand characters of high-speed magnetic core storage; Any one of the characters in magnetic core storage can be located or transferred in 17 millionths of a second; Any one of these characters is individually addressable;
705 [5] Magnetic tape input-output units permit masses of data to enter and leave the internal memory of the machine at high speed; A simultaneous read and write feature permits recording of tape during the same cycle that reading takes place; The flexibility of the system allows any reasonable number of input or output devices; Stored instructions can be modified at will; Automatic checking devices keep the operations under constant electronic scrutiny for accuracy.
709 [1] The IBM 709 Data Processing System was introduced in January 1957, and was the first equipment of its capacity to work with equal facility on both commercial and scientific or engineering problems. Like the 704 and 705, the 709 also featured rapid access, high capacity magnetic core "memory." Another aid to the 709's high-powered operation was a new data synchronizer unit which permitted the system to read, write, and calculate simultaneously.
709 [2] The 709 used instructions unlike any of those found in contemporary stored program computers. Developed to provide greater programming flexibility, they included conversion instructions which permitted the machine to rapidly perform calculations on data prepared in number systems other than the 709's basic system of binary arithmetic. That meant that all problem data could be kept in whatever form was most economical and desirable for the work at hand.
709 [3] Arithmetical operations were performed by the IBM 709 at "amazingly high speeds," according to the 1957 IBM announcement press release. The release also reported that: "The new system can handle up to 42,000 additions or substractions a second; multiplications or divisions are performed at speeds of up to 5,000 a second. An important contributing factor to this extraordinary calculating speed is the 709's rapid access, high capacity core storage or 'memory.' ... "
709 [4] " ... Up to 32,768 'words' of problem or instruction data can be held in core storage, a 'word' being equal to a ten decimal digit number. This means that the equivalent of over 327,000 decimal digits can be stored in the 709's magnetic core storage. Any 'word' in core storage can be located and made ready for use in only 12 millionths of a second ... "
709 [5] " ... The magnetic core storage unit's tremendous capacity fulfills the need for completely internal high-speed handling of voluminous problem data, reference tables, and lengthy programs." The IBM 709 was withdrawn from marketing in April 1960.
726 The 726 Magnetic Tape Recorder, introduced in 1952 as IBM's first magnetic tape unit, could store 100 characters of information on one inch of tape and it could read and write information at the rate of 75 inches a second.
729 II [1] Brought to market in September 1958, the 729 II Magnetic Tape Unit combined compact storage facilities and high-speed input/output operations for the IBM 1410 Data Processing System. Up to 20 tape units could be attached to the 1410.
729 II [2] The 729 II had a read-write speed of 15,000 or 41,667 characters per second, a recording density of 200 or 556 characters to the inch, and a high-speed rewind capability of 1.2 minutes per 2,400 foot reel. When recorded information was no longer needed, the tape could be used to record and store new data; the write operation automatically erased old information. The 729 II was withdrawn from marketing in December 1971.
7090 [1] The fully transistorized IBM 7090 Data Processing System, announced in January 1959, was at the time of its introduction the most powerful data processing system to be marketed commercially by IBM. The system had computing speeds up to five times faster than those of its predecessor, the IBM 709. That increase in performance was made possible by the use of thousands of ultra-fast transistors within the central processing unit of the computer.
7090 [2] Among the scientific applications for which the 7090 was suited were the design of missiles, rockets, jet engines, supersonic aircraft and nuclear reactors. In addition, the system was able to handle such commercial applications as inventory control, production control, payrolls and general accounting.
7090 [3] Capabilities of the 7090 computer system included performing 210,000 additions or subtractions a second. More than 32,000 10-digit numbers could be stored in its magnetic core storage. Any of these problem or instruction numbers could be located and made ready for use in 2.4 millionths of a second.
7090 [4] The 7090 could simultaneously read and write at the rate of 3 million units of information a second. The ability to read, write and compute at the same time was provided by the system's new Data Multiplexor. Each channel could have a total of ten magnetic tape units, a card reader, a card punch and a printer. A maximum 7090 system could include 80 magnetic tape units, eight card readers, eight printers and eight card punches.
7090 [5] General purpose programs (sets of instructions) developed for the IBM 709 could be used on the 7090, as were hundreds of programs developed for the IBM 704 computer. The means of input and output (entering problems and receiving solutions) was compatible with all contemporary IBM systems, i.e., people familiar with the 709 would require a minimum of retraining to gain a technical knowledge of the 7090.
7090 [6] The use of long-life transistors provided increased reliability, decreased maintenance and a greatly stepped up operating speed of logical circuitry. Other advantages included compactness and a substantial reduction in power consumption and installation costs. The IBM 7090 was withdrawn from marketing in July 1969.
7094 [1] Announced in January 1962, the IBM 7094 Data Processing System was built at the company's Poughkeepsie, N.Y., plant. The system was designed for large-scale computing and to process complex scientific information at ultrahigh speed.
7094 [2] With a memory reference speed of two microseconds (millionth of a second), the 7094 could in one second perform 500,000 logical decisions, 250,000 additions or subtractions, 100,000 multiplications or 62,500 divisions. The 7094 internally performed mathematical computations 1.4 to 2.4 times faster than the IBM 7090, depending on the technique used to solve problems. High-speed data tapes enabled the 7094 to accept and record data at speeds of up to 170,000 characters a second.
7094 [3] A typical 7094 sold for $3,134,500. IBM provided customers with a complete package of 7090/7094 programs, including FORTRAN, COBOL, input-output control system and sorting, without charge. The 7094 was withdrawn from marketing in 1969.
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