Concatenation joins separate character strings into a single string. Different platforms use different characters to indicate concatenation.

Concatenation for Connect:Direct for z/OS®, VM/ESA, VSE/ESA, and i5/OS

The operator blank-vertical bar-vertical bar-blank ( || ) indicates concatenation. For example:


Resolves to:


Concatenation for Connect:Direct for HP NonStop

Connect:Direct® for HP NonStop supports two concatenation operators:

  • Vertical bars (||)
  • Ampersand (&) for the PACCT and SACCT parameters

Typically, concatenation is not necessary for any other parameters.

The following example PROCESS statements illustrate the differences between the two types of concatenation for the SACCT parameter. In both examples, ampersands are used to indicate continuation of the PROCESS statement.

The following example shows an ampersand (&) used as a concatenation character. When used for concatenation, the ampersand (&) must be in column 80 and the remainder of the string must begin in column one of the next line to ensure that blanks are not added to the string. The entire string must be enclosed in single quotation marks.

PROC1	       PROCESS	            SNODE=CD.OS390.NODE                 	           &
		         SACCT=‘1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789	           &
012345678901234567890’                                                          	&

The following example shows two vertical bars (||) used as a concatenation character. Do not use blanks before or after the two vertical bars (||) to prevent blanks from being added to the string. Each line of the SACCT string must begin and end with single quotation marks.

PROC1      	PROCESS	       SNODE=CD.OS390.NODE	                             &
		       SACCT=‘12345678901234567890’||	                                 &
		              ‘1234567890123456789’	                                   &

Concatenation for Connect:Direct for OpenVMS

Either double quotation marks (“ ”) or single quotation marks (‘ ’) can be used with the continuation character to concatenate a string spanning multiple records. The second and subsequent records must begin in column one. For example:

CONCAT	             PROCESS	            SNODE=CD.VMS.NODE
			             SYMBOL &TO="$DISK1:"                               	-
STEP01              COPY	FROM	(DSN=IBMFILE SNODE)	                      -
		                    TO	(DSN=&TO PNODE DISP=NEW)

Concatenation for Connect:Direct for UNIX and Connect:Direct for VM/ESA

Use stream input instead of concatenation or continuation symbols as required by other IBM® Connect:Direct operating environments. Also, grammar is based on the sequence of parameters and arguments instead of position within the inline buffer. The exception is that comment identifiers (asterisks [*] and pound [#] signs) in column one are positional.

Concatenation is also used in conjunction with Special Purpose Bracketing and in Symbolic Substitution to join values that are represented as symbolic parameters. See the following sections for more information.


Resolves to:


Symbolic resolution occurs before concatenation.