GHG emissions inventory

IBM calculates its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions according to The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard. We calculate Scope 2 emissions in accordance with the "market-based" method in The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Scope 2 Guidance.

With few exceptions, IBM does not estimate Scope 3 GHG emissions associated with our value chain because the necessary gross assumptions associated with such estimates simply do not enable credible, factual results. For more information, please see our Position on Scope 3 GHG emissions.


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IBM's Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory for 2019 Metric tons of CO2e
Scope 1 emissions
Use of fossil fuels for operations 80,159
Use of fossil fuels for transportation 25,579
Use of chemicals with a global warming potential 11,985
Scope 2 emissions (market-based)
Use of electricity in IBM managed locations 792,987
Use of purchased energy commodities 34,382
Scope 3 emissions
Purchased goods and services 315,095
Upstream leased assets 39,505
Use of sold products 287,068
Business travel 393,450
Employee commuting 119,404

Note: GHG emissions figures above have been slightly adjusted from those provided in the 2019 IBM and the Environment Report to correct a small calculation error in earlier reporting.


Description of Scope 3 GHG emissions