Emulator User's Reference

VT Emulation

For connection to ASCII hosts, Personal Communications provides the VT Emulator for VT340, VT100, and VT52 terminals. ASCII hosts commonly use these terminal control sequences as standards for session presentation, and many ASCII-host application programs assume a VT-compatible terminal. VT emulation allows your personal computer or workstation to operate as if it were a VT terminal. Software that is designed to operate a VT340, VT100, or VT52 terminal should work correctly with the Personal Communications VT emulator.

Although the keyboard layout on VT terminals is similar to that of the personal computer, there are some exceptions. See Default Key Functions for the VT Emulator Layout for the default mapping of keys for VT emulation.

For file transfer to and from ASCII hosts, using the XMODEM and YMODEM protocols, see Using XMODEM and YMODEM.

VT connections to non-ASCII hosts, such as the IBM zSeries are also possible if you have the appropriate communication devices.

Configuring a VT Session

Use the Customize Communication -> ASCII Host panel to select values for the parameters that define your ASCII host session. There are two types of parameters: Session and Link.

Customizing the VT over Async Attachment

  1. Click Communication from the WorkStation-window menu bar.
  2. Click Configure from the Communication menu. The Customize Communication window opens.
  3. Select VT over Async attachment.
  4. Click Session Parameters.

    The Session Parameters Host window opens.

  5. Set the session parameters (see Session Parameters).
  6. Click Link Parameters.

    The VT Async Attachment window opens.

  7. Set the Communication and Automatic-Dial Facility parameters, and click Advanced to set advanced parameters.
  8. Click OK until the Customize Communication window closes.

    Customization is complete.

Customizing the VT over Telnet Attachment

  1. Click Communication from the WorkStation-window menu bar.
  2. Click Configure from the Communication menu.

    The Customize Communication window opens.

  3. Select the ASCII host and then select the LAN or COM Port interface.

    The available attachments appear.

  4. Select VT over Telnet attachment.
  5. Click Session Parameters.

    The Session Parameters -- ASCII Host window opens.

  6. Set the Session Parameters (see Session Parameters).
  7. Click Link Parameters.

    The TelnetASCII window opens.

  8. Enter the host name or IP address.
  9. Optionally enter the port number, change the terminal ID, or select the Auto-reconnect check box.
  10. Click OK until the Customize Communication window closes.

    Customization is complete.

Session Parameters

These parameters correspond to setup choices on a VT340 terminal.

In the Online state, the emulator receives data from the host computer, and can send data to it. In the Local state, data you enter on the keyboard appears on the screen, but is not sent to the host; data from the host is held, and not presented on the screen until you change the state to Online.

Operating Mode
Select Char if the host does not echo the characters you type on your keyboard. The VT emulator displays them as it sends them to the host.

Select Echo if the host echos your keyboard characters for display. The VT emulator displays them only as they return from the host.

If you see doubled characters, you should select Echo instead of Char. Echo is the default.

Machine Mode
There are four machine modes. These are:

VT340 mode, with 7-bit controls
This is the default. This mode is recommended for most applications.

VT340 mode, with 8-bit controls
The emulator is set for an 8-bit environment with 8-bit controls.

VT100 mode
This mode is intended for situations requiring strict compatibility with the VT100 terminal. In general, the VT340 7-bit mode is appropriate for applications that expect a VT100.

VT52 mode
This mode is only for applications designed for the VT52 terminal.

Screen Size
You can choose the number of rows and columns that the session screen displays. The choices are

The defaults are 24 rows and 80 columns.

Type of Host Code-Page
The choices are for the host code page are National, PC, and Multinational. Multinational which selects the 8-bit DEC Supplemental Graphic Character Set is the default. If you select National, then you must select a country from the Host Code Page pull-down list. The PC option selects the PC Code Page 437.

Host Code-Page
Select a National host code page. The choices are as follows:

Optional Parameters

These parameters correspond to setup choices on a VT340 terminal.

Reverse Screen Image
Check this box to reverse the foreground and background colors.

User Feature Lock
Check this box to lock the following functions so that the host cannot change them.

