You can make better use of your resources and improve concurrency by understanding the effects of the parameters that DB2® uses to control locks
Before you begin
Some performance problems might seem to be locking problems even though they are really problems somewhere else in the system. For example, a table space scan of a large table can result in timeout situations. Similarly, when tasks are waiting or swapped out, and the unit of work is not committed, the tasks continue to hold locks. When a system is heavily loaded, contention for processing, I/O, and storage can also cause waiting.
Therefore, You might consider the following approaches before you take specific actions to tune locks:
- Resolve overall system, subsystem, and application performance problems to ensure that you not only eliminate locking symptoms, but also correct other underlying performance problems.
- Reduce the number of threads or initiators.
- Increase the priority of DB2 tasks on the system.
- Increase the amount of processor resources, I/O, and real memory.
About this task
You might not need to do anything about DB2 locks. Explicit lock requests are not necessary to prevent concurrent applications from reading or modifying uncommitted data. Applications acquire implicit locks under the control of DB2 to preserve data integrity. However, locks can sometimes result in performance problems from contention situations, such as suspension, timeout, and deadlock.
You can sometimes prevent such situations by considering concurrency when you design your system and subsystem options, databases, and applications.
To achieve acceptable concurrency in your DB2 subsystems, you can follow certain basic recommendations. The recommendations described here are basic starting points for improving concurrency. Therefore, detailed analysis of your data design and applications might be required to achieve the best possible concurrency:
- Bind most applications with the ISOLATION(CS) and CURRENTDATA(NO) options. These options enable DB2 to release locks early and avoid taking locks in many cases.
- Use the REORG utility to keep your data organized. Doing so can prevent the additional lock and unlock requests for situations such as updates to compressed and varying-length rows, and auto-release locks for pseudo-deleted index entries and keys.
- Use LOCKSIZE
ANY or PAGE as a design default. Consider LOCKSIZE ROW only when applications
encounter significant lock contention, including deadlock and timeout.
LOCKSIZE ANY is the default for CREATE TABLESPACE. It allows DB2 to choose the lock size, and DB2 usually chooses LOCKSIZE PAGE and LOCKMAX SYSTEM for non-LOB/non-XML table spaces. For LOB table spaces, DB2 chooses LOCKSIZE LOB and LOCKMAX SYSTEM. Similarly, for XML table spaces, DB2 chooses LOCKSIZE XML and LOCKMAX SYSTEM.
Page-level locking generally results in fewer requests to lock and unlock data for sequential access and manipulation, which translates to reduced CPU cost. Page-level locking is also more likely to result in sequentially inserted rows in the same data page. Row-level locking with MAXROWS=1 can suffer from data page p-locks in data sharing environments. However, page-level locking can avoid the data page p-locks when MAXROWS=1.
Row-level locking provides better concurrency because the locks are more granular. However, the cost of each lock and unlock request is roughly the same for both page and row-level locking. Therefore, row-level locking is likely to incur additional CPU cost. Row-level locking might also result in more data page latch contention. Sequentially inserted rows, by concurrent threads, are less likely to be in the same data page under row-level locking.
- Reduce locking
contention on the catalog and directory for data definition, bind,
and utility operations You can use the following approaches
to reduce this type of contention:
- Reduce the number of objects per database.
- Group data definition statements from the same database within the same commit scope, apart from data manipulation statements, and commit frequently.
- Assign a unique authorization ID and private database to each user.
- Avoid using LOCK TABLE statements and statements that use RR isolation to query the catalog.
- Specify the TRACKMOD NO and MEMBER CLUSTER options when you create table spaces. These options can reduce p-lock and page latch contention on space map pages during heavy inserts into GBP-dependent table spaces. TRACKMOD NO cannot be used when incremental image copies are used for the table spaces.
- Use the RELEASE(DEALLOCATE) bind option to avoid the cost of repeatedly releasing and reacquiring locks for applications that use frequent commit points for repeated access to the same table spaces.
- Use the RELEASE(COMMIT) bind option for plans or packages that are used less frequently to avoid excessive increases to the EDM pool storage.
- For mixed INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE workloads consider the LOCKSIZE PAGE and MAXROWS 1 options to reduce page latch contention on data pages. Do not use LOCKSIZE ROW for such mixed workloads, regardless of whether MEMBER CLUSTER is used. MAXROWS 1 is recommended only when high levels of lock or latch contention are encountered. The trade-off is a potential increase in getpage and read-writer I/O operations. The number of pages required to contain the data might increase by as many rows as can fit on a page when MAXROWS 1 is used. For example, if 20 rows fit in a single page, then the result is a 20 times increase in the number of pages used. Another result is a significantly reduce buffer pool hit ratio.