# Summary Statistics for Scale Variables and Categorical Custom Totals

In addition to the counts and percentages available for categorical variables, the following summary statistics are available for scale variables and as custom total and subtotal summaries for categorical variables. These summary statistics are not available for multiple response sets or string (alphanumeric) variables.

**Mean.** Arithmetic average; the sum divided by the number of cases.

**Median.** Value above and below which half of the cases fall; the 50th percentile.

**Mode.** Most frequent value. If there is a tie, the smallest value is shown.

**Minimum.** Smallest (lowest) value.

**Maximum.** Largest (highest) value.

**Missing.** Count of missing values (both user- and system-missing).

**Percentile.** You can include the 5th, 25th, 75th, 95th, and/or 99th percentiles.

**Range.** Difference between maximum and minimum values.

**Standard deviation.** A measure of dispersion around the mean. In a normal distribution, 68% of
the cases fall within one standard deviation of the mean and 95% of the cases fall within two
standard deviations. For example, if the mean age is 45, with a standard deviation of 10, 95% of the
cases would be between 25 and 65 in a normal distribution (the square root of the variance).

**Sum.** Sum of the values.

**Sum percentage.** Percentages based on sums. Available for rows and columns (within subtables),
entire rows and columns (across subtables), layers, subtables, and entire tables.

**Total N.** Count of non-missing, user-missing, and system-missing values. Does not include
cases in manually excluded categories other than user-missing categories.

**Adjusted Total N.** The adjusted total N used in effective base weight calculations. If you
do not use an effective base weight variable (Options tab), the adjusted total N is the same as the
total N. This statistic is not available for multiple response sets.

**Valid N.** Count of non-missing values. Does not include cases in manually excluded categories
other than user-missing categories.

**Adjusted Valid N.** The adjusted valid N used in effective base weight calculations. If you
do not use an effective base weight variable (Options tab), the adjusted valid N is the same as the
valid N. This statistic is not available for multiple response sets.

**Variance.** A measure of dispersion around the mean, equal to the sum of squared deviations
from the mean divided by one less than the number of cases. The variance is measured in units that
are the square of those of the variable itself (the square of the standard deviation).

For categorical variables, the table must include totals or subtotals to display custom summary statistics. See the topic Custom Total Summary Statistics for Categorical Variables for more information.

## Confidence Intervals

- Lower and upper confidence limits are available for counts, percentages, mean, median, percentiles, and sum.
- The text string "&[Confidence Level]" in the label includes the confidence level in the column label in the table.
- Standard error is available for counts, percentages, mean, and sum.
- Confidence intervals and standard error are not available for multiple response sets.

- Level
- The confidence level for confidence intervals, expressed as a percentage. The value must be greater than 0 and less than 100.

## Stacked Tables

Each table section defined by a stacking variable is treated as a separate table, and summary statistics are calculated accordingly.