Auto Wrap
Check this box if you want the VT emulator to start a new line whenever the current row of characters reaches the end of line.

Auto-Answer Back Message
Check this box if you want the VT emulator to send a message automatically to the host, once a connection has been established.

Move Cursor on Mouse Click
Select this option if you want the cursor to move when you click the left mouse button in the session window presentation space.

Answer Back Message
Enter the message, which is a maximum of 31 characters, to send to the host when communication is established.

If you check this box, your answerback message is not displayed in the configuration window. After you conceal your message, the Conceal box has no effect, and the message remains concealed until it is changed.

User Defined Key Lock
Check this box to lock user-defined keys. For example, you can select User Defined Key Lock and define the values of the F6 to F20 keys. These keys are then locked with those values and cannot be redefined by the host.

Transparent Mode
Check this box to cause the VT emulator to display control characters rather than interpreting them.

The attributes of the selected model are sent to the host computer. Choose one of the following: VT100 ID, VT101 ID, VT102 ID, VT220 ID, VT240 ID, VT320 ID, or VT340 ID.

History Logging
When this option is enabled, text is logged into the VT history window as it scrolls off the screen from the top margin row. The top and bottom margins are set when the host application defines the scrolling region.

History Logging Buffer Size
Use this list to select one of the available sizes for the history log buffer. The choices are 16KB, 32KB, 64KB, 128KB, and 512KB. The default is 64KB.

History Logging - Enhanced
Data erased due to the Erase in Display command is scrolled into the history window. See Enhanced History Logging for more information.

Advanced ASCII Host

The Advanced button takes you to the Advanced ASCII Host dialog. The Advanced Options dialog contains all of the configuration options needed for the Local editing feature of VT340 Emulation. The following list defines these configuration options. Default settings are indicated in bold.

Graphics Cursor
Determines whether the graphics input cursor is shown when in graphics mode. Possible values are Enabled or Disabled.

Sixel Scrolling
When this option is selected, a sixel graphics image scrolls to the next row when the last column is reached. Possible values are Enabled or Disabled.

MacroGraph Reports
Controls the ability of the host to retrieve stored macro graph procedures. Possible values are Enabled or Disabled.

Edit Mode
Selects whether local editing is available and the current mode of operation. Possible values are Unavailable, Interactive, or Edit.

Erasure Mode
Determines which characters can be erased in edit mode. Possible values are Unprotected or All.

Edit Key
Determines how the VT340 emulation switches between interactive and edit mode. Possible values are Immediate or Deferred.

Determines how the VT340 emulation sends a block of data to the host system in edit mode. Possible values are Immediate or Deferred.

Application Keys
Determines how the unshifted function keys F6 through F20 work in edit mode. Possible values are Disabled, Immediate, Prefix, or Suffix.

Guarded Area
Determines whether protected characters can be sent to the host system. Possible values are All or Selected.

Selected Area
Determines whether the VT340 emulation can send all characters or only selected characters to the host system. Possible values are All or Selected.

Multiple Area
Determines whether VT340 emulation can send all selected areas on the page, or only the area selected with the cursor. Possible values are Multiple or Single.

VT131 Transfer
When Line Transmit Mode is disabled, this feature selects an ANSI-style or VT131-style data transmission. Possible values are ANSI or VT131. The size of the block depends on the Transfer Termination Mode value.

EOL Characters
Allows you to select characters used to indicate the end of a line (EOL) in a data block. By default the VT340 emulation sends a carriage return (CR). Up to six hexadecimal characters can be specified.

EOB Characters
Allows you to select characters used to indicate the end of a data block (EOB). This feature has no default. Up to six hexadecimal characters can be specified.

Page Coupling
Determines whether to automatically display a new page when the cursor moves to a new page in page memory. Possible values are Enabled or Disabled.

Line Transmit Mode
Allows you to send characters one line at a time to the host system. Possible values are Disabled or Enabled.

Transfer Termination Mode
When Line Transmit Mode is disabled, this feature determines whether the VT340 emulation sends a partial page or the scrolling region. Possible values are Enabled or Disabled.

