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LPI exam prep: Network client management
In this tutorial, the fifth in a series of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux, David Mertz continues preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 202. By following this tutorial, you will examine several protocols' centralized configuration of network settings on clients within a network. DHCP is widely used to establish basic handshaking to clients machines such as assigning IP addresses. At a higher level, NIS and (more often) LDAP are used for arbitrary shared information among machines on a network. This tutorial also discusses PAM, which is a flexible, networked, user authentication system.
Also available in: Portuguese  
Tutorial 17 May 2012
LPI exam prep: Mail and news
This is the second of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux. In this tutorial, David Mertz discusses how to use Linux as a mail server and as a news server. Overall, e-mail is probably the main use of the Internet, and Linux is perhaps the best platform for running e-mail services on. This tutorial covers mail transport, local mail filtering, and mailing list maintenance software. It also briefly discusses server software for the NNTP protocol.
Tutorial 29 Mar 2012
A data compression primer
This article is a primer on the basic types of data compression, with an introductory explanation of the mathematics and algorithms that go into compression techniques. Brief consideration and examples are given to help you evaluate what types of compression tools and techniques are suited to your own applications. Pointers are provided to more advanced theoretical discussions and ready-to-use compression tools and libraries. [Update: Tables 1 and 2 were updated to correct formatting errors. -Ed.]
Also available in: Russian   Japanese   Spanish  
Articles 21 Jul 2011
Charming Python: Easy Web data collection with mechanize and Beautiful Soup
For collecting data from Web pages, the mechanize library automates scraping and interaction with Web sites. Mechanize lets you fill in forms and set and save cookies, and it offers miscellaneous other tools to make a Python script look like a genuine Web browser to an interactive Web site. A frequently used companion tool called Beautiful Soup helps a Python program makes sense of the messy "almost-HTML" that Web sites tend to contain.
Also available in: Portuguese  
Articles 24 Nov 2009
Metaclass programming in Python, Part 3
Too much cleverness in programming makes designs more complicated, code more fragile, learning curves steeper, and worst of all, it makes debugging harder. Michele and David feel, in part, responsible for some excesses of cleverness in Python metaclasses. In this article, they attempt to make amends, by helping programmers eschew cleverness.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 25 Sep 2007
Web development tips: Pay attention to the CSS @media rule
The CSS "@media" rule is a useful way to target an HTML or XML document to an intended output device. Use of the "print" media is now fairly widespread, and provides a much cleaner means of creating printer-friendly pages than does a separate "printable version." The use of the "screen" media has been somewhat underused, perhaps because of an overly general assumption that screen is merely the "default rendering." However, in regard to positioning--especially absolute positioning--the screen media type has an important meaning that is not covered by media-free stylesheet rules.
Also available in: Chinese  
Articles 18 Sep 2007
Web development tips: Ten (or a few more) files every Web site needs
Regardless of what sort of Content Management System or Web application framework you might use to develop your Web site, there are some basics you should cover. A sophisticated user interface and rich content is great to have, but before you get to that, you should provide the basic files that users anticipate finding and that tell both humans and machines what your site does.
Articles 11 Sep 2007
Web development tips: Use antipool.py for threaded Python database access
Databases are happy to handle many parallel requests (doing so is almost in the definition of a database). However, active processes (threaded or forked) almost inevitably eat up a valuable resource: database connections. The antipool.py module in Martin Blais' "antiorm" library does a nice job of making the pooling and reuse of connections transparent to programmers, and in a RDBMS-agnostic fashion.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 21 Aug 2007
LPI exam 202 prep: Network troubleshooting
In this tutorial, the last of a series of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux, David Mertz finishes preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 202. This tutorial revisits earlier tutorials in the LPI 202 series, focusing on how to use the basic tools you've already covered to fix networking problems. The tool review is divided into two categories: configuration tools and diagnostic tools.
