Community and social computing
Money magazine is reporting that Video Gaming will be a "welcome event" at the Beijing Olympics. Apparently the Chinese government recognizes it as an official sport alongside other ones that require agility or dexterity (like soccer), although the Olympic committee has not accepted it as yet.
This isn't like the World Cyber Games (in Germany in 2008) which takes things much more seriously as a sport, but it is a start. After all if Bridge counts as a "sport"...
Man, too many projects for me to inspect all coming up at the same time with this new job. Not enough time to blog in depth. I have two jobs to do simultaneously right now and it's definitely keeping me busy.
Meanwhile: take a look at this site I put together for my swordfighting students. This should link to our site on ning.
I picked up Market-based Management by Dr. Roger Best (see my reading list), a textbook of the "traditional" approach to customer-centric marketing. I'm looking into the ideas on how companies look at customer focus, satisfaction, loyalty, and retention. The processes are probably very different but online communities of all forms also face some of these same issues and the existing ideas and metrics may give insight into similar metrics from the community view.
There are some very different views here though:
Still there are many parallel concepts that can be borrowed. A few of the many examples:
Beyond just the basic measurement of each community, there are the issues of measuring the effectiveness of your community program itself. The parallel is measuring the effectiveness of the marketing program or strategy separately of the end-results driven. This means understanding market share, awareness, availability, etc.
The reality is that even with the decades of having online communities we really have not reached a significant level of sophistication in measuring online communities. Perhaps things needed to happen to emphasize that such as the rise of social software and Web 2.0, the acknowledgment of the long-tail phenomenon, the improvement of web metrics collection tools, and the effects of influencers online.
I see this as something entirely different than the success of the online ad marketing, which everyone can see is a multi-billion dollar opportunity. With online ads, some of the traditional ideas and methods still work, and even some of the traditional metrics may apply. However, a community, where the value comes from the knowledge economy, is likely quite different than a currency-based economy.
With growing interest in online communities as basis of support for real-world products and offerings, business & technology development, market reach and awareness, I think this is a large field waiting to be explored.
The book has progressed and transformed significantly over the past year. I've probably rewritten the contents three to four times already, either shifting large sections to bring related ideas together, towards a business focus (requiring less prior technical knowledge), and in a more cohesive concept.
The draft chapters all go up onto the Roughcuts section of Safari Books. What's confusing is that the latest information is in there but only to registered members, and the free information you see up front is several drafts old. So, I'm including the ToC here:
Ch 1. Social Software
A powershift through Conversations
Collaboration and the Social Web
A crying need in the global workforce
What is happening to knowledge workers and teams
From Mega-trends to Ground-level issues
Elementsof a Social Architecture
Ch 3 Social Experiences
FindingCommon and Reusable Social Experiences
DifferentExperiences for a complex world
ThePersonal Social Network Experience
TheClosed and Visible Group Experiences
TheMass collaboration Experience
Atthe Intersection of People, Places, and Purpose
Part I: People
Ch 4 Interpersonal Actions
Identity in Online Social Environments
Common Interpersonal Actions
Investing and Investigating Identity
Building Relationship Structures
Introducing and Intermediating
Harvesting the Network
Flowing between Interpersonal Actions
Ch 5 From Relationships to Roles
The Value of Roles
Structural Relationship Networks andSocial Graphs
Activity Roles in Social Systems
When and Where Activity Roles Emerge
Ch 6 Participation, Trust and Reputation
Identity to Participation to Reputation
