Finding Unusual Cases

You can find customers who spend much more or much less than other customers on each service by studying the standardized values (or z scores) of the variables.

However, a requirement for using z scores is that each variable's distribution is not markedly non-normal. The skewness and kurtosis values reported in the statistics table are all quite large, showing that the distributions of these variables are definitely not normal.

One possible remedy, because the variables all take positive values, is to study the z scores of the log-transformed variables. The log-transformed variables have already been computed and entered into the data file; you can use the Descriptives procedure to compute the the z scores.