Space Compression Mode
Determines how the VT340 emulation sends unused character fields and spaces in a data block. Possible values are Disabled or Enabled.

Link Parameters

The Configure Links button take you to a panel for configuring the details of the connection to the ASCII host computer. The panel you see depends upon the attachment type that you chose for your ASCII host. There are two types:

Configuring Links for VT over Async

The VT over Async attachment connects to an ASCII host through a protocol converter, using normal telephone lines or a direct connection.

For VT over Async attachment, you must define the following items.

Attachment Parameters

Advanced Configuration Parameters

Additional Configuration Information

Attachment Parameters

Communication Port
Select the number of the communications port though which your async connection will be established. The choices are COM1, COM2, COM3, and COM4. The default is COM1.

Line Speed (bps)
Line speed is the data transmission speed in bits per second.

If you have a 14,400 or 28,800 baud modem, its use of V.42bis compression technology allows you to take advantage of the highest speeds that your system supports. For a 14,400 baud modem, select a line speed of 57,600 or lower; for a 28,800 baud modem, select 115,200 or lower.

If you are not successful with these high speeds, you may need to select a lower line speed. For example, if your COM port does not have a FIFO buffer, you might need to select a lower speed. When a connection attempt fails or is not reliable at a higher speed, try a lower speed.

The default speed is 9600 bps.

The maximum usable speed depends on the capability of the processor or the communication port. If your connection fails, try a slow speed.

If you use the 8250 UART, your line speed should not be higher than 19,200 bps.

Data Bits
Select the number of bits that constitute a character, either 7 or 8. Your choice should match the value your ASCII host uses. The default is 8.

Parity is a method for detecting transmission errors. An extra bit is appended to some unit of data, usually a byte. That bit is set to 0 or 1, making the total number of 1 bits an even number (for even parity) or an odd number (for odd parity). The valid parity type is None, Odd, Even, Space, or Mark. None means that no parity bit is sent or expected. Mark and Space mean that the parity position is always set to 1 or 0, respectively, and that received parity is not checked.

Select the same parity used on your remote system.

The default is None.

Stop Bits
One or two stop bits signify the end of each asynchronously-transmitted character. Select the same value, 1 or 2, as used by your remote system. The number of stop bits in use may depend upon the line speed. The default is 1.

Advanced Configuration Parameters

The following advanced configuration parameters are available:

Flow Control
Select the method for controlling the flow of data between the emulator and the modem or the ASCII host. The choices are:

The software flow control method places the characters DC3 and DC1 into the data stream to stop and start the flow of data. This method, no longer common, allows the session user to pause incoming data for reading, by using the Control-S and Control-Q keys. DC3 is X'13', or XOFF; it is initially mapped to Control-S. DC1 is X'11', or XON; it is initially mapped to Control-Q. The keyboard positions are remappable.

The hardware flow control method uses the electrical signals RTS (Request to Send) and CTS (Clear to Send). If your modem is using high-speed data compression, or if you are performing XMODEM or YMODEM file transfers, this method is mandatory.

This method uses both hardware and XON/XOFF flow control; it is the default.

If you select None there is no flow control.

XOFF Point
For software flow control, the XOFF point is the level (in bytes) at which the XOFF signal is sent to the modem or ASCII host. The options (64, 256, 512, and 1024) specify the space remaining in the buffer. For example, if you select 64, the XOFF signal is sent when 64 bytes of space remain in the buffer.

Modem Signal Detection
Select the method that the VT emulator will use to determine whether data can be sent on the asynchronous line. The options are:

The VT emulator will assume that the line is ready, ignoring CD, CTS and DSR.

Ignore CD
The VT emulator will ignore Carrier Detect, which some modems artificially force high. Use this option if your host is connected through a null modem cable; most null modems do not support CD.

The VT emulator will monitor CD, CTS (Clear to Send) and DSR (Data Set Ready).

Break Signal Length
The break signal is an intentional framing error on the asynchronous line, used as an attention signal to the host. Some hosts expect the break to be a particular length. The default value is 250 milliseconds. The other options are 500, 1000, and 2000 milliseconds. Select the value required by your host.