The Trouble with Participation
Expanding the Definition of Participation
The Impact of a Reputation system
Building a Reputation system
Defining goals of the reputation system
Setting Reputation metric types
Qualifying to participate
Determining the award process
Displaying reputation metrics and award
Documenting the process
Expertise and Reputation
Ch 7 Social Leadership & government
Choosing a Social Government model
Leaders and Influencers
A Selection of Social Government models
The Centralized Models
The Delegated Model
The Representative Model
The Starfish Model
The Swarm Model
Governance Models applied to situations
Part II: Places
Ch 8 Content Actions
Social Content, Information and Vale
Varieties of Content Actions
Transforming Knowledge Actions into SocialContent Actions
Ch 9 Connecting to Social Experiences
Grouping and Combining Social Experiences
Multiple channels of experience
Interacting through Channels
The Impact of Grouping and Channels
Ch 10 Environment Actions
Managing the Interface
Skins, Themes and Layout
Availability and Mood Indicators
Distribution Points and Sharing tools
Managing Identities and Profiles
Background, Interests, or Skills
Identifying Photos and Logos
Affiliation, Membership or Role Badges
Awards and Merit Badges
Managing user actions
Managing User Rights and Membership
Managing Contributions and Content
Ch 11 Social Tasks: Collaboratingon Ideas
The Structure of Social Tasks
Form of Aggregation
Building a Template for a Task
Different Models of Social Tasks
Idea generation and predictions
Disitributed human computation
Open source development
Relationship mapping and mining
Location-centered social interaction
Ch 12 Social Tasks: Creating and Managing Information
- Recommendationsand Reviews
o DirectSocial recommendations
o DerivedSocial recommendations
- Creatingand categorizing information
o Directsocial content creation
o Derivedsocial content generation
o SocialQ&A systems
o Navigatinginformation on social input
Ch 13 Building a social culture
- Defininga Culture for a Social Environment
o Ideologyand Values in cult
o Behaviorand Rituals
o Cultureand Maturity of Social Environments
o TheCultural Impact of Social Architecture
o HowSocial Experience Models Impact Culture
o How SocialGovernment Models Impact culture
o HowSocial Tasks Impact Culture
o HowDomains Impact Culture
Ch 14 Engaging and EncouragingMembers
Engaging Members through Activity Roles
Roles and Interpersonal Actions
Roles and Content Actions
Roles and Environment Actions
Belonging and Commitment
Creating a model for identifying commitment
Maturing over a Lifecycle
Programs to Grow or Encourage your Socialgroup
Member Reward programs
Recruiting Evangelists and Advocates
Member Training and Mentoring programs
Part IV: Production
Ch 15 Community and SocialExperience Management
- TheValue and Characteristics of a Community Manager
Personality Traits and Habits
Who in the Organization should run theSocial Environment?
Community Manager Tasks andResponsibilities
Member and Relationship development
Topic and Activity Development
Communications and Promotion
Ch 16 Measuring social environments
Measurement in Social and Cognitive Science
Dimensions of measurement
Types of Metrics
Metrics and Social Experiences
Measurement Mechanisms and Methods
Quantitative Analytic MeasurementMechanisms
Qualitative Measurement through Surveys andInterviews
Ch 17 The Strategic Value ofSocial Computing
Measuring Intangible Assets with a BalancedScorecard
Social Capital as Intangible Assets
Connecting to Business Processes
Social Architecture and Business Strategy
You may have already heard this in your weekly developerWorks newsletter that we are now starting to offer podcasts as new content on our site. These first podcasts are a series of interviews with technical experts focused on Service-Oriented Architectures.
The WebSphere Technical Podcast series introduces the SOA Programming Model and the Software Component Architecture. This is a new plan to describe services universally regardless of if it is implemented as a Web service, a Java service, a database service, etc.
Jump to the site and listen in with your podcast catcher of choice.
I'm proud to say that developerWorks has joined the Hall of Fame for the Jolt awards given annually by Software Development Magazine.
AND ... Grady Booch has won the Excellence in Programming award ...
