# Multidimensional Scaling Transform Values

The following alternatives are available for transforming values:

**Z scores.** Values are standardized
to *Z* scores, with a mean of 0
and a standard deviation of 1.

**Range -1 to 1.** Each value
for the item being standardized is divided by the range of the values.

**Range 0 to 1.** The procedure
subtracts the minimum value from each item being standardized and
then divides by the range.

**Maximum magnitude of 1.** The procedure divides each value for the item being standardized
by the maximum of the values.

**Mean of 1.** The procedure
divides each value for the item being standardized by the mean of
the values.

**Standard deviation of 1.** The procedure divides each value for the variable or case being
standardized by the standard deviation of the values.

Additionally, you can choose how standardization is done. Alternatives are By variable or By case.