Additional Configuration Information

Click Yes for Automatic-Dial; then use the Configure Phone/Modem if you need to provide more detailed information than is shown. Click No if you are using a leased-line connection; you will not use the Automatic-Dial Facility.

Modem Name
When running Windows 2000 or Windows XP, the modem information is handled through the operating system control panel modem applet. This drop-down list contains all the modems defined to Windows; select the one you wish to use.

Primary Phone
This entry is the primary phone number that should be dialed, in order to gain access to the network. It can include a delay for the dial tone and access codes for an outside line or for long-distance services.

Backup Phone
This entry specifies a backup phone number. If you specify a backup number, it is dialed automatically after an attempt to contact the gateway or host through the primary number fails. If you leave this option blank, backup dialing does not happen.

This optional entry is text to describe the connection that you are configuring. The text will be displayed when the number is dialed, but it has no effect on the connection.

Configure Phone/Modem
When Personal Communications is running on Windows 2000 or Windows XP, phone and modem configuration is handled through the operating system's modem utility.

Clicking this button allows you to adjust the details of the modem configurations.

Automatic-Dial Facility
The automatic-dial facility establishes a connection to the host when you start a session.

To use the automatic-dial facility, you must store the dial information, telephone numbers, communication-line information and modem-control information in a file. For details, see the online help. The following functions are provided to enable you to create and change a dial-configuration file:

Automatic-Dial Utility
The automatic-dial utility enables you to configure and use the automatic-dial function.

The automatic-dial utility window opens when Show AutoDial Utility in the Communication menu (on the session-window menu bar) is selected and the Automatic-Dial Facility starts.

Dial / Stop Dialing
This push-button either starts or stops dialing, depending on the current dialing status.

Click Dial to dial the specified telephone number and establish a connection.

Stop Dialing
Click Stop Dialing to stop the dial process immediately.

Hang up
Clicking Hang up sends the modem-hang-up string and disconnects your PC from the remote computer.

Manual Dial
Manual Dial enables you to use a nonpublic telephone line or operator assist to dial the number.

Auto-exit after connection
Choose Auto-exit after connection if you want the automatic-dial utility window to close after a connection is established. The window will otherwise remain open.

Modem-signal indicator
On Windows 2000 and Windows XP systems, use the operating system's modem utility to monitor modem signals.

Configuring Links for VT over Telnet

The VT over Telnet attachment is an application that uses TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) and that enables remote logon to an ASCII host. TCP/IP provides connectivity functions for both local area networks (LAN) and wide area networks (WAN) and includes the ability to route information between LANs and WANs. The major TCP/IP networks--the Internet--use a standardized addressing procedure to ensure that IP addresses are unique and that communication between enterprises is possible.

The VT over Telnet attachment for Personal Communications requires a TCP/IP stack that supports the Windows Sockets Version 1.1 interface. WSOCK32.DLL must be in the Windows system directory or the current path to provide the interface for the stack program and to support the Windows Sockets V1.1 interface.

For the VT over Telnet attachment, you must define the following attachment parameters.

Host Name or IP Address
Specify either the alphabetic name of the target host or its numeric IP address.

Host Name
The name of the target host is a string--for example: host.test.ibm.com

Host IP Address
The IP address of the target host is in dotted-decimal notation--for example:

Port Number
Specify the decimal number of the target host's Telnet port. The default, 23, is the standard Telnet port.

Terminal ID
The VT emulator and the Telnet server use the terminal ID for negotiating an appropriate connection. Ask your Telnet administrator for your host's correct terminal ID. When the default box is selected, the default values are selected from the Machine Mode, as shown in the following table:
Machine Mode Default Terminal ID
VT340 DEC-VT220
VT100 DEC-VT100
ANSI ansi

If the session is disconnected from the host, and if this box is selected, you will be re-connected automatically.

The default is not selected.

Using A VT Session

Your Personal Communications VT session works as if you were using a VT340, VT100, or VT52 terminal. For mainframe VT, iSeries, eServer i5, or System i5 connections, the protocol converters have defined VT keyboard sequences, such as F1 or PA1.

