# %SIZE (Get Size in Bytes)

```
%SIZE(variable)
%SIZE(literal)
%SIZE(array{:*ALL})
%SIZE(table{:*ALL})
%SIZE(multiple-occurrence data structure{:*ALL})
```

%SIZE returns the number of bytes occupied by the constant or field. The argument may be a literal, a named constant, a data structure, a data structure subfield, a field, an array or a table name. It cannot contain an expression, but some constant-valued built-in functions and constant expressions may be accepted. The value returned is in unsigned integer format (type U).

For a graphic literal, the size is the number of bytes occupied by the graphic characters, not including leading and trailing shift characters. For a hexadecimal or UCS-2 literal, the size returned is half the number of hexadecimal digits in the literal.

For variable-length fields, %SIZE returns the total number of bytes occupied by the field (two or four bytes longer than the declared maximum length).

The length returned for a null-capable field (%SIZE) is always its full length, regardless of the setting of its null indicator.

Note the following considerations for %SIZE when the argument is an array name, table name, or multiple-occurrence data structure name.

- The value returned is the size of one element or occurrence.
- If *ALL is specified as the second parameter for %SIZE, the value returned is the storage taken up by all elements or occurrences.
- The alignment of a data structure is the largest alignment that is required by the subfields of the data structure. If ALIGN(*FULL) is specified, then the size of each element of the data structure is a multiple of its alignment. If ALIGN is specified without a parameter, or if the ALIGN keyword is not specified, and the data structure contains at least one pointer, then the size that is occupied by the data structure might be less than a multiple of its alignment. See ALIGN{(*FULL)} for more information.
- For a multiple-occurrence data structure or data structure array that contains pointer subfields, the size that is occupied by the entire data structure might be greater than the size of one occurrence times the number of occurrences. The system requires that pointers be 16-byte aligned; that is, they must be placed in storage at addresses evenly divisible by 16. As a result, the length of each occurrence might have to be increased enough to make the length an exact multiple of 16 so that the pointer subfields will be positioned correctly in storage for every occurrence. Similarly, if the ALIGN keyword is specified, float, integer and unsigned integer subfields are positioned within the data structure at addresses evenly divisible by the size of the subfield. To ensure that the size of the entire data structure is the same as the size of is the same as the size of one occurrence times the number of occurrences, specify ALIGN(*FULL) if the data structure contains pointers, or if you require float, unsigned integer and integer subfields to be aligned.
- If the array
is non-contiguous due to being overlaid on a larger array, the value
returned is the same as it would be if the array were contiguous;
it does not include the storage between the non-contiguous array elements.
To obtain the distance between non-contiguous array elements,
you can subtract the address of the first element from the address of the second element:
`distance_between = %ADDR(elem(2)) - %ADDR(elem(1));`

- With indexes specified for all of the data structure arrays in the complex qualified name.
- With indexes specified for none of the data structure arrays in the complex qualified name.

%SIZE may be specified anywhere that a numeric constant is allowed on the definition specification and in an expression in the extended factor 2 field of the calculation specification.

For more information, see Size Operations or Built-in Functions.

See Examples showing the effect of the ALIGN keyword for an example of %SIZE for data structures with and without ALIGN(*FULL).

## %SIZE Example with a Complex Data Structure

`PET`is is

```
family(x).child(y).pet
```

When specified as the parameter for %SIZE, it can be specified either with no indexes specified for the data structure arrays, as in statement 1 or with all indexes specified for the data structure arrays, as in statement 2 .

```
DCL-DS family QUALIFIED DIM(3);
name VARCHAR(25);
numChildren INT(10);
DCL-DS child DIM(10);
name VARCHAR(25);
numPets INT(10);
pet VARCHAR(100) DIM(3);
END-DS;
END-DS;
DCL-S x INT(10);
x = %SIZE(family.child.pet); // 1
x = %SIZE(family(1).child(1).pet); // 2
```