AND ... Scott Ambler, IBM Rational Practice Leader (and used to write for me too) won the Jolt Productivity Award for the technical book Refactoring Databases
AND ... dW contributors Brett McLaughlin and Gary Pollice, who (along with co-author David West) received an award for their book Head First Object-Oriented Analysis & Design
It always feels great when you work with a really good team and are surrounded by such brilliant minds. Congratulations to all our dW community members who won!
eBay is having their Developer Challenge 2006 until January 31st open to individuals and teams. The idea is to build an interesting application using their Web services API. dW also has a three-part series of articles on eBay's API that could help.
For the individual ranks, judging is based 40% on innovative use of their API, 30% on demo-ready look, feel and stability, and 30% designed for eBay users.
For teams it is 30% innovation, 20% look and feel, 20% eBay ready, and 30% on the quality of collaboration between team members.
Prizes (individual): $5000, $1000, and three iPod Nano winners
Prizes (team): XBox for up to 4 members, and free trip to demo your application at the O'Reilly Emerging Tech conference in March. Two other teams can win up to 4 iPod Nanos per team.
With Chris Anderson's book The Long-Tailfinally out, it's the season to talk about the subject at length. Ifyou aren't familiar with it, a one-liner might be: consider all theniche products or niche uses of your product(s) that you have ignoredbecause they were not a very feasible source business, until thelowered cost of Internet distribution and cataloging has changedthings. The phrase 'long-tail' refers to the hyperbolic demand curve ofproducts, with the top hits near the head of the curve making largenumbers of sales, and "rest" of those that are not hits, in the tail.In fact, this tail can be quite long (and hold a lot of businessopportunity). It counters the long-held aphorism the "80/20" rule,where 80% of your business comes from 20% of your products usingtraditional physical distribution and inventory.
To me, the Eclipse project is an example of a technologythat demonstrates how it can work. The first related idea from Eclipseis that it is an industry de facto standard for application userinterfaces (although primarily focused as a development environment).This means that there is wide access to the technology, and commonapplication to many operating systems and application needs. Then thereis the well defined open interfaces and APIs, and detailedcustomization options that allow anyone to create and add plugins tothe base system, allowing users to customize the system in greatdetail, each for their own niche areas; while still maintaining adegree of usage compatibility industry-wide. Finally, it's developmentenvironment, enabling users to bring new ideas into realization.
It only allows niche development of the base environment to eachperson's needs, but it also serves as an enabler to create other newtools. So it is a "long-tail" enabled system and you can use it tocreate yet more.
The July 8th issue of the Economist had a really good overview article on Internet advertising and marketing.(Access to the article unfortunately is not free after the first week,and you may not be able to access that link unless you're a subscriber).
The gist is that current advertising model across the world (innovatedby John Wanmaker back in the 1870s) takes the approach of carpet-bombeveryone in a city with the ad, rather than what the Internet enables,pin-point targetting individuals who would be interested (rephrasingRishad Tobaccowala, chief innovation officer of Publicis, one of theworld's biggest advertising groups). It also talks about viralmarketing by word-of-mouth and attempts to measure this, as well asother possibly effective methods.
Definitely worth the read.
I'm reading Mark Buchanan's excellent book on Small Worlds and the Groundbreaking Theory of Networks, and came across the concepts of egalitarian and autocratic patterns in social networks. Before you jump to conclusions, let me say a few things about this book. To me it seems to focus on the mathematical origins of the theory of social networks, but takes a pleasant approach going through the history and background of how these ideas emerged. It also spans a wide range of disciplines in terms of where these patterns appear, from biology to watershed and geological studies.
First, it talks about Watts and Strogatz's truly innovative look that has eventually spread across the world as the meme: six degrees of separation. There's a lot more to it than the Kevin Bacon game, but I'd like to point out the particular elements here on egalitarian and autocratic networks. This is actually has little to do with policital systems like socialism versus monarchic or oligarchic communities. Instead if you look at it as a mathematical problem, what it describes is that there are often two varieties of patterns of connections in a system that emerge often.