The following tables are provided:

Refer to Administrator's Guide and Reference for default mapping of the VT340 keyboard to the PC keyboard, as used by the Personal Communications VT emulator.

Compose Key

The VT emulator supports the VT340 compose key for generating special characters on the display. Before using the compose key, define a key combination that represents it.

Using the compose key involves three separate actions:

  1. Press and release the compose key.
  2. Press and release the first character (see Table 33).
  3. Press and release the second character.

The first and second characters may be typed in either order, except when the table specifies that they must be entered as shown,

Table 33 shows the appearance and name of each special character, the character pair that generates the character, and an indication whether the order of entering the characters is significant.

Table 33. Character Generation (Special Characters)

Generated Character Compose Key, Plus This Pair
Appearance Description First Second Order
Á A acute A ' either
á a acute a ' either
 A circumflex A ^ either
â a circumflex a ^ either
À A grave A ` either
à a grave a ` either
Å A ring A * either
A ° either
å a ring a * either
a ° either
à A tilde A ~ either
ã a tilde a ~ either
Ä A umlaut A " either
ä a umlaut a " either
Æ AE ligature A E as shown
æ ae ligature a e as shown
´ apostrophe ' space either
@ at sign a a either
A A either
\ backslash / / either
\ backslash / < either
Ç C cedilla C , either
ç c cedilla c , either
¢ cent sign c / either
C / either
c | either
C | either
^ circumflex accent ^ space either
} close brace ) - either
] close bracket ) ) either
" close French quote > > either
@ commercial at a a either
A A either
(C) copyright mark c o either
C O either
c 0 either
C 0 either
° degree sign 0 ^ either
° space either
# space either
É E acute E ' either
é e acute e ' either
Ê E circumflex E ^ either
ê e circumflex e ^ either
È E grave E ` either
è e grave e ` either
Ë E umlaut E " either
ë e umlaut e " either
a feminine ordinal indicator a _ either
A _ either
½ fraction one-half 1 2 as shown
¼ fraction one-quarter 1 4 as shown
ß German ess-tset s s either

micro or mu

Greek mu / u as shown
/ U as shown
" guillemets, closing > > either
" guillemets, opening < < either
Í I acute I ' either
í i acute i ' either
Î I circumflex I ^ either
î i circumflex i ^ either
Ì I grave I ` either
ì i grave i ` either
Ï I umlaut I " either
ï i umlaut i " either
¡ inverted exclamation ! ! either

inverted question mark

inverted question mark ? ? either
o masculine ordinal indicator o _ either
O _ either

micro or mu

micro sign / u as shown
/ U as shown

middle dot

middle dot . ^ either
Ñ N tilde N ~ either
ñ n tilde n ~ either
# number sign + + either
Ó O acute O ' either
ó o acute o ' either
Ô O circumflex O ^ either
ô o circumflex o ^ either
Ò O grave O ` either
ò o grave o ` either
Ø O slash O / either
ø o slash o / either
Õ O tilde O ~ either
õ o tilde o ~ either
Ö O umlaut O " either
ö o umlaut o " either

capital oe ligature

OE ligature O E as shown

oe ligature

oe ligature o e as shown
{ open brace ( - either
[ open bracket ( ( either
" open French quote < < either
paragraph sign p ! either
± plus-or-minus sign + - either
£ pound sterling sign l - either
L - either
l = either
L = either
" quotation mark " space either
§ section sign s o either
S O either
s ! either
S ! either
s 0 either
S 0 either
' single quote ' space either
ß ss German s s either
1 superscript 1 1 ^ either
2 superscript 2 2 ^ either
3 superscript 3 3 ^ either
~ tilde ~ space either
Ú U acute U ' either
ú u acute u ' either
Û U circumflex U ^ either
û u circumflex u ^ either
Ù U grave U ` either
ù u grave u ` either
Ü U umlaut U " either
ü u umlaut u " either
| vertical line / ^ either

capital y umlaut

Y umlaut Y " either
ÿ y umlaut y " either
¥ yen sign y - either
Y - either
y = either
Y = either

Transparent Mode

Table 34 shows the symbol displayed for each character and control code when the VT emulator is in transparent mode. The characters at AA and BA are the feminine and masculine ordinals, respectively. The characters at 1E, 1F, 80, and 9E are underlined, although they may not appear underlined on the output.

