# Frequencies Statistics

**Percentile Values.** Values of a quantitative variable that divide the ordered data into
groups so that a certain percentage is above and another percentage
is below. Quartiles (the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles) divide
the observations into four groups of equal size. If you want an equal
number of groups other than four, select Cut points for n equal groups. You can also specify individual
percentiles (for example, the 95th percentile, the value below which
95% of the observations fall).

**Central Tendency.** Statistics that describe the location of the distribution include
the mean, median, mode, and sum of all the values.

- Mean. A measure of central tendency. The arithmetic average, the sum divided by the number of cases.
- Median. The value above and below which half of the cases fall, the 50th percentile. If there is an even number of cases, the median is the average of the two middle cases when they are sorted in ascending or descending order. The median is a measure of central tendency not sensitive to outlying values (unlike the mean, which can be affected by a few extremely high or low values).
- Mode. The most frequently occurring value. If several values share the greatest frequency of occurrence, each of them is a mode. The Frequencies procedure reports only the smallest of such multiple modes.
- Sum. The sum or total of the values, across all cases with nonmissing values.

**Dispersion.** Statistics that measure the amount of variation or spread in the
data include the standard deviation, variance, range, minimum, maximum,
and standard error of the mean.

- Std. deviation. A measure of dispersion around the mean. In a normal distribution, 68% of cases fall within one standard deviation of the mean and 95% of cases fall within two standard deviations. For example, if the mean age is 45, with a standard deviation of 10, 95% of the cases would be between 25 and 65 in a normal distribution.
- Variance. A measure of dispersion around the mean, equal to the sum of squared deviations from the mean divided by one less than the number of cases. The variance is measured in units that are the square of those of the variable itself.
- Range. The difference between the largest and smallest values of a numeric variable, the maximum minus the minimum.
- Minimum. The smallest value of a numeric variable.
- Maximum. The largest value of a numeric variable.
- S. E. mean. A measure of how much the value of the mean may vary from sample to sample taken from the same distribution. It can be used to roughly compare the observed mean to a hypothesized value (that is, you can conclude the two values are different if the ratio of the difference to the standard error is less than -2 or greater than +2).

**Distribution.** Skewness and kurtosis are statistics that describe the shape and
symmetry of the distribution. These statistics are displayed with
their standard errors.

- Skewness. A measure of the asymmetry of a distribution. The normal distribution is symmetric and has a skewness value of 0. A distribution with a significant positive skewness has a long right tail. A distribution with a significant negative skewness has a long left tail. As a guideline, a skewness value more than twice its standard error is taken to indicate a departure from symmetry.
- Kurtosis. A measure of the extent to which there are outliers. For a normal distribution, the value of the kurtosis statistic is zero. Positive kurtosis indicates that the data exhibit more extreme outliers than a normal distribution. Negative kurtosis indicates that the data exhibit less extreme outliers than a normal distribution. The definition of kurtosis that is used, where the value is 0 for a normal distribution, is sometimes referred to as excess kurtosis. Some software may report kurtosis such that the value is 3 for a normal distribution.

**Values are group
midpoints.** If the values in your data are midpoints of
groups (for example, ages of all people in their thirties are coded
as 35), select this option to estimate the median and percentiles
for the original, ungrouped data.

Obtaining Statistics for Frequencies

This feature requires the Statistics Base option.

- From the menus choose:
- In the Frequencies dialog box, click Statistics.
- Select the statistics you want.