The TIMESTAMP_FORMAT function returns a timestamp that is based on the interpretation of the input string using the specified format.
- An expression that returns a value of any built-in character string
data type or graphic string data type.
The string is interpreted as a date or timestamp using the format specified by format-string. The string-expression must contain only the components of a date or timestamp that correspond to the format elements specified by format-string.
- An expression that returns a built-in character string data type or graphic string data type.
format-string contains a template of how
string-expression is to be interpreted as a date or a
A valid format-string must contain at least one format element, must not contain multiple specifications for any component of a date or a timestamp, and can contain any combination of the format elements, unless otherwise noted in Table 1. For example, format-string cannot contain both YY and YYYY, because they are both used to interpret the year component of string-expression. Refer to the table to determine which format elements cannot be specified together.Two format elements can optionally be separated by one or more of the following separator characters:
- minus sign (-)
- period (.)
- slash (/)
- comma (,)
- apostrophe (′)
- semicolon (;)
- colon (:)
- blank ( )
Separator characters can also be specified at the start or end of format-string. These separator characters can be used in any combination in the format string, for example 'YYYY/MM-DD HH24:MM.SS'. Separator characters specified in a string-expression are used to separate components and are not required to match the separator characters specified in the format-string.
Table 1. Format elements for the TIMESTAMP_FORMAT function Format element Related components of a timestamp Description AM or PM 1, 2 hour Meridian indicator (morning or evening) without periods. The meridian indicator is retrieved from message CPX9035 in message file QCPFMSG in library *LIBL. A.M. or P.M. 1, 2 hour Meridian indicator (morning or evening) with periods. This format element uses the exact strings ‘A.M.' or ‘P.M.' and is independent of the language used for messages in the job. DAY, Day, or day 1, 3 none Name of the day in uppercase, titlecase, or lowercase format. The name of the day is retrieved from message CPX9034 in message file QCPFMSG in library *LIBL. DY, Dy, or dy 1, 3 none Abbreviated name of the day in uppercase, titlecase, or lowercase format. The abbreviated name of the day is retrieved from message CPX9039 in message file QCPFMSG in library *LIBL. D 1, 3 none Day of week (1-7), where 1 is Sunday. DD day Day of month (01-31). DDD month, day Day of year (001-366). FF or FFn fractional seconds Fractional seconds (0-999999999999). The number n is used to specify the number of digits expected in the string-expression. Valid values for n are 1-12. Specifying FF is equivalent to specifying FF6. When the component in string-expression that corresponds to the FF format element is followed by a separator character or is the last component, the number of digits for the fractional seconds can be less than what is specified by the format element. In this case, zero digits are padded onto the right of the specified digits. HH hour HH behaves the same as HH12. HH12 hour Hour of the day (01-12) in 12-hour format. AM is the default meridian indicator. HH24 hour Hour of the day (00-24) in 24-hour format. J year, month, and day Julian date (number of days since January 1, 4713 BC). MI minute Minute (00-59). MM month Month (01-12). MONTH, Month, or month 1 month Name of the month in uppercase, titlecase, or lowercase format. The name of the month is retrieved from message CPX3BC0 in message file QCPFMSG in library *LIBL. MON, Mon, or mon 1 month Abbreviated name of the month in uppercase, titlecase, or lowercase format. The name of the month is retrieved from message CPX8601 in message file QCPFMSG in library *LIBL. NNNNNN microseconds Microsecond (same as FF6). RR 4 year Last 2 digits of the adjusted year (00-99). RRRR 4 year Four digit adjusted year (0000-9999). SS seconds Seconds (00-59). SSSSS hours, minutes, and seconds Seconds since previous midnight (00000-86400). Y year Last digit of the year (0-9). First three digits of the current year are used to determine the full 4-digit year. YY year Last 2 digits of the year (00-99). First two digits of the current year are used to determine the full 4-digit year. YYY year Last three digits of the year (000-999). First digit of the current year is used to determine the full 4-digit year. YYYY year 4-digit year (0000-9999).Notes:
- Only these exact spellings and case combinations can be used. If this format element is specified in an invalid case combination an error is returned.
- The AM and PM set of meridian indicators can be used interchangeably in the format-string, as can A.M. and P.M. If HH24 is used in the format-string along with a meridian indicator, the value of the meridian indicator in the string-expression is not used for determining the hour portion of the resulting timestamp.
- The DAY, Day, day DY, Dy, dy, and D format elements do not contribute to any components of the resulting timestamp. However, a specified value for any of these format elements must be correct for the combination of the year, month, and day components of the resulting timestamp. For example, a value of 'Monday 2008-10-06' for string-expression is valid for a value of 'Day YYYY-MM-DD'. However, a value of 'Tuesday 2008-10-06' for string-expression would result in an error for the same format-string.