The first is a basic heuristic that can be commonly seen in some biological systems like the brain: as a node (in a network system), you try to establish a fixed amount or ratio of connections to other nodes. The connections are not a random pattern, but neither is it based on a high degree of "purpose" or "intention". This proposes a very egalitarian and essentially a very simple rule to help build more complex systems as the overall network grows and evolves.
The other is the autocratic pattern, where the heuristic is to start with one node and grow from there. Essentially the key node itself starts growing in size or strength, while its immediate connections grows with it, and scaling down until you reach the end or leaf nodes which have only one connection to someone else. This easiest example is in terms of well known sites or articles on the Net that get linked from many sites, and in a very simplified description, the basis of the algorithm that Google's engine uses.
If you look at one example of each of these networks from a high level, the egalitarian network seems to be completely chaotic with no easily discernable pattern you can tell visually. On the other hand, the autocratic network looks strangely like one of those classic fractal diagrams. Yet, both serve different purposes and have different uses. You might almost say that they are the yin and yang that exist pervasively throughout the world. Okay, maybe that's too metaphysical for a Friday :)
I’ve increased my attendance at E2.0 by 100% by going two
years in a row; okay, that was a bad metrics joke. The Enterprise2.0 conference in
Boston was the big gathering of customers, analysts, bloggers and
aficionados this year. We’re still debating how many people really attended but
I’m guessing it is around a thousand. The week began early for me starting with presenting during
the Black Belt practitioner’s workshop on Monday. I’m proud of my fellow
members of The 2.0 Adoption Council who presented the workshops all day long.
There are about 10 speakers, starting in the morning with the effervescent Jamie Pappas (EMC) speaking on
business value; the cheery Megan
Murray (Booz Allen Hamilton) on planning; and myself on adoption. The afternoon
had a several pairs of speakers: Stan Garfield (Deloitte) and Luis Suarez (IBM) on community building;
Donna Cuomo (MITRE) and Ted Hopton
(UBM) on metrics and analysis; Bryce
Williams (Eli Lilly) and Richard Rashty (Schneider Electric) on positioning
tools; and Bart Schutte (St Gobain) and Kevin Jones (NASA) on mitigating risks.
I’m also thrilled so many people stayed from 8:30am till
4:15pm. It really is a fire hose of knowledge, even when spread across so many
hours. These were real issues and scenarios that the speakers have experienced
in trying to bring Enterprise2.0 to life in their own organizations. Has E2.0 gained ground? I definitely think so. For any idea
to take hold, there needs to be stability in what it means, and increasing
adoption and expression of the notions within it. Seeing The 2.0 Adoption
Council’s rapid growth within just one year (with over 100 member large
companies) worldwide, with active practitioners is one area of social proof.
The other is the reduction of “What is it?” and more of “How do we do it?” E2.0 seems to be entrenched in the domain of the CIO and IT
organizations. That’s a shame because it really does spread across many
domains. Gautam Ghosh lamented the
lack of attendees or speakers from the HR realm in a few tweets during the
event. Yet many of the talks were certainly around employee behavior and
engagement. I have to be honest. There are many things that are still
left unanswered this year. I didn’t expect solutions but I was looking for more
thought on the following ideas: It will still take a bit of time, or if at all, we can
figure on better patterns of a maturity lifecycle, but let’s not jump to
default conclusions simply because it is easy to remember.
I’ve increased my attendance at E2.0 by 100% by going two years in a row; okay, that was a bad metrics joke. The Enterprise2.0 conference in Boston was the big gathering of customers, analysts, bloggers and aficionados this year. We’re still debating how many people really attended but I’m guessing it is around a thousand.