Tutorial 28 Jun 2006
LPI exam prep: System security
In this tutorial, the sixth of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux, David Mertz continues preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 202. By necessity, this tutorial touches briefly on a wide array of Linux-related topics from a security-conscious network server perspective, including general issues of routing, firewalls, and NAT translation and the relevant tools. It addresses setting security policies for FTP and SSH; reviews general access control with tcpd, hosts.allow, and friends; and presents some basic security monitoring tools and shows where to find security resources.
Tutorial 13 Jun 2006
LPI exam prep: Web services
In this tutorial, the fourth in a series of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux, David Mertz continues preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 208. Here, David Mertz discusses how to configure and run the Apache HTTP server and the Squid proxy server.
Tutorial 25 Apr 2006
Hit the ground running with AIDE, Part 1: Building a touchpoint
This tutorial, the first in a series on the IBM Autonomic Integrated Development Environment (AIDE), shows how you can get up and running quickly with the IBM AIDE toolkit. Discover touchpoint creation, modification, and deployment and learn about the internals of the touchpoint in relation to the underlying model.
Tutorials 18 Apr 2006
LPI exam prep: Domain Name System (DNS)
This is the third of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux. In this tutorial, David Mertz gives an introduction to DNS and discusses how to use Linux as a DNS server, chiefly using BIND 9. He shows how to set up and configure the service, how to create forward and reverse lookup zones, and how to ensure that the server is secure from attacks.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 01 Dec 2005
LPI exam prep: Networking configuration
This is the first of seven tutorials covering intermediate network administration on Linux. In this tutorial, David Mertz shows you how to configure a basic TCP/IP network, from the hardware layer (usually Ethernet, modem, ISDN, or 802.11), through the routing of network addresses. Higher level servers that may operate on these configured networks are covered in later tutorials.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 08 Nov 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: Linux kernel
In this tutorial, David Mertz begins preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this first of eight tutorials, you learn to understand, compile, and customize a Linux kernel.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 20 Sep 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: File and service sharing
In this tutorial, Brad Huntting and David Mertz continue preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this fifth of eight tutorials, you learn how to use a Linux system as a networked file server using any of several protocols supported by Linux.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 02 Sep 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: System maintenance
In this tutorial, David Mertz continues preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this sixth of eight tutorials, you learn basic concepts of system logging, software packaging, and backup strategies.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 02 Sep 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: Hardware
In this tutorial, David Mertz and Brad Huntting continue preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this fourth of eight tutorials, you learn how to add and configure hardware to a Linux system, including RAID arrays, PCMCIA cards, other storage devices, displays, video controllers, and other components.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 02 Sep 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: Troubleshooting
In this tutorial, Brad Huntting and David Mertz continue preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. The last of eight tutorials, this tutorial focuses on what you can do when things go wrong. It builds on material already covered in more detail in earlier tutorials.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 02 Sep 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: System customization and automation
In this tutorial, David Mertz and Brad Huntting continue preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this seventh of eight tutorials, you learn basic approaches to scripting and automating system events, including report and status generation, clean up, and general maintenance.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 01 Sep 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: System startup
In this tutorial, David Mertz continues preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this second of eight tutorials, you learn the steps a Linux system goes through during system initialization, and how to modify and customize those behaviors for your specific needs.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 31 Aug 2005
LPI exam 201 prep: Filesystem
In this tutorial, David Mertz continues preparing you to take the Linux Professional Institute Intermediate Level Administration (LPIC-2) Exam 201. In this third of eight tutorials, you will learn how to control the mounting and un-mounting of filesystems, examine existing filesystems, create filesystems, and perform remedial actions on damaged filesystems.
Also available in: Spanish  
Tutorial 31 Aug 2005
Charming Python: Get started with the Natural Language Toolkit
In this installment, David introduces you to the Natural Language Toolkit, a Python library for applying academic linguistic techniques to collections of textual data. Programming that goes by the name "text processing" is a start; other capabilities for syntactic and even semantic analysis are further specialized to studying natural languages.
