SPNEGO troubleshooting tips
You can securely negotiate and authenticate HTTP requests for secured resources in WebSphere® Application Server by using the Simple and Protected GSS-API Negotiation Mechanism (SPNEGO). You might encounter issues using Simple and Protected GSS-API Negotiation Mechanism (SPNEGO) as the web authentication service for WebSphere Application Server.
SPNEGO issues and their possible solutions
- Unable to resolve the Kerberos principal name
- WebSphere Application Server and the time on the Active Directory (AD) domain controller are not synchronized within 5 minutes
- No factory is available to create name for mechanism 188.8.131.52.5.5.2
- A Kerberos error is received while decoding and verifying the SPNEGO token
- Single sign-on does not occur
- Unable to use sign-on (SSO) with RC4-HMAC encryption
- Problems when accessing a protected URL through the SPNEGO single sign-on (SSO)
- Even with JGSS tracing disabled, some KRB_DBG_KDC messages appear in the SystemOut.log
- ktpass is unable to find the userid
- Credential delegation might not work due to an invalid option in the ticket request
- A user is challenged for credentials even though the browser is properly configured
- A user using the Novell client cannot authenticate using SPNEGO
- Accessing SPNEGO sites via some caching proxy servers can cause SPNEGO authentication issues
- Virtual Private Networks (VPN) software and firewalls might interfere with SPNEGO operations
- Possible browser issue when accessing a SPNEGO protected application
- Error pages defined for the NTLMTokenReceivedPage or the SpnegoNotSupportedPage properties do load from an http:// URL
- A client browser single sign-on (SSO) attempt fails to authenticate
- Microsoft Windows Version 7 and Internet Explorer Version 8 disables DES encryption type by default
- Establishing an unrestricted policy then using AES256 encryption
Unable to resolve the Kerberos principal name
If you are unable to resolve the Kerberos principal name, as shown in the following trace example:
[11/11/03 1:42:29:795 EST] 1d01b21e GetKrbToken > Negotiation (GSS): Begin handshake [11/11/03 1:42:29:795 EST] 1d01b21e Context > GSS Context init, servername:HTTP@johnwang5.jwcmd.com [11/11/03 1:42:29:866 EST] 1d01b21e TraceNLS u No message text associated with key Error.getting.the.Token, .GSS.Exception:org.ietf.jgss.GSSException,.major.code:.13,.minor.code:.0 major.string:.Invalid.credentials minor.string:.Cannot.get.credential.from.JAAS.Subject.for.principal:.HTTPemail@example.com in bundle com.ibm.ejs.resources.security [11/11/03 1:42:29:866 EST] 1d01b21e GetKrbToken E Error getting the Token, GSS Exception:org.ietf.jgss.GSSException, major code: 13, minor code: 0 major string: Invalid credentials minor string: Cannot get credential from JAAS Subject for principal: HTTPfirstname.lastname@example.org [11/11/03 1:42:29:876 EST] 1d01b21e TraceNLS u No message text associated with key SpnegoTAI.exits.due.to.an.exception. in bundle com.ibm.ejs.resources.security [11/11/03 1:42:29:876 EST] 1d01b21e SpnegoTAI E SpnegoTAI exits due to an exception.
Add the IP address of the server in its host file. You must also recycle the application server to load the new host file.
