Structured Query Language (SQL)
SQL is a standardized language for defining and manipulating data in a relational database.
In accordance with the relational model of data, the database is treated as a set of tables, relationships are represented by values in tables, and data is retrieved by specifying a result table that can be derived from one or more base tables.
SQL statements are executed by a database manager. One of the functions of the database manager is to transform the specification of a result table into a sequence of internal operations that optimize data retrieval. The transformation occurs in two phases: preparation and binding.
All executable SQL statements must be prepared before they can be executed. The result of preparation is the executable or operational form of the statement. The method of preparing an SQL statement and the persistence of its operational form distinguish static SQL from dynamic SQL.