# Crosstabs

This feature requires the Statistics Base option.

The Crosstabs procedure forms two-way and multiway tables and provides a variety of tests and measures of association for two-way tables. The structure of the table and whether categories are ordered determine what test or measure to use.

With the exception of partial gamma coefficients, Crosstabs' statistics and measures of association are computed separately for each two-way table. If you specify a row, a column, and a layer factor (control variable), the Crosstabs procedure forms one panel of associated statistics and measures for each value of the layer factor (or a combination of values for two or more control variables). For example, if gender is a layer factor for a table of married (yes, no) against life (is life exciting, routine, or dull), the results for a two-way table for the females are computed separately from those for the males and printed as panels following one another.

Example. Are customers from small companies more likely to be profitable in sales of services (for example, training and consulting) than those from larger companies? From a crosstabulation, you might learn that the majority of small companies (fewer than 500 employees) yield high service profits, while the majority of large companies (more than 2,500 employees) yield low service profits.

Statistics and measures of association. Pearson chi-square, likelihood-ratio chi-square, linear-by-linear association test, Fisher's exact test, Yates' corrected chi-square, Pearson's r, Spearman's rho, contingency coefficient, phi, Cramér's V, symmetric and asymmetric lambdas, Goodman and Kruskal's tau, uncertainty coefficient, gamma, Somers' d, Kendall's tau-b, Kendall's tau-c, eta coefficient, Cohen's kappa, relative risk estimate, odds ratio, McNemar test, Cochran's and Mantel-Haenszel statistics, and column proportions statistics.

Crosstabs Data Considerations

Data. To define the categories of each table variable, use values of a numeric or string (eight or fewer bytes) variable. For example, for gender, you could code the data as 1 and 2 or as male and female.

Assumptions. Some statistics and measures assume ordered categories (ordinal data) or quantitative values (interval or ratio data), as discussed in the section on statistics. Others are valid when the table variables have unordered categories (nominal data). For the chi-square-based statistics (phi, Cramér's V, and contingency coefficient), the data should be a random sample from a multinomial distribution.

Note: Ordinal variables can be either numeric codes that represent categories (for example, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = high) or string values. However, the alphabetic order of string values is assumed to reflect the true order of the categories. For example, for a string variable with the values of low, medium, high, the order of the categories is interpreted as high, low, medium--which is not the correct order. In general, it is more reliable to use numeric codes to represent ordinal data.

To Obtain Crosstabulations

This feature requires the Statistics Base option.