WebSphere Application Server and the time on the Active Directory (AD) domain controller are not synchronized within 5 minutes
[11/11/03 1:44:09:499 EST] 1d01b21e GetKrbToken > Negotiation (GSS): Begin handshake [11/11/03 1:44:09:499 EST] 1d01b21e Context > GSS Context init, servername:HTTP@backendrc4.ibm.net [11/11/03 1:44:09:499 EST] 1d01b21e Context > GSS Context init, done. [11/11/03 1:44:09:679 EST] 1d01b21e SpnegoTAI > Server response token as follows... 0000: 6082014f 06062b06 01050502 a1820143 `?.O..+.....¡?.C 0010: 3082013f a0030a01 01a10b06 092a8648 0?.? ....¡...*?H 0020: 82f71201 0202a282 01290482 01256082 ?÷....¢?.).?.%`? 0030: 01210609 2a864886 f7120102 0203007e .!..*?H?÷......~ 0040: 82011030 82010ca0 03020105 a1030201 ?..0?.. ....¡... 0050: 1ea41118 0f323030 33313131 31303634 .¤...20031111064 0060: 3430395a a5050203 0a3548a6 03020125 409Z¥....5H¦...% 0070: a90b1b09 4a57434d 442e434f 4daa2630 ©.....IBM.NETª&0 0080: 24a00302 0100a11d 301b1b04 48545450 $ ....¡.0...HTTP 0090: 1b136a6f 686e7761 6e67352e 6a77636d ..backendrc4.ibm 00a0: 642e636f 6dab81ab 1b81a86f 72672e69 .net.«?«.?¨org.i 00b0: 6574662e 6a677373 2e475353 45786365 etf.jgss.GSSExce 00c0: 7074696f 6e2c206d 616a6f72 20636f64 ption, major cod 00d0: 653a2031 302c206d 696e6f72 20636f64 e: 10, minor cod 00e0: 653a2033 370a096d 616a6f72 20737472 e: 37..major str 00f0: 696e673a 20446566 65637469 76652074 ing: Defective t 0100: 6f6b656e 0a096d69 6e6f7220 73747269 oken..minor stri 0110: 6e673a20 436c6965 6e742074 696d6520 ng: Client time 0120: 54756573 6461792c 204e6f76 656d6265 Tuesday, Novembe 0130: 72203131 2c203230 30332061 7420313a r 11, 2003 at 1: 0140: 33353a30 3120414d 20746f6f 20736b65 35:01 AM too ske 0150: 776564 wed
You can fix this issue in one of two ways. The preferred method is to synchronize the WebSphere system time to within 5 minutes of the time of the AD server. A best practice is to use a time server to keep all of the systems synchronized. Alternatively, you can also add or adjust the clockskew parameter in the Kerberos configuration file. Note that the default is 300 seconds (5 minutes).
No factory is available to create name for mechanism 184.108.40.206.5.5.2
[4/8/05 22:51:24:542 EDT] 5003e481 SystemOut O [JGSS_DBG_PROV] Provider IBMJGSSProvider version 1.01 does not support mech 220.127.116.11.5.5.2 [4/8/05 22:51:24:582 EDT] 5003e481 ServerCredent E com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.ServerCredential initialize() SPNEGO014: Kerberos initialization Failure: org.ietf.jgss.GSSException, major code: 2, minor code: 0 major string: Unsupported mechanism minor string: No factory available to create name for mechanism 18.104.22.168.5.5.2 at com.ibm.security.jgss.i18n.I18NException.throwGSSException(I18NException.java:30) at com.ibm.security.jgss.GSSManagerImpl.a(GSSManagerImpl.java:36) at com.ibm.security.jgss.GSSCredentialImpl.add(GSSCredentialImpl.java:217) at com.ibm.security.jgss.GSSCredentialImpl.<init>(GSSCredentialImpl.java:264) . .
A Kerberos error is received while decoding and verifying the SPNEGO token
Error authenticating request. Reporting to client Major code = 11, Minor code = 31 org.ietf.jgss.GSSException, major code: 11, minor code: 31 major string: General failure, unspecified at GSSAPI level minor string: Kerberos error while decoding and verifying token: com.ibm.security.krb5.internal.KrbException, status code: 31 message: Integrity check on decrypted field failed
- The keytab file has not been copied to the server machine after it has been regenerated.
- The Kerberos configuration points to the wrong keytab file.
- The SPN was defined to Active Directory more than once. This is also caused by another userid with a similarly defined SPN (either the same name or it might differ by having a port defined as part of the SPN).
- If the encryption type is DES, the password associated with the Service userid might only exist for RC4-HMAC encryption. This occurs when a new userid is created, the SPN is defined, and the keytab is generated with the +DesOnly option. The service ticket generated for this SPN is encrypted with one secret that does not match that found in the keytab.