- The RR and RRRR format elements can be used to alter how a specification for a year is to be
interpreted by adjusting the value to produce a 2-digit or a 4-digit value depending on the leftmost
two digits of the current year according to the following table:
Last two digits of current year Two digits of year in string-expression First 2 digits of the year component of date or timestamp 0-50 0-49 First 2 digits of current year 51-99 0-49 First 2 digits of current year + 1 0-50 50-99 First 2 digits of current year - 1 51-99 50-99 First 2 digits of current year
For example, if the current year is 2007, '86' with format 'RR' means 1986, but if the current year is 2052, it means 2086.
The following defaults will be used when a format-string does not include a format element for one of the components of a timestamp:
Timestamp component Default year current year, as 4 digits month current month, as 2 digits day 01 (first day of the month) hour 00 minute 00 second 00 fractional seconds a number of zeros matching the timestamp precision of the result
If string-expression does not include a value that corresponds to an hour, minute, second, or fractional seconds format element that is specified in the format-string, these same defaults are used.
Leading zeros can be specified for any component of the date or timestamp value (for example, month, day, hour, minutes, seconds) that does not have the maximum number of significant digits for the corresponding format element in the format-string.
A substring of the string-expression representing a component of a date or timestamp (such as year, month, day, hour, minutes, seconds) can include less than the maximum number of digits for that component of the date or timestamp. Any missing digits default to zero. For example, with a format-string of 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS', an input value of '999-3-9 5:7:2' would produce the same result as '0999-03-09 05:07:02'.
- An integer constant that specifies the timestamp precision of the result. The value must be in the range 0 to 12. If precision-constant is not specified, the timestamp precision defaults to 6.
The result is a timestamp with a precision that is based on precision-constant. If either of the first two arguments can be null, the result can be null; if either of the first two arguments is null, the result is the null value.
Julian and Gregorian calendar: The transition from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar on 15 October 1582 is taken into account by this function.
Syntax alternatives: TO_DATE is a synonym for TIMESTAMP_FORMAT. TO_TIMESTAMP is identical to TIMESTAMP_FORMAT except that if precision-constant is not specified, the timestamp precision of the result defaults to 12.
- Insert a row into the IN_TRAY table with a receiving
timestamp that is equal to one second before the beginning of the
year 2000 (December 31, 1999 at 23:59:59).
INSERT INTO IN_TRAY (RECEIVED) VALUES (TIMESTAMP_FORMAT('1999-12-31 23:59:59', 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS'))
- An application receives strings of date information into a variable
called INDATEVAR. This value is not strictly formatted and might include
two or four digits for years, and one or two digits for months and
days. Date components might be separated with minus sign (-) or slash
(/) characters and are expected to be in day, month, and year order.
Time information consists of hours (in 24-hour format) and minutes,
and is usually separated by a colon. Sample values include '15/12/98
13:48' and '9-3-2004 8:02'. Insert such values into the IN_TRAY table.
The use of RRRR in the format allows for 2- and 4-digit year values and assigns missing first two digits based on the current year. If YYYY were used, input values with a 2-digit year would have leading zeros. The slash separator also allows the minus sign character. Assuming a current year of 2007, resulting timestamps from the sample values are:
INSERT INTO IN_TRAY (RECEIVED) VALUES (TIMESTAMP_FORMAT(:INDATEVAR, 'DD/MM/RRRR HH24:MI'))
'15/12/98 13:48' --> 1998-12-15-13.48.00.000000 '9-3-2004 8:02' --> 2004-03-09-08.02.00.000000
- Set the character variable TVAR to the value of ROUTINE_CREATED
from QSYS2.SYSPROCS if it is equal to one second before the beginning
of the year 2000 ('1999-12-31 23:59:59'). The character string should
be interpreted according to the format string provided.
SELECT VARCHAR_FORMAT(ROUTINE_CREATED, 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS') INTO :TVAR FROM QSYS2.SYSPROCS WHERE ROUTINE_CREATED = TIMESTAMP_FORMAT('1999-12-31 23:59:59', 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MI:SS')
- Return timestamp values for strings containing meridian indicators:
string-expression format-expression Result timestamp value '2015-10-28 10:29AM' 'YYYY-MM-DD HH12:MIAM' 2015-10-28-10.29.00.000000 '2015-10-28 10:29PM' 'YYYY-MM-DD HH12:MIAM' 2015-10-28-22.29.00.000000 '2015-10-28 10:29AM' 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MIAM' 2015-10-28-10.29.00.000000 '2015-10-28 10:29PM' 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MIAM' 2015-10-28-10.29.00.000000 '2015-10-28 22:29AM' 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MIAM' 2015-10-28-22.29.00.000000 '2015-10-28 22:29PM' 'YYYY-MM-DD HH24:MIAM' 2015-10-28-22.29.00.000000