The week began early for me starting with presenting during the Black Belt practitioner’s workshop on Monday. I’m proud of my fellow members of The 2.0 Adoption Council who presented the workshops all day long. There are about 10 speakers, starting in the morning with the effervescent Jamie Pappas (EMC) speaking on business value; the cheery Megan Murray (Booz Allen Hamilton) on planning; and myself on adoption. The afternoon had a several pairs of speakers: Stan Garfield (Deloitte) and Luis Suarez (IBM) on community building; Donna Cuomo (MITRE) and Ted Hopton (UBM) on metrics and analysis; Bryce Williams (Eli Lilly) and Richard Rashty (Schneider Electric) on positioning tools; and Bart Schutte (St Gobain) and Kevin Jones (NASA) on mitigating risks.
I’m also thrilled so many people stayed from 8:30am till 4:15pm. It really is a fire hose of knowledge, even when spread across so many hours. These were real issues and scenarios that the speakers have experienced in trying to bring Enterprise2.0 to life in their own organizations.
Has E2.0 gained ground? I definitely think so. For any idea to take hold, there needs to be stability in what it means, and increasing adoption and expression of the notions within it. Seeing The 2.0 Adoption Council’s rapid growth within just one year (with over 100 member large companies) worldwide, with active practitioners is one area of social proof. The other is the reduction of “What is it?” and more of “How do we do it?”
E2.0 seems to be entrenched in the domain of the CIO and IT organizations. That’s a shame because it really does spread across many domains. Gautam Ghosh lamented the lack of attendees or speakers from the HR realm in a few tweets during the event. Yet many of the talks were certainly around employee behavior and engagement.
I have to be honest. There are many things that are still left unanswered this year. I didn’t expect solutions but I was looking for more thought on the following ideas:
It will still take a bit of time, or if at all, we can figure on better patterns of a maturity lifecycle, but let’s not jump to default conclusions simply because it is easy to remember.
Measuring ROI on social software is an elusive topic, so it’s wonderful when I find projects that have managed to quantify it in some way. The following story focuses on a particular task, that of social tagging.
The Enterprise Tagging Service in IBM aims to provide an alternative approach to helping people find information compared to traditional search engines. Search based on keyword analysis often relies on a taxonomy that is rigid due to the way the software performs its structural analysis of web pages, identifying and classifying the keywords. Social tagging allows people to add human semantics to keywords that they define that sometimes can amount to finding a resource faster based on what people think is relevant.
As I mentioned on twitter, my peer Jeanne Murray and I are presenting a session at the Enterprise2.0 conference in Boston next week that describes an overall view of how we think e2.0 has evolved in our organization. The focus here is not on the technologies themselves but on the human capabilities, interests, and mindset as it has evolved over time. It talks about what we used to think about social computing and how that as changed or evolved with each stage.
This sort of view on evolution is not something that is absolutely decisive. With a multinational organization such as ours, it does not necessarily mean that every corner of the organization is at the same level. The reality is that many locations are still at Stage 1 while others are very well into the later stages. We use the stages to describe how some groups have progressed in their thinking and approach to how they employ social computing in their work.
I don’t plan to describe the entire presentation here but I wanted to share the intention of our session and give an example of a stage. In discussing the idea, Jeanne and I formulated five stages of this evolution:
- Stage 1 – Seeing a need for social computing in business
- Stage 2 – Recognizing the business uses and value
- Stage 3 – Bringing people together into a common frame
- Stage 4 – Building better social-enabled processes
- Stage 5 – Shifting the overall perspective to a dynamic, agile mindset
For example, we entered Stage 2 when the mindset (in stage 1) progressed beyond thinking of social computing as something just for personal entertainment or for kids into recognizing the business potential. Within this stage, people have accepted there is a business need, but are still unsure about how or where it applies in specific use.
The focus in stage 2 is to articulate value and use cases. To do so, we needed to connect people’s expertise and collect stories of their successful use cases. The glories of reaching this stage is that people are starting to become more connected beyond the possibilities of their existing location and organizational position; there are open networks and freer exchange of ideas; and new social-enabled tasks are vetted simply the degree of their adoption.