- An older version of the Microsoft ktpass tool is being used. Older versions of the tool create keytab files that are incorrect and might result in this error. If you are using Windows Server 2003 as your Domain controller, use the version of ktpass.exe that is part of Windows Server 2003 SP 2 (specifically, version 5.2.3790.2825).
If the problem is with the keytab file, then fix it. If the problem is with multiple SPN definitions, remove the extra or conflicting SPN, confirm that the SPN is no longer registered with AD, and then add the SPN again. Read about Creating a Kerberos service principal name and keytab file for more information. The Active Directory might need to be searched for other entries with SPNs defined that clash with the SPN using an LDAP browser.
should return with:
setspn -l userid
Cannot find account userid
If the userid and keytab are for DES-CBC-MD5, after you create the userid, change the password for the userid and then create the keytab file. If you are using Windows Server 2003 upgrade to the latest version of ktpass.
Single sign-on does not occur
Client sent back a non-SPNEGO authentication header, SpnegoTAI exits
- The client has not been properly configured.
- The client is not using a supported browser. For instance, users of Internet Explorer 5.5 SP1 respond with a non-SPNEGO authentication header.
- The user has not logged into the AD domain or into a trusted domain, or the client used does not support Integrated Authentication with Windows. In this case, the TAI is working properly.
- The user accesses a service defined on the same machine as the client is running (the localhost). Internet Explorer resolves the hostname of the URL to http://localhost<someURL> instead of to the fully-qualified name that is provided.
- The SPN is not found in the Active Directory. The SPN must be of the format
HTTP/server.realm.com. The command to add the SPN is:
setspn -s HTTP/server.realm.com userid
If the SPN is defined incorrectly as HTTP/server.realm.com@REALM.COM with the addition of @REALM.COM, then delete the user, redefine it, and then redefine the SPN.
- The hostname is resolved as a DNS Alias, not as a HOST record. Change the hostname to a HOST record.
- The account in AD that holds the ServicePrincipalName is in an AD domain that is remote from the AD domain that the user has logged into, and these domains are not Windows 2003 domains. Migrate the domains to Windows 2003, or limit SSO to users within the same domain as the ServicePrincipalName userid.
Unable to use sign-on (SSO) with RC4-HMAC encryption
com.ibm.security.krb5.internal.crypto.KrbCryptoException, status code: 0 message: Checksum error; received checksum does not match computed checksum
- RC4-HMAC encryption is not supported with a Windows
version prior to 2003 KDC. To confirm that this is a problem, examine the previous trace where the
exception is thrown. The content of the incoming ticket should be visible in the trace. While it is
encrypted, the SPN name for the service is readable. If a Windows version prior to 2003 KDC is used, and the system is configured to use RC4-HMAC, the
string representing the ticket for userid@REALMinstead of the expected HTTP/hostname.realm@REALM is
shown. For example, this is beginning of the ticket received from a Windows version prior to 2003
0000: 01 00 6e 82 04 7f 30 82 04 7b a0 03 02 01 05 a1 ..n...0......... 0010: 03 02 01 0e a2 07 03 05 00 20 00 00 00 a3 82 03 ................ 0020: a5 61 82 03 a1 30 82 03 9d a0 03 02 01 05 a1 0a .a...0.......... 0030: 1b 08 45 50 46 44 2e 4e 45 54 a2 18 30 16 a0 03 ...REALM.COM.0.. 0040: 02 01 01 a1 0f 30 0d 1b 0b 65 70 66 64 77 61 73 .....0...userid 0050: 75 6e 69 74 a3 82 03 6e 30 82 03 6a a0 03 02 01 .a.f...n0..j....The realm is REALM.COM. The service name is userid. A correctly formed ticket for the same SPN is:
0000: 01 00 6e 82 04 56 30 82 04 52 a0 03 02 01 05 a1 ..n..V0..R...... 0010: 03 02 01 0e a2 07 03 05 00 20 00 00 00 a3 82 03 ................ 0020: 82 61 82 03 7e 30 82 03 7a a0 03 02 01 05 a1 0a .a...0..z....... 0030: 1b 08 45 50 46 44 2e 4e 45 54 a2 2a 30 28 a0 03 ..REALM.COM.0... 0040: 02 01 02 a1 21 30 1f 1b 04 48 54 54 50 1b 17 75 .....0...HTTP..u 0050: 73 31 30 6b 65 70 66 77 61 73 73 30 31 2e 65 70 serid.realm.com. 0060: 66 64 2e 6e 65 74 a3 82 03 39 30 82 03 35 a0 03 ...n.....90..5..