Articles 24 Jun 2004
Using the GNU text utilities
This introductory- to intermediate-level tutorial introduces the GNU text utilities and shows how to use them for processing log files, documentation, structured text databases, and other textual sources of data or content.
Tutorial 09 Mar 2004
Rexx for everyone
Rexx occupies a useful ecological niche between the relative crudeness of shell scripting and the cumbersome formality of full systems languages. Many Linux programmers and systems administrators would benefit from adding a Rexx implementation to their collection of go-to tools.
Articles 04 Feb 2004
Linux on Mac: a POWER programmer's primer
Even though most Linux users have treated Linux as an operating system for their x86 white boxes, Linux runs equally well on PowerPC machines. David looks at Linux on the PowerPC and the appealing range of PPC machines produced by Apple, where the option of using Linux is of great value to many users.
Articles 20 Jan 2004
XML Matters: The XOM Java XML API
In this installment, David looks at Elliotte Rusty Harold's XOM. Broadly speaking, this is yet another object-oriented XML API, somewhat in the style of DOM, however a number of features set XOM apart, and Harold argues that they are important design elements. Chief among these is a rigorous insistence on maintaining invariants in in-memory objects so that an XOM instance can always be serialized to correct XML. In addition, XOM aims at greater simplicity and regularity than other Java XML APIs.
Articles 17 Dec 2003
Network programming with the Twisted framework, Part 4
In this final installment of his series on Twisted, David looks at specialized protocols and servers contained in the Twisted package, with a focus on secure connections.
Articles 11 Sep 2003
XML Matters: TEI -- the Text Encoding Initiative
Nowadays, XML is usually thought of as a markup technique utilized by programmers to encode computer-oriented data. Even DocBook and similar document-oriented DTDs focus on preparation of technical documentation. However, the real roots of XML are in the SGML community, which is largely composed of publishers, archivists, librarians, and scholars. In this installment, David looks at Text Encoding Initiative, an XML schema devoted to the markup of literary and linguistic texts. TEI allows useful abstractions of typographic features of source documents, but in a manner that enables effective searching, indexing, comparison, and print publication -- something not possible with publications archived as mere photographic images.
Articles 04 Sep 2003
Network programming with the Twisted framework, Part 2
In the first installment in this series on Twisted, David introduced asynchronous server programming. While a Web server is, in a sense, just another network service, as David shows in this installment, Twisted provides a number of higher-level techniques for writing Web services.
Articles 15 Jul 2003
Network programming with the Twisted framework, Part 1
Twisted is an increasingly popular pure-Python framework for programming network services and applications. While there are a large number of loosely coupled modular components within Twisted, a central concept to the framework is the idea of non-blocking asynchronous servers. In this article, David introduces you to this style of programming -- a novel one for developers accustomed to threading or forking servers, but one capable of great efficiency under heavy loads.
Articles 25 Jun 2003
XML Matters: Process XML in Python with ElementTree
Fredrik Lundh's ElementTree module is an increasingly popular API for light-weight and fast manipulation of XML documents within Python. In this installment, David contrasts ElementTree with several other libraries devoted to processing XML instances as object trees, especially with his own gnosis.xml.objectify module.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 24 Jun 2003
Charming Python: Using combinatorial functions in the itertools module
Python 2.2 introduced simple generators to the Python language and reconceived standard loops in terms of underlying iterators. With Python 2.3, generators become standard (no need for _future_, and the new module itertools is introduced to work flexibly with iterators. The itertools module is essentially a set of combinatorial higher-order functions, but ones that work with lazy iterators rather than with finite lists. In this installment, David explores the new module, and gives you a sense of the new expressive power available with combinatorial iterators.
Also available in: Russian  
Articles 12 Jun 2003
XML Matters: Kicking back with RELAX NG, Part 3
The RELAX NG compact syntax provides a much less verbose, and easier to read, format for describing the same semantic constraints as RELAX NG XML syntax. This installment looks at tools for working with and transforming between the two syntax forms.