However, we also saw in this stage that the number of repositories and ways of describing and sharing expertise were exploding. There were multiple options for doing tasks in social tools, and people needed guidance on which ones made most sense. Our wide diversity of tools simply increased the many streams of information, and often randomness of information and people.
Stage 2 has some people starting to connect, but a recognition that for enterprise 2.0 to be valuable to the company itself (and not just on an individual level), we need to consider how we get the larger organization to do this all together (stage 3). This next transformation requires looking beyond how individuals benefit from social computing, to how groups and org units can work as a whole with this system.
Stage 3 then picks up from trying to unite the infrastructure and tooling, as well as clarifying what to use when.
I hope to see some of you at Enterprise 2.0. Our
session is on Wednesday June 16th at 1-2pm (twitter hashtag #e2conf-34).
We will post the slides next week for others to see as well.
I was reading an article by Om Malik in the current Dec 05 issue of Business 2.0, called The Return of Monetized Eyeballs. In essence it's talking about the fact the buyers are once again valuing the ideas of pageviews and monthly unique visitor counts.
They refer to recent purchases like MySpace.com (sold to News Corp.) for about $580 million for their 40 million registered members.
Apparently, the current value for a single unique monthly visitor hovers around $38. Using that value, they determined (amongst others):
If you are curious how dW stacks up, using the 2 million unique visitors each month stat from the an October 2005 news item, we would be about $76 million, based on those visitors to our online site alone. [FYI: dW does a lot more than just the online sites].
At least they do point out that not all pageviews are alike. I'd add to that not all unique visitors are alike either.
So next comes some ideas of how to measure community activity relative to these industry metrics...
You may have already heard about Facebook's new look as they change the social experience for users. While still focused on the Individual as the center of the experience, they are adding more capabilities. In particular, I'm amused that they are finally catching onto the idea of multiple tabs each per application, although they have not moved to free form tabs like developerWorks Spaces, netvibes and other sites. Separating the app to a different tab helps to create shorter, cleaner front pages, by compartmentalizing and creating subtopics. However, it is better if it is not limited to a single application; after all you might have several tools and widgets to focus around the same topic.
PS: I'm trying out AddThis, a service that lets users redistribute any URL to over 30 other social sites, saving me the trouble of adding links to digg, del.icio.us, etc. manually.
The notion that there are bits of information about us all over the Web has been a nagging feeling for many although theyre not quite sure how to deal with it. A few react to it with pride. Some people consider it as a minor issue with a reaction of needing to be careful but not in panic. Others more wary are who the insurance and financial companies are trying to target with new service offerings.
Kathy, our marketing leader, recently showed me a site that uses a combination of two Web 2.0 technologies, search and user identities, and it brought up not just a surprising collection of info but also a small shock and that old nagging feeling.
If you go to Zoominfo, youll find a whole new way to feed either your ego or paranoia, or even both. You can type in the name of any person or organization and it will search the Net for all the info it can where your name is published, most likely areas that do not require registration.
I came across only a handful of results mapping back to my name at previous jobs (LinuxWorld, RTD System & Networking, etc.), and automatically builds a new online profile about me. I could then register as a member and create a more detailed profile by editing it. In some ways, it builds on what LinkedIn is missing, that is, auto-filling in my information rather than entering it by hand.
Thats probably not as surprising as the other linkages it finds. For example, it does a lateral search of other people who have worked at these organizations to find my peers and coworkers. Youll probably be surprised who you remember and who you dont. It probably doesnt find info which requires you to enter an account and password but I have not explored this fully yet.
The core idea in this model is to build an online profile that can be reused. In Web 2.0 terms, you can then probably use this profile in other applications, sites, etc. in ways the dreamers, innovators, and entrepreneurs will figure out.
I dont know how the tool is implemented but my guess is that it involves one or more of the large search engines to perform the searching. This application focuses on conducting multiple sequential relevant searches and consolidating it under a common presentation, backed by registration and other tools.