To correct the problem, either use single DES encryption or use a Windows Server 2003 for a KDC. Remember to regenerate the SPN and the keytab file.
- RC-HMAC encryption does not work when the credential delegation feature is used. To determine if
you have this problem, enable JGSS and Krb5 tracing. If the SPN name is correct, messages such as
the following might
[JGSS_DBG_CTX] Successfully decrypted ticket [JGSS_DBG_CTX] Put authz info in cache [JGSS_DBG_CTX] Session key type = rc4-hmac … [JGSS_DBG_CTX] Successfully decrypted authenticator [JGSS_DBG_CTX] Error authenticating request. Reporting to client … Major code = 11, Minor code = 0 org.ietf.jgss.GSSException, major code: 11, minor code: 0 major string: General failure, unspecified at GSSAPI level minor string: Kerberos error converting KRBCred: com.ibm.security.krb5.internal.crypto.KrbCryptoException, status code: 0 message: Checksum error; received checksum does not match computed checksum
This indicates that the delegated credential contained in the SPNEGO token was not encrypted with the proper key.
Obtain APAR IY76826. This replaces ibmjgssprovider.jar with a version that can accept the Microsoft defined RC4 encrypted delegated credential.
- The password used when generating the keytab file with ktpass does not match the password
assigned to the service account. When the password changes you should regenerate and redistribute
the keys., even if it is reset to the same password. In addition, the ktpass tool might generate a keytab file with a non-matching password as in the following cases:
- If the password entered to ktpass matches the password for the service account, then the produced keytab file does work.
- If the password entered to ktpass does not match the password for the service account, and is less than 7 characters in length, ktpass stops and does not produce a keytab file.
- If the password entered to ktpass does not match the password for the service account, and is greater than 6 characters in length, ktpass does not stop. Instead, it produces a keytab file containing an invalid key. Use of this key to decrypt a SPNEGO token produces the checksum error previously listed.
Use a non-null password for the service account, and then use that password when invoking ktpass.
- The ktpass version 1830 (in Support Tools SP1) can produce the error in some Windows 2003 Server environments. Use the SP2 version of the tool to avoid
Use the Support Tools SP2 version of ktpass to generate the keytab file.
Credential delegation might not work due to an invalid option in the ticket request
com.ibm.security.krb5.KrbException, status code: 101 message: Invalid option in ticket request
the Kerberos configuration file is not properly configured. Ensure that neither renewable nor proxiable are set to true.
Problems when accessing a protected URL through the SPNEGO single sign-on (SSO)
Bad Request Your browser sent a request that this server could not understand. Size of request header field exceeds server limit. Authorization: Negotiate YII……
This message is generated by the Apache/IBM HTTP Server, and indicates that the authorization header that your browser has returned is too large. The long string that follows the word Negotiate is the SPNEGO token. This SPNEGO token is a wrapper of the Windows Kerberos token. Windows includes the PAC information of the user in the Kerberos token. The more security groups that the user belongs to, the more PAC information is inserted in the Kerberos token, and the larger SPNEGO becomes. IBM HTTP Server 2.0 (as well as Apache 2.0 and IBM HTTP Server 6.0) limit the size of any acceptable HTTP header to be 8K. In Windows domains with many groups, and with user membership in many groups, the size of the user's SPNEGO token can exceed the 8K limit.