Articles 14 May 2003
Tip: Asynchronous SAX
Over asynchronous channels -- such as a socket that produces data over a long duration -- SAX is a wonderfully lightweight programming technique for parsing incoming messages.
Articles 14 May 2003
Tip: Command-line XML processing
Most of the time, processing XML documents utilizes heavy-duty APIs and custom applications. However, the tradition of using small tools with I/O piped between them works fine on Unix-like platforms. Here, David shows you how you can use XML for this kind of quick-and-dirty processing with one-liners that are especially useful during development and debugging cycles.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 07 May 2003
XML Matters: Kicking back with RELAX NG, Part 2
RELAX NG schemas provide a more powerful, concise, and semantically straightforward means of describing classes of valid XML instances than do W3C XML Schemas. In this installment, David continues the discussion of RELAX NG begun in part 1 of this series by addressing a few additional semantic issues and looking at tools for working with RELAX NG.
Articles 26 Mar 2003
Charming Python: Multiple dispatch
Object-oriented programming gains much of its versatility through polymorphism: objects of different kinds can behave in similar ways, given the right contexts. But most OOP programming is single dispatch; that is, just one designated object determines which code path is taken. Conceptually, a more general technique is to allow all the arguments to a function/method to determine its specialization. This article presents an implementation of multiple dispatch in Python, and shows examples where this makes for better programs."
Also available in: Russian   Japanese  
Articles 20 Mar 2003
Charming Python: Create declarative mini-languages
The object orientation and transparent introspective capabilities of Python allow you to easily create declarative mini-languages for programming tasks. In this installment, David looks not so much at using Python to interpret or translate other specialized languages (although that is possible), but rather the ways that Python code itself can be helpfully restricted to a set of declarative elements. He'll show you how developers can use declarative techniques to state application requirements in a concise and clear way, while letting the behind-the-scenes framework do the heavy work.
Also available in: Russian   Japanese  
Articles 27 Feb 2003
XML Matters: reStructuredText
The document format called reStructuredText has been adopted as one of the official source formats for Python documentation, but is also useful for other types of documentation. reStructuredText is an interesting hybrid of technologies -- in syntax and appearance it is similar to other "almost-plaintext" formats, but in semantics and API it is very close to XML. David takes a look at this format and shows you how existing tools can transform reStructuredText into several XML dialects (docutils, DocBook, OpenOffice), along with other useful formats like LaTeX, HTML, and PDF.
Articles 01 Feb 2003
Charming Python: SimPy simplifies complex models
The stochastic behavior of real-world systems is often difficult to understand or predict. Sometimes it is possible rigorously to demonstrate statistical properties of systems, such as average, worst-case, and best-case performance features. But at other times, pitfalls of concrete designs only become evident when you actually run (or simulate) a system. In this article, David takes a look at SimPy, a Python package that allows you to very easily create models of discrete event systems.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 01 Dec 2002
Charming Python: Make Python run as fast as C with Psyco
With only a tiny amount of extra programming, Python programmers can often increase code speed by orders of magnitude with the help of an external module known as the Python Specializing Compiler (or Psyco for short). David Mertz looks at what Psyco is, and tests it in some applications.
Also available in: Russian   Japanese  
Articles 01 Oct 2002
Charming Python: Parsing with the Spark module
Spark is a powerful and general parser/compiler framework written in Python. In some respects, Spark offers more than SimpleParse or other Python parsers. Being pure Python, however, it is also slower. In this article, David discusses the Spark module, with code samples, an explanation of its usage, and suggestions for its areas of application.
Articles 01 Aug 2002
Charming Python: Generator-based state machines
Introduced in Python 2.2, simple generators may be used to simplify state machines and to simulate coroutines. Coroutines are an exotic flow mechanism that few widely used languages -- not even non-Stackless Python -- allow. Python's new generators, however, get you almost all the way to coroutines, and the extra few steps can be faked. In this installment of Charming Python, David Mertz explains all the relevant concepts through illustrative code samples.
