When it comes to administration of WebSphere environments, I (and many others) am a big fan of scripting. In my view, any administrative action you carry out with frequency > 1 is ideally suited for a script. The downside to not using scripts (longer configuration times, inconsistent configurations, isolated expertise) is simply too steep in most cases. I also realize that simply saying that you should script is not enough. For some, the learning curve can be a bit daunting. Quite frequently, I talk about our samples gallery or provide posts with embedded scripts in the hopes that I can help flatten out this curve a bit.
While these samples can certainly help to speed up your scripting efforts for certain use cases, they are more or less helpful for solving tactical challenges when scripting. If you and your company are embarking down a strategic path that includes beefing up your administrative scripting capability, I would strongly suggest you look at a resource a few of my colleagues pointed me at recently.
The resource I am talking about is the wsadminlib.py package referenced here. This python script file is a collection of hundreds of methods that carry out common WebSphere Application Server administrative tasks. The authors carefully constructed these methods with clear method and parameter names. The result is a script resource that can become the foundation for your custom-crafted administrative scripts.
I recently downloaded the wsadminlib.py script and began constructing WebSphere CloudBurst script packages to utilize it. To say I am impressed would be an understatement. This file makes so many tasks so incredibly simple. Take for instance the creation of an SIBus. That's just a simple call like the following:
wsadminlib.createSIBus(clusterName, nodeName, serverName, SIBusName, scope, secure)
How about associating a shared library with an application or application module? Another one-line call:
wsadminlib.associateSharedLibrary (libName, appName, warName)
Or what about setting a custom property in the webcontainer? You guessed it. One-line:
wsadminlib.setWebContainerCustomProperty(nodeName, serverName, propName, propValue
This is just an extremely small sample of what the wsadminlib.py includes. As I mentioned earlier, there are hundreds of other methods that carry out various tasks including: installing applications, creating core groups, creating virtual hosts, installing BLAs, creating JMS queues, and much more. If you are looking to beef up your WebSphere Application Server scripting efforts, or if you are just starting, I strongly encourage you to look into and make use of this valuable resource!
Can you have cloud computing without virtualization? I don't think so. Some have stated to me that they believe a cloud could b contrived without virtualization but I don't see it. Cloud computing is all about being able to expand or contract an enterprise on demand and as a service. Without deployable virtual images there is no mechanism for doing this efficiently.
I suppose that you could argue that clouds do not necessarily include the OS or the hardware and that you could scale by use of templates and configuration files to clone systems. That is cloning. Cloning, spawning, parallel processing and other mechanisms for creating capacity and processing power dont have the scope that a full cloud implementation has. Cloud computing is an administration paradigm that may share or even employ some or all of these other techniques but can include more.
I guess the biggest thing that sets cloud computing apart from cloining or spawning is that cloud computing is a paradigm for a flexible distributed computing platform. Cloning and spawing are techniques as is Virtualization.Clouds are entire managed infrastructures where virtulized systems are simply tools and cloning is a function of products.
When it comes to managing users and user groups within WebSphere CloudBurst, you can choose to manage all aspects of those resources within the appliance. Mainly this means that you can define and store user information (including login passwords) within the appliance, and you can define and maintain user groups and their associated membership list on the appliance. While you can do this and be sure that your information is extremely secure, you may instead want to integrate with an existing LDAP server that has some of this user and user group data. WebSphere CloudBurst certainly allows you to integrate with LDAP servers, but what does that mean for you?
For starters, when you integrate WebSphere CloudBurst with an LDAP server