If possible, reduce the number of security groups that the user is a member of. IBM HTTP Server 2.0.47 cumulative fix PK01070 allows for HTTP header sizes up to and beyond the Microsoft limit of 12K.
After applying the fix you must specify the LimitRequestFieldSize parameter in the httpd.conf file to increase the size of allowable headers from the default of 8192.
Even with JGSS tracing disabled, some KRB_DBG_KDC messages appear in the SystemOut.log
While most of the JGSS tracing is controlled by the com.ibm.security.jgss.debug property, a small set of messages are controlled by the com.ibm.security.krb5.Krb5Debug property. The default value of the krb5 property is to emit some messages to SystemOut.log.
To remove all KRB_DBG_KDC messages from the SystemOut.log, set the JVM property to -Dcom.ibm.security.krb5.Krb5Debug=none.
ktpass is unable to find the userid
DsCrackNames returned 0x2 in the name entry for server3 Failed getting target domain for specified user.
In an Active Directory forest, the userid lookup used by the ktpass.exe does not have a default domain name to be used. This does not occur when the domain controller is not in a forest.
To fix this problem, instead of specifying option -mapUser userid, use -mapUser userid@domain instead. For example, specify -mapUser server3@WIBM.NET.
Credential delegation does not work for any userid
> com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.Context getDelegateCred() Entry d com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.Context getDelegateCred() unable to get Delegate Credential < com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.Context getDelegateCred() Exit W com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.SpnegoHandler handleRequest() SPNEGO021: No delegated credentials were found for user: nauser@NA.IBM.NET
the domain account on which the SPN is attached does not have the
Account is trusted for
Delegation property defined.
To address this issue, ensure that the domain account does define the
Account is trusted
for Delegation property.
A user is challenged for credentials even though the browser is properly configured
< com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.SpnegoTAI getAuthenticatedUsername(): lansche Exit d com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.SpnegoTAI negotiateValidateandEstablishTrust(): Handshake finished, sending 200 :SC_OK < com.ibm.issw.spnegoTAI.SpnegoTAI negotiateAndValidateEstablishedTrust Exit A SECJ0222E: An unexpected exception occurred when trying to create a LoginContext. The LoginModule alias is system.WEB_INBOUND and the exception is...
- The registry used by WebSphere is not the Active Directory domain LDAP, or Global Catalogue, but is some other virtual registry (for example, a file-based custom user registry).
- A custom IClientToServerUseridMapper implementation modifies the username such that the name it is mapped to does not exist in the registry.
- The attribute mapped to by the WebSphere LDAP User Filter property is incorrect.
To fix this problem, ensure that the user that is being asserted to WebSphere Application Server by the TAI is the configured WebSphere registry.
A user using the Novell client cannot authenticate using SPNEGO
If a user using the Novell client cannot authenticate using SPNEGO they might receive a
NTLM token is received. message.
The user might have logged into the Novell Client but did not perform a Windows Kerberos login (this can be confirmed using the Kerbtray utility). If a user has logged on to the Windows domain and has a Kerberos ticket, the user cannot utilize SPNEGO authentication.
To fix this problem, remove the Novell client and use the default Windows domain login.
Accessing SPNEGO sites via some caching proxy servers can cause SPNEGO authentication issues
If you access SPNEGO sites via some caching proxy servers you might not be able to authenticate
using SPNEGO. The message
SPNEGO authentication not supported on this client might be
It is possible that the caching proxy is changing the hostname that returns on the HTTP 401 Authenticate Negotiate response.
If you have this issue, contact your proxy vendor for a possible solution.
Virtual Private Networks (VPN) software and firewalls might interfere with SPNEGO operations
You might experience problems with VPN software and firewalls that might interfere with SPNEGO operations.
To resolve these issues, contact your VPN and or firewall vendors for any configuration changes that might be necessary.
Possible browser issue when accessing a SPNEGO protected application
There might be a browser issue if you log on to a domain machine using one password (for example,
passwordA) and then log on to a second domain machine by changing your original
password (for example, you might change your password on the second domain machine to
Once you return to the original domain machine, you might not be able to obtain either a SPNEGO/Kerberos or an NTLM response to the Negotiate challenge. After two attempts, the browser displays an HTTP 404 error message.