Also available in: Russian   Japanese  
Articles 01 Jul 2002
Charming Python: Implementing "weightless threads" with Python generators
David Mertz introduces weightless threads. Similar to Stackless Python microthreads, but using standard Python 2.2 -- they allow for extremely large numbers of cooperating processes with virtually no overhead.
Articles 01 Jun 2002
XML Matters: The REXML library
David introduces Ruby Electric XML (REXML), a library that takes the strengths of Ruby, and builds XML processing around them.
Articles 01 Mar 2002
XML Matters: Intro to PYX
XML is a fairly simple format. It uses plain Unicode text rather than binary encoding, and all the structures are declared with predictable-looking tags. Nonetheless, there are still enough rules in the XML grammar that a carefully debugged parser is needed to process XML documents -- and every parser imposes its own particular programming style. An alternative is to make XML even simpler. The open-source PYX format is a purely line-oriented format for representing XML documents that allows for much easier processing of XML document contents with common text tools like grep,sed, awk, wc, and the usual UNIX collection.
Articles 01 Feb 2002
Charming Python: Parsing with the SimpleParse module
Many parsing tools have been written for Python. This column discusses a high-level parsing language built on top of Python.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 01 Jan 2002
Sharing computers on a Linux (or heterogeneous) network, Part 1
In the first of this pair of articles, David compares and contrasts Secure shell (SSH) and Virtual Network Computing (VNC), two technologies that allow a user at one workstation to run an application that lives on another computer. (He does not cover file-and-print sharing or "Internet" services like httpd, ftpd, smtp, or nntpd, even though these technologies also usefully "share" something about the computers in question.) He does, however, give tips on installing and configuring SSH and VNC, and comments on tool stability, choices, and licensing status.
Articles 01 Dec 2001
XML Matters: Transcending the limits of DOM, SAX, and XSLT
Consider Haskell in lieu of DOM, SAX, or XSLT for processing XML data. The library HaXml creates representations of XML documents as native recursive data structures in the functional language Haskell. HaXml brings with it a set of powerful higher order functions for operating on these "datafied" XML documents. Many of the HaXml techniques are far more elegant, compact, and powerful than the ones found in familiar techniques like DOM, SAX, or XSLT. Code samples demonstrate the techniques.
Articles 01 Oct 2001
Beginning Haskell
This tutorial is for programmers of imperative languages wanting to learn about functional programming in the language Haskell. If you have programmed in languages such as C, Pascal, Fortran, C++, Java, Cobol, Ada, Perl, TCL, REXX, JavaScript, Visual Basic, or many others, you have been using an imperative paradigm. This tutorial provides a gentle introduction to the paradigm of functional programming, with specific illustrations in the Haskell 98 language.
Tutorial 27 Sep 2001
Introduction to Quantum Computing
This article, which builds on a basic knowledge of the mathematics of vectors, gives an introduction to quantum computing.
Articles 01 Sep 2001
Charming Python: pydoc and distutils modules
The introduction of several modules and tools in recent Python versions has improved Python, not so much as a language, but as a tool. Author David Mertz reviews these modules that make the job of Python developers substantially easier by improving the documentation and distribution of Python modules and packages.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 01 Aug 2001
Understanding ebXML
ebXML is a big project with a lot of pieces. In this article David Mertz outlines how the pieces all fit together. This overview provides an introduction to the ebXML concept and then looks a bit more specifically at the representation of business processes, an important starting point for ebXML implementations. Two short bits of sample code demonstrate the ProcessSpecification DTD and a package of collaborations.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 01 Jun 2001
XML Matters: Using Python modules xml2sql and dtd2sql
David Mertz shows that the reverse direction of translating an XML document and DTD back into an RDBMS storage format is equally possible, but with its own set of constraints and complications.
Articles 01 Jun 2001
Charming Python: Developing a full-text indexer in Python
As the volume of information grows, effective means of locating specific information become ever more crucial. This column discusses the field of full-text indexing, with a focus on the author's public-domain indexer module.