Table 34. Character Generation (Transparent Mode)

0x 1x 2x 3x 4x 5x 6x 7x 8x 9x Ax Bx Cx Dx Ex Fx
x0 @ P
0 @ P
capital y umlaut

° À Ð à ð
x1 A Q ! 1 A Q a q a q ¡ ± Á Ñ á ñ
x2 B R " 2 B R b r b r ¢ 2 Â Ò â ò
x3 C S # 3 C S c s c s £ 3 Ã Ó ã ó
x4 D T $ 4 D T d t d t ¤ ´ Ä Ô ä ô
x5 E U % 5 E U e u e u ¥
micro or mu

Å Õ å õ
x6 F V & 6 F V f v f v
split vertical bar

Æ Ö æ ö
x7 G W ' 7 G W g w g w §
middle dot

Ç × ç ÷.
x8 H X ( 8 H X h x h x ¨ ¸ È Ø è ø
x9 I Y ) 9 I Y i y i y (C) 1 É Ù é ù
xA J Z * : J Z j z j z a o Ê Ú ê ú
xB K [ + ; K [ k { k { " " Ë Û ë û
xC L \ , < L \ l | l | ¬ ¼ Ì Ü ì ü
xD M ] - = M ] n } m } - ½ Í Ý í ý
xE N ^ . > N ^ m

¾ Î Þ î þ
xF O _ / ? O _ n
capital oe ligature

oe ligature

over line

inverted question mark

Ï ß ï ÿ

OIA Line Display Messages

During VT emulation, messages unique to VT can appear in certain columns of the OIA line. These columns display only VT messages, and do not display any of the messages that would appear there in 3270 or 5250 mode. Table 35 shows the meaning of each VT-specific message. Columns that are not mentioned in the table show messages common to all Personal Communications modes.

Table 35. OIA Line Display Messages (VT only)

Columns Message Meaning
1 through 7 VT340 7 Machine mode is VT340, seven-bit control.
VT340 8 Machine mode is VT340, eight-bit control.
VT100 Machine mode is VT100.
VT52 Machine mode is VT52.
VTANSI Machine mode is VTANSI.
9 through 12 LOCK Keyboard is locked.
30 through 39 OVERSTRIKE New characters replace the character at the cursor position in Local Edit mode.

INSERT New characters move characters in page memory to the right in Local Edit mode.
61 through 64 HOLD Screen is in hold mode.
66 through 69 EDIT Local Edit mode is enabled.
71 through 72 Pn (n=1 through 6) Current page number.

History Logging

You can use the Windows scroll bar control to view history data from the current VT session. When configuring the session, select the History Logging option and specify the size of the log (see Configuring a VT Session).

When history logging is enabled, text is logged into the VT history window as it scrolls off the screen from the top margin row. The top and bottom margins are set when the host application defines the scrolling region, using the DECSTBM command sequence ((ESC [ Pn ; Pn r)).

Enhanced History Logging

When the host application sends the Erase in Display (ED) command sequence to erase a portion of the emulator screen, the contents can be logged into the VT history window before being erased. To enable this functionality, select the History Logging - Enhanced option, when configuring the VT session parameters.

The format of the host application ED command is ESC [ Ps J, where Ps is one of the following values:

Erases the screen contents from the cursor position to the end of the screen. This is the default setting.

Erases the screen contents from the beginning of the screen up to and including the cursor position.

Erases the entire screen contents.

When the ED command setting is 0 or 1, and History Logging - Enhanced is enabled, then the portion of the screen that is about to be erased will be logged into the history window before being erased. When the parameter value is 2, the entire screen contents are logged into the history window before being erased, regardless of whether enhanced history logging is enabled.

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