Monitoring your business applications, Part 3

Enable programmatic event emission to IBM Business Monitor


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This content is part of the series:Monitoring your business applications, Part 3

Stay tuned for additional content in this series.

For an overview of the features and architecture of IBM Business Monitor, see Part 1.

IBM Business Monitor is designed to accept and process events from any source. Applications can be instrumented to emit events containing a business payload which IBM Business Monitor consumes; it extracts and analyzes the business data from the incoming events for later reporting purposes in the dashboards.

Figure 1. IBM Business Monitor dashboard
IBM Business Monitor dashboard
IBM Business Monitor dashboard

This article describes how to enable event emission if your application is running in an environment that does not provide automatic event emission.

IBM Business Monitor processes XML, extracts metric data of business relevance, then stores it to a database, which can be queried by dashboards to display information relevant to a business user. Regardless of how an application is implemented, whether in Java™, C++, COBOL, or other language, and regardless of where it runs, whether on a smartphone, a PC, or a mainframe, as long as it can provide XML to IBM Business Monitor, an application can enjoy the benefits of business activity monitoring. In this article, you'll learn how to get that XML to IBM Business Monitor.

As described in Part 1, the preferred way of getting events to IBM Business Monitor is to run your application in one of the many IBM products that are enabled for automatic event emission. In such an environment, you can just check a box and the events will flow, without any coding at all. You don't need to worry about how to structure your XML, what kind of wrapper to use, what protocol will carry it, or the endpoint to which it will be delivered; this is all taken care of for you by virtue of using an IBM runtime with built-in business event emission support.

However, sometimes you have no choice but to run your applications in an environment where event emission is not automatically handled for you. In such cases, several means of manually emitting events for business activity monitoring purposes are supported. The choice of which approach to use depends on the environment in which your business application executes.

Regardless of which approach you choose for programmatic event emission, you need to follow the manual monitor model authoring approach described in Part 2, and you'll need to supply the XSDs or WSDLs that describe the XML being sent as input. You also need to ensure that the events you send follow the XML namespace recommendations from the W3C. In particular, all tags in the XML should contain the namespace prefix, so that XPath expressions can properly reference the desired elements or attributes of the XML event. Refer to Part 2 for details on making your monitor model aware of the structure of your XML events.

Enabling asynchronous event emission

There are two ways to send events: synchronously or asynchronously. With synchronous event emission, the application being monitored must pause and wait for the event to be processed, whereas with asynchronous event emission, the event is simply placed in an intermediate destination, allowing the application being monitored to continue, while the event gets processed in parallel.

In general, most customers prefer the asynchronous route, since it causes the least impact on the application being monitored, so we'll look at that option first. This method uses the Java Message Service (JMS), as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Event emission to IBM Business Monitor using JMS
Event emission to IBM Business Monitor using JMS
Event emission to IBM Business Monitor using JMS

The code snippet in Listing 1 shows an example of sending an XML message using JMS.

Listing 1. Code sample for emitting an event using JMS
String xml = null; //initialize with the XML you want to send

// Connect to the server
Context jndiContext = new InitialContext();

// Get the connection factory via its JNDI name
QueueConnectionFactory connectionFactory = (QueueConnectionFactory) jndiContext.lookup(

// Create a connection
QueueConnection jmsConnection = connectionFactory.createQueueConnection();

// Start a session
QueueSession session = jmsConnection.createQueueSession(false, Session.AUTO_ACKNOWLEDGE);

// Create your message
TextMessage jmsMessage = session.createTextMessage(xml);

// Get the queue via its JNDI name
Queue jmsQueue = (Queue) jndiContext.lookup("jms/MonitorEventEmitter/Queue");

// Send the messsage to the queue
QueueSender sender = session.createSender(jmsQueue);

// Cleanup

The following list includes JMS providers that are supported, as well as some guidance on when to choose one versus another.

  • WebSphere Platform Messaging: For applications running in a WebSphere Application Server based environment, the preferred approach is to place your business payload XML into a JMS text message and send it using WebSphere Platform Messaging (also known as the Service Integration Bus). Using this approach, you simply create a JMS TextMessage, place your XML in that message, and submit it to a well-known JMS destination. You don't need to worry about using any special wrappers or setting any special values in the JMS header -- as long as you deliver it to the appropriate destination, IBM Business Monitor takes care of the rest.
  • IBM MQ: For applications running in environments that are not based on WebSphere Application Server, but with access to IBM MQ, the approach is very similar. You just create an MQ message, place your XML in that message, and deliver it to a well-known MQ destination. Your administrator can configure IBM Business Monitor to consume from this destination defined under the MQ JMS provider.
  • Third-party JMS providers: If you prefer, you can use a non-IBM JMS provider. The approach is the same: place the XML in the JMS message, deliver it to the well-known destination, and configure IBM Business Monitor to consume from the destination defined under the third-party JMS provider.

Enabling synchronous event emission

Sometimes you need to send your events synchronously, such as when the events do not contain reliable sequence information, and therefore you need to choose an option that will ensure they are kept in order. There are two approaches for synchronous event emission:

  • WS-Notification: If you are running in a web services environment, the most natural means of event emission is to use WS-Notification. With this approach, you construct your XML, and submit it via a web service (SOAP) invocation, to a well-known WSDL-described endpoint. As with the other options, no special wrappers are required; you just send your XML, and IBM Business Monitor will consume it. Your administrator must configure WS-Notification to forward the notification event to the JMS destination from which IBM Business Monitor consumes.

    Emitting events through WS-Notification to IBM Business Monitor was made easier with WebSphere Business Monitor V7 and later IBM Business Monitor products, because you no longer need to create the Common Base Event (CBE) wrapper around your XML. Instead, you send the XML directly to the Notify method, as long as your IT administrator configures your WS-Notification topic to deliver the message to the JMS queue specified in the asynchronous section above.

  • REST: If you are running in a mashup or portlet environment, you may communicate with the server via Representational State Transfer (REST). Using this approach, you construct your XML, and submit it via an HTTP (or HTTPS) request to a REST service running on the IBM Business Monitor server. Again, no special wrapper or HTTP header information is required; you just submit the XML via the REST interface, and the IBM Business Monitor server will handle it from there.

    Listing 2 shows an example of sending an XML message using REST.

    Listing 2. Code sample for emitting an event using REST
    String xml = null; //initialize with the XML you want to send
    // Set up URL to the desired host:port where REST Event Emitter is deployed
    URL url = new URL("http://myhostname:80/rest/bpm/events");
    // get the connection from the URL
    HttpURLConnection connection = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection();
    // setup the connection
    connection.setRequestProperty("Accept", "multipart/mixed");
    // set the content type
    connection.setRequestProperty("content-type", text/xml));
    // Set the DoOutput flag to true; use the URL connection for output
    // Write the XML to the stream
    OutputStreamWriter writer = new OutputStreamWriter(connection.getOutputStream());
    // Get the response from servlet
    InputStreamReader reader = new InputStreamReader(connection.getInputStream())
    BufferedReader buffer = new BufferedReader(reader);
    String output = "";
    String line = null;
    // Get all of the lines
    while ((line = buffer.readLine()) != null) {
    	output += line;
    // Cleanup

Note that, in prior releases, you had to use a proprietary event format (Eclipse's Common Base Event, or CBE) and a proprietary emission API (Common Event Infrastructure, or CEI) in order to send your own events to IBM Business Monitor. This is no longer required in V7. Although the old approach is still supported for backward compatibility, none of the approaches outlined above involve the use of CBE or CEI when coding your own custom event emission.

Accessing IBM Business Monitor data

As shown in the architectural diagram in Part 1, the dashboards get their data by making REST requests to the IBM Business Monitor server. Each widget in the dashboard makes an HTTP request to get the desired data, receives the result in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), and then proceeds to parse that and render it as appropriate, using a technology like Dojo, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3. REST access to monitor model data
REST access to monitor model data
REST access to monitor model data

To get programmatic access to IBM Business Monitor, you can write your own custom dashboard iWidgets (or portlets), which make the same HTTP requests and then render the results in a highly customized manner, to meet the needs of your business users. You can also do the same in a simple servlet or JSP, or any other browser-based technology.

You can also go beyond the realm of web browser-based access to a monitor model's data. For example, Microsoft® Excel® (2007 or later) provides a Ribbon, which is a Microsoft .NET based plug-in that makes the appropriate REST calls to retrieve data and bring it into your spreadsheet so that you can make charts and further computations based on this data. This data can be configured to auto-refresh at a specified interval. Likewise, Lotus® Notes and Lotus SameTime have a plug-in that does the same thing, as a Java-based Eclipse/Expeditor plug-in, allowing you access to your business monitoring data from within your e-mail and instant messaging clients. You could do the same with native applications for smartphones, or any other environment capable of making an HTTP connection to your IBM Business Monitor server (or the HTTP server/proxy that delegates to it).

Figure 4. Custom clients to business monitoring data
Custom clients                     to business monitoring data
Custom clients to business monitoring data


In Part 1, you learned about the products that offer first-class support for IBM Business Monitor. In Part 2, you learned about additional products that can send events to IBM Business Monitor, and how to enable that at model authoring time. In Part 3, you learned how to instrument an application to send events programmatically.

Some scenarios require more work on the part of IT developers than others, but all provide for a rich experience for business users using the dashboards, providing them insight into the performance of their business and suggesting areas where improvement is needed in their business processes, wherever those processes may run. You can realize the full potential of business process management by adding business activity monitoring to your enterprise, regardless of what kind of business processes you are using, whether hosted in an IBM run-time or in a home-grown environment. You can empower your business users by giving them a business dashboard from which they can monitor their business processes and optimize their business results today.

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ArticleTitle=Monitoring your business applications, Part 3: Enable programmatic event emission to IBM Business Monitor