To resolve this issue, log off the original domain machine and log back on with the new password
Error pages defined for the NTLMTokenReceivedPage or the SpnegoNotSupportedPage properties do load from an http:// URL
Could not load the SPNEGO not supported content, going with the default content. Exception received: java.net.ProtocolException: Server redirected too many times (20)
This issue occurs when the loaded file performs an automatic redirect. It is not possible to both load the file from a web server and also use an automatic redirection
To resolve this issue, load the content from a file:/// URL, not an http:// URL.
A client browser single sign-on (SSO) attempt fails to authenticate
An error can occur when a client browser single sign-on (SSO) attempt fails to authenticate with WebSphere Application Server when you use a SPNEGO token with Microsoft Internet Security Acceleration Server
com.ibm.ws.security.spnego.SpnegoHandler isAuthHeaderNotSPNEGO ENTRY Negotiate
com.ibm.ws.security.spnego.SpnegoHandler isAuthHeaderNotSPNEGO Client sent back a non-SPNEGO authentication header
When a Microsoft Internet Security Acceleration Server (ISA) exists between a client browser and WebSphere Application Server, ISA might intercept the SPNEGO authentication header from the client browser request. ISA converts the SPNEGO object identifier (OID) to a Kerberos OID. The authentication attempt with WebSphere Application Server fails because the SPNEGO OID has been converted and is now missing.
For information about how to fix this issue, see the
Users cannot access a web site that is
published in ISA Server 2006 if the web site accepts only the SPNEGO authentication package
topic on the Microsoft Corporation Support site.
Microsoft Windows Version 7 and Internet Explorer Version 8 disables DES encryption type by default
Client sent back a non-SPNEGO authentication header....
It is recommended that you change your encryption type to RC4-HMAC or to AES. If you still choose to use the DES encryption type, however, you must refer to the Windows 7 documentation for help on how to enable the DES encryption type.
The following is an example of how to change your encryption type from DES to RC4:
- Make sure the Microsoft Active Directory account
that you use to map to the SPN does not have the
Use DES encryption type for this accountbox checked. In the Microsoft Active Directory machine:
- Click .
- Click on the Microsoft Active Directory account that you use to map to the SPN.
- Select the account, and then make sure that the
Use DES encryption type for this accountbox is not checked.
- Reset the password for the Microsoft Active Directory account that you use to map to the SPN. You can reset it to the same password.
- Regenerate the keytab with the RC4 encryption type.
- Copy the new keytab file to the WebSphere Application Server servers.
- Update the Kerberos configuration (krb5.ini/krb5.conf) files to list RC4 first for the
default_tkt_enctypes and default_tgs_enctypes attributes.For example:.
default_tkt_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-md5 default_tgs_enctypes = rc4-hmac des-cbc-md5
- Stop and restart all WebSphere Application Server servers.
Establishing an unrestricted policy then using AES256 encryption
- Stop the application server.
- Download and install the new policy files. Important: Your country of origin might have restrictions on the import, possession, use, or re-export to another country, of encryption software. Before downloading or using the unrestricted policy files, you must check the laws of your country, its regulations, and its policies concerning the import, possession, use, and re-export of encryption software to ensure compliance.
Note: Take a backup before replacing these files. An example of a path that would be used is
- Click on the appropriate SDK level.
- Scroll down the page then click IBM SDK policy files. The unrestricted JCE policy files for SDK web site displays.
- Click Sign in and provide your IBM.com ID and password.
- Select unrestricted JCE policy files for SDK and click Continue.
- View the license and click I Agree to continue.
- Extract the unlimited jurisdiction policy files that are packaged in the ZIP file. The ZIP file
US_export_policy.jarfile and a
- In your WebSphere Application Server installation, go to the
$JAVA_HOME/lib/securitydirectory and back up your existing
- Replace your
local_policy.jarfiles with the two files that you downloaded from the IBM.com web site.
- Start the application server.