QRadar events and flows
The core functions of IBM® QRadar® SIEM are managing network security by monitoring flows and events.
A significant difference between event and flow data is that an event, which typically is a log of a specific action such as a user login, or a VPN connection, occurs at a specific time and the event is logged at that time. A flow is a record of network activity that can last for seconds, minutes, hours, or days, depending on the activity within the session. For example, a web request might download multiple files such as images, ads, video, and last for 5 to 10 seconds, or a user who watches a Netflix movie might be in a network session that lasts up to a few hours. The flow is a record of network activity between two hosts.
QRadar accepts event logs from log sources that are on your network. A log source is a data source such as a firewall or intrusion protection system (IPS) that creates an event log.
QRadar accepts events from log sources by using protocols such as syslog, syslog-tcp, and SNMP. QRadar can also set up outbound connections to retrieve events by using protocols such as SCP, SFTP, FTP, JDBC, Check Point OPSEC, and SMB/CIFS.
Before you can view and use the event data on the QRadar Console, events are collected from log sources and then processed by the Event Processor. A QRadar All-in-One appliance functions as the Event Collector and Event Processor, in addition to fulfilling the role of the QRadar Console.
QRadar can collect events by using a dedicated Event Collector appliance, or by using an All-in-One appliance where the event collection service and event processing service runs on the All-in-One appliance.
The following diagram shows the layers of the event pipeline.
- Event collection
The Event Collector component completes the following functions:
- Collects data from log source protocols such as Syslog, JDBC, OPSEC, Log File, and SNMP.
- License throttling
- Monitors the number of incoming events to the system to manage input queues and EPS licensing.
- Takes the raw events from the source device and parses the fields into a QRadar usable format.
- Log source traffic analysis and auto discover
- Applies the parsed and normalized event data to the possible DSMs that support automatic discovery.
- Events are parsed and then coalesced based on common attributes across events.
- Event forwarding
- Applies routing rules for the system to forward data to offsite targets, external Syslog systems, JSON systems, and other SIEMs.
- When the Event Collector
receives the events from log sources such as firewalls, the events are placed into input queues for
The queue sizes vary based on the protocol or method that is used, and from these queues, the events are parsed and normalized. The normalization process involves turning raw data into a format that has fields such as IP address that QRadar can use.
- QRadar recognizes known
log sources by the source IP address or host name that is contained in the header.
QRadar parses and coalesces events from known log sources into records. Events from new or unknown log sources that were not detected in the past are redirected to the traffic analysis (auto detection) engine.
- When new log sources are discovered, a configuration request message to add the log source is sent to the QRadar Console. If auto detection is disabled, or you exceed your log source licensed limit, the new log sources are not added.
- Event processing
- The Event Processor component
completes the following functions:
- Custom Rules Engine (CRE)
- The Custom Rules Engine (CRE) is responsible for processing events that are received by QRadar and comparing them against defined rules, keeping track of systems involved in incidents over time, generating notifications to users. When events match a rule, a notification is sent from the Event Processor to the Magistrate on the QRadar Console that a specific event triggered a rule. The Magistrate component on the QRadar Console creates and manages offenses. When rules are triggered, responses or actions such as notifications, syslog, SNMP, email messages, new events, and offenses are generated.
- Sends real-time event data to the QRadar Console when a user is viewing events from the Log Activity tab with Real time (streaming). Streamed events are not provided from the database.
- Event storage (Ariel)
- A time-series database for events where data is stored on a minute by minute basis. Data is stored where the event is processed.
- The Event Collector sends normalized event data to the Event Processor where the events are processed by Custom Rules Engine (CRE). If events are matched to the CRE custom rules that are predefined on the QRadar Console, the Event Processor executes the action that is defined for the rule response.
- Magistrate on the QRadar Console
- The Magistrate component completes the following functions:
- Offense rules
- Monitors and acts on offenses, such as generating email notifications.
- Offense management
- Updates active offenses, changes statuses of offenses, and provides user access to offense information from the Offenses tab.
- Offense storage
- Writes offense data to a Postgres database.
The Magistrate Processing Core (MPC) is responsible for correlating offenses with event notifications from multiple Event Processor components. Only the QRadar Console or All-in-One appliance has a Magistrate component.
QRadar flows represent network activity by normalizing IP addresses, ports, byte and packet counts, and other data, into flow records, which effectively are records of network sessions between two hosts. The component in QRadar that collects and creates flow information is known as QFlow.
QRadar Flow collection is not full packet capture. For network sessions that span multiple time intervals (minutes), the flow pipeline reports a record at the end of each minute with the current data for metrics such as bytes, and packets. You might see multiple records (per minute) in QRadar with the same "First Packet Time" but the "Last Packet Time" values increment through time.
A flow starts when the Flow Collector detects the first packet that has a unique source IP address, destination IP address, source port, destination port, and other specific protocol options, including 802.1q VLAN fields.
Each new packet is evaluated. Counts of bytes and packets are added to the statistical counters in the flow record. At the end of an interval, a status record of the flow is sent to a Flow Processor and statistical counters for the flow are reset. A flow ends when no activity for the flow is detected within the configured time.
QFlow can process flows from the following internal or external sources:
- External sources are flow sources such as netflow, sflow, jflow. External sources can be sent to a dedicated Flow Collector or to a Flow Processor such as the QRadar Flow Processor 1705 appliance. External sources do not require as much CPU processing because every packet is not processed to build flows. In this configuration, you might have a dedicated Flow Collector and a Flow Processor that both receive and create flow data. In smaller environments (less than 50 Mbps), an All-in-One appliance might handle all the data processing.
- The Flow Collector collects internal flows by connecting to a SPAN port, or a network TAP. The QRadar Flow Collector 1310 can forward full packets from it's capture card to a packet capture appliance but it does not capture full packets itself.
The following diagram shows the options for collecting flows in a network.
The Flow Collector generates flow data from raw packets that are collected from monitor ports such as SPANs, TAPs and monitor sessions, or from external flow sources such as netflow, sflow, jflow. This data is then converted to QRadar flow format and sent down the pipeline for processing.
- Flow deduplication
- Flow deduplication is a process that removes duplicate flows when multiple Flow Collectors provide data to Flow Processors appliances.
- Asymmetric recombination
- Responsible for combining two sides of each flow when data is provided asymmetrically. This process can recognize flows from each side and combine them in to one record. However, sometimes only one side of the flow exists.
- License throttling
- Monitors the number of incoming flows to the system to manage input queues and licensing.
- Applies routing rules for the system, such as sending flow data to offsite targets, external Syslog systems, JSON systems, and other SIEMs.
Flow data passes through the Custom Rules Engine (CRE), and it is correlated against the rules that are configured, and an offense can be generated based on this correlation. You view offenses on the Offenses tab.