This is an example of a federated identity but not in the sense of user-account identities and single-sign-on applications. It is federation around online information centered on your own real world identity, or at least your name.
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I spent the weekend watching the 4th of July Independence Day fireworks from our new house with friends. We bought a lot which is about 1.5 miles behind this hill where the City of Tucson shoots its fireworks from, so we got an excellent view. The housing subdivision is all sold out but so far we're the only house on the hill. Our neighbors is a community that allows only those over 55, so we're the youngest people on the block by about 20 years.
It feels slightly lonely even when near so many homes. We bought a large acre lot so we wouldn't have to be too close to our neighbors. Many subdivisions here have houses within 10 feet of each other. That's too little privacy, even in suburbia, especially when you're new.
Sometimes blogs feel the same. There are so many bloggers out there but not everyone crosses the street to meet the neighbors. It is not possible to know and follow everyone around; it is difficult enough to even follow several dozen blogs.
However, the secret is in how people interact in the first place. We are only starting to investigate better means of social networking and understand what actually drives people to connect. If you read Duncan Watt's Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, or Malcolm Gladwell's The Tipping Point, you can start to understand the mechanics of social behavior. These plus about another 12 books are my summer reading right now.
When you consider how relationship development is at the heart of social computing and enterprise 2.0, it should be natural to consider the career and leadership development of your employees in this context. This opens up new areas of thought into what it means to influence and lead others through an entirely digital medium rather than when you have a face-to-face leader. In my Forbes article (on Apr 16), I describe it as digital eminence to differentiate from one's leadership activities and capabilities through non-virtual environments--often amusingly referred to as "in real life", IRL for short).
The best way that I have found to describe it is in terms of how do people understand, appreciate and recognize your expertise, knowledge and skills through online interactions. This could be anywhere online, even email and chat, but it becomes more visible in social computing environments. I also like to separate this idea from personal brand building. While conceptually you are actually bringing out how you are different and significant from other people--even perhaps Seth Godin's notion of a linchpin in your organization--brand building also harks of self-promotion and ego-stroking. Digital eminence emphasizes what others think of you and your abilities, which may or may not have anything to do with self-promotion.
A second danger is in trying to quantify what is essentially a qualitative assessment. We should be very careful in considering number of followers, friends in your network, or quantity of posts as an indication of one's digital eminence. When you consider eminence as how you stand out, essentially a comparison versus the aggregate group of others in the same field, it may be seen as a ranking. Similarly, such quantity metrics also reinforce this ranking and rating approach. That raises lots of ethical questions when you look at it per individual.
I'm not sure if you've seen this meme but I've come across it in several books both about online and offline communities:
Interactions in communities -->
Creates Understanding --------->
Develops Trust ----------------->
Allows Exploration & Entreprenuership ->
Sets stage for Innovation
The most recent place I saw this meme again, in a slightly varied form was near the last chapters of The World is Flat (ok, maybe I make references to this too often these days :)
Now these are "grand" notions that often follow in a sequence like this above. You need to have one stage happening before you can really reach the next stage. Thus you don't really jump ahead and ask "How do we innovate?" but need to ask "What are we doing to set up an environment such that innovation can happen?"
It's important to realize that the arrows in the diagram above are not trivial. In other words, when you have one stage, you need to do something to progress it to the next stage. That something could take a whole lot of effort. But in terms of managed innovation, it gives points where you can measure how your population is doing and how you can recognize if you've reach that stage.
There are many books out there describing how to innovate and get others to innovate, and I certainly have not read nearly enough of them. I still wonder if some of them consider going through that meme sequence above.
The somethings are also where the opportunities lie. Many innovation and leadership management trends have come and gone, and still many exist in parallel. I'm no certified expert at it and there are likely some really good sources out there too. (Okay, maybe people like Steven Covey)
Right now, I'm just trying to develop an idea for the early stages of this meme, those focused on the developing the community. Hopefully more smart people will come along to explain what to do next.