Articles 01 May 2001
XML Matters: Putting XML in context with hierarchical, relational, and object-oriented models
On the way to making a point about how XML is best suited to work with databases, David Mertz discusses how XML fits with hierarchical, relational, and object-oriented data modeling paradigms.
Articles 01 Apr 2001
Introduction to cryptology, Part 3: Cryptographic protocols
Discover ways fundamental algorithms can be combined to achieve a number of cryptographic goals as well as some limitations and pitfalls that broad cryptographic goals are subject to.
Articles 28 Mar 2001
XML Matters: Comparing W3C XML Schemas and Document Type Definitions (DTDs)
This installment of the XML Matters column steps up to the challenge of comparing schemas and DTDs and clarifying just what is going on in the XML schema world.
Articles 01 Mar 2001
Charming Python: Updating your Python reading list
In little more than a year, the availability of material for learning and programming in Python has gone from a thin selection of books to the current forest of dead trees. Some books are general introductions to the Python language, while others specialize in particular tasks. Even within the 'general' category, level and focus differ considerably. This column gives David's impressions and recommendations on eight of the best known books about Python.
Articles 01 Feb 2001
Introduction to cryptology, Part 2: Symmetric and asymmetric encryption algorithms
Get an introduction to intermediate cryptographic concepts. Understand and construct cryptographic algorithms and protocols.
Articles 01 Feb 2001
Introduction to cryptology, Part 1: Basic cryptology concepts
Part 1 of this three-part tutorial series introduces you to general concepts of cryptology and addresses cryptanalysis in somewhat greater depth. Familiarize yourself with a broad range of cryptological concepts and protocols.
Articles 16 Jan 2001
Charming Python: TK programming in Python
David Mertz introduces TK and the Tkinter wrapper (Python's GUI library) with source code samples accompanied by detailed running commentary. To make life easy, he illustrates his examples with the GUI port of the Txt2Html front-end that he's used in many of his earlier articles. He assumes, of course, that you follow his column regularly. :)
Articles 01 Dec 2000
XML Matters: Getting comfortable with the DocBook XML dialect
This column continues the discussion of the benefits of using DocBook to convert documents in heterogeneous formats to a single, standard XML format. It also looks at some DocBook tags in greater detail and discusses how to compose a basic DocBook document.
Articles 01 Oct 2000
Charming Python: Curses programming
A certain class of Python applications works best with an interactive user interface without the overhead or complexity of a graphical environment. For interactive text-mode programs (under Linux/UNIX), for example, the ncurses library, wrapped in Python's standard curses module, is just what you need. In this article, David Mertz discusses the use of curses in Python. He illustrates the curses environment using sample source code from a front-end to the Txt2Html program.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 01 Sep 2000
Charming Python: Text processing in Python
Along with several other popular scripting languages, Python is an excellent tool for scanning and manipulating textual data. This article summarizes Python's text processing facilities for the programmer new to Python. The article explains some general concepts of regular expressions and offers advice on when to use (or not use) regular expressions while processing text.
Also available in: Russian   Japanese  
Articles 01 Sep 2000
Charming Python: Using state machines
State machines, in a theoretical sense, underlie almost everything related to computers and programming. And it also turns out that state machines, in a practical sense, can help solve many ordinary problems (especially for Python programmers). In this article, David Mertz discusses some practical examples of when and how to code a state machine in Python.
Also available in: Japanese  
Articles 01 Aug 2000
Charming Python: My first Web-based filtering proxy
This article introduces Txt2Html, a public-domain working project created by David to illustrate programming techniques in Python. Txt2Html is a "Web-based filtering proxy" -- a program that reads Web-based documents for the user, then presents a modified page to the user's browser. To make this possible, Txt2Html runs as a CGI program, queries outside Web resources, and makes use of regular-expressions. David steps you through each of these general-purpose subtasks, explaining, clarifying, and demonstrating along the way.
Articles 01 Jul 2000
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