# Crosstabs statistics

**Chi-square.** For tables
with two rows and two columns, select Chi-square to calculate the Pearson chi-square, the likelihood-ratio chi-square,
Fisher's exact test, and Yates' corrected chi-square (continuity correction).
For 2 × 2 tables, Fisher's exact test is computed when a table
that does not result from missing rows or columns in a larger table
has a cell with an expected frequency of less than 5. Yates' corrected
chi-square is computed for all other 2 × 2 tables. For tables
with any number of rows and columns, select Chi-square to calculate the Pearson chi-square and the
likelihood-ratio chi-square. When both table variables are quantitative, Chi-square yields the linear-by-linear association
test.

**Correlations. **For tables in which both rows and columns contain ordered values, Correlations yields Spearman's correlation
coefficient, rho (numeric data only). Spearman's rho is a measure
of association between rank orders. When both table variables (factors)
are quantitative, Correlations yields the Pearson correlation coefficient, *r*, a measure of linear association between the variables.

**Nominal.** For nominal data (no intrinsic order, such as Catholic, Protestant,
and Jewish), you can select Contingency coefficient, Phi (coefficient) and Cramér's V, Lambda (symmetric and asymmetric lambdas and Goodman
and Kruskal's tau), and Uncertainty coefficient.

- Contingency coefficient. A measure of association based on chi-square. The value ranges between 0 and 1, with 0 indicating no association between the row and column variables and values close to 1 indicating a high degree of association between the variables. The maximum value possible depends on the number of rows and columns in a table.
- Phi and Cramer's V. Phi is a chi-square-based measure of association that involves dividing the chi-square statistic by the sample size and taking the square root of the result. Cramer's V is a measure of association based on chi-square.
- Lambda. A measure of association that reflects the proportional reduction in error when values of the independent variable are used to predict values of the dependent variable. A value of 1 means that the independent variable perfectly predicts the dependent variable. A value of 0 means that the independent variable is no help in predicting the dependent variable.
- Uncertainty coefficient. A measure of association that indicates the proportional reduction in error when values of one variable are used to predict values of the other variable. For example, a value of 0.83 indicates that knowledge of one variable reduces error in predicting values of the other variable by 83%. The program calculates both symmetric and asymmetric versions of the uncertainty coefficient.

**Ordinal.** For tables in which both rows and columns contain ordered values,
select Gamma (zero-order for
2-way tables and conditional for 3-way to 10-way tables), Kendall's tau-b, and Kendall's tau-c. For predicting column categories from
row categories, select Somers' d.

- Gamma. A symmetric measure of association between two ordinal variables that ranges between -1 and 1. Values close to an absolute value of 1 indicate a strong relationship between the two variables. Values close to 0 indicate little or no relationship. For 2-way tables, zero-order gammas are displayed. For 3-way to n-way tables, conditional gammas are displayed.
- Somers' d. A measure of association between two ordinal variables that ranges from -1 to 1. Values close to an absolute value of 1 indicate a strong relationship between the two variables, and values close to 0 indicate little or no relationship between the variables. Somers' d is an asymmetric extension of gamma that differs only in the inclusion of the number of pairs not tied on the independent variable. A symmetric version of this statistic is also calculated.
- Kendall's tau-b. A nonparametric measure of correlation for ordinal or ranked variables that take ties into account. The sign of the coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship, and its absolute value indicates the strength, with larger absolute values indicating stronger relationships. Possible values range from -1 to 1, but a value of -1 or +1 can be obtained only from square tables.
- Kendall's tau-c. A nonparametric measure of association for ordinal variables that ignores ties. The sign of the coefficient indicates the direction of the relationship, and its absolute value indicates the strength, with larger absolute values indicating stronger relationships. Possible values range from -1 to 1, but a value of -1 or +1 can be obtained only from square tables.

**Nominal by Interval.** When one variable is categorical and the other is quantitative,
select Eta. The categorical variable
must be coded numerically.

- Eta. A measure of association that ranges from 0 to 1, with 0 indicating no association between the row and column variables and values close to 1 indicating a high degree of association. Eta is appropriate for a dependent variable measured on an interval scale (for example, income) and an independent variable with a limited number of categories (for example, gender). Two eta values are computed: one treats the row variable as the interval variable, and the other treats the column variable as the interval variable.

Kappa. Cohen's kappa measures the agreement between the evaluations of two raters when both are rating the same object. A value of 1 indicates perfect agreement. A value of 0 indicates that agreement is no better than chance. Kappa is based on a square table in which row and column values represent the same scale. Any cell that has observed values for one variable but not the other is assigned a count of 0. Kappa is not computed if the data storage type (string or numeric) is not the same for the two variables. For string variable, both variables must have the same defined length.

Risk. For 2 x 2 tables, a measure of the strength of the association between the presence of a factor and the occurrence of an event. If the confidence interval for the statistic includes a value of 1, you cannot assume that the factor is associated with the event. The odds ratio can be used as an estimate or relative risk when the occurrence of the factor is rare.

McNemar. A nonparametric test for two related dichotomous variables. Tests for changes in responses using the chi-square distribution. Useful for detecting changes in responses due to experimental intervention in "before-and-after" designs. For larger square tables, the McNemar-Bowker test of symmetry is reported.

Cochran's and Mantel-Haenszel statistics. Cochran's and Mantel-Haenszel statistics can be used to test for independence between a dichotomous factor variable and a dichotomous response variable, conditional upon covariate patterns defined by one or more layer (control) variables. Note that while other statistics are computed layer by layer, the Cochran's and Mantel-Haenszel statistics are computed once for all layers.

Specifying Statistics for Crosstabs

This feature requires the Statistics Base option.

- From the menus choose:
- In the Crosstabs dialog box, click Statistics.