AND and OR logical operators
Two or more relations can be logically joined
using the logical operators AND
and OR
. Logical operators combine
relations according to the following rules:
 The ampersand (&) symbol is a valid substitute
for the logical operator
AND
. The vertical bar (  ) is a valid substitute for the logical operatorOR
.  Only one logical operator can be used to combine two relations. However, multiple relations can be combined into a complex logical expression.
 Regardless of the number of relations and logical operators used to build a logical expression, the result is either true, false, or indeterminate because of missing values.
 Operators or expressions cannot be implied. For example,
X EQ 1 OR 2
is illegal; you must specifyX EQ 1 OR X EQ 2
.  The
ANY
andRANGE
functions can be used to simplify complex expressions.
AND . Both relations must be true for the complex expression to be true.
OR . If either relation is true, the complex expression is true.
The following table lists the outcomes for AND
and OR
combinations.

^{*} Expressions where the outcome can be evaluated with incomplete information. See the topic Missing values in logical expressions for more information.
Example
DATA LIST FREE /var1 var2 var3.
BEGIN DATA
1 1 1
1 2 1
1 2 3
4 2 4
END DATA.
SELECT IF var1 = 4 OR ((var2 > var1) AND (var1 <> var3)).
 Any case that meets the first condition
var1 = 4
will be selected, which in this example is only the last case.  Any case that meets the second condition will also be selected. In this example, only the third case meets this condition, which contains two criteria: var2 is greater than var1 and var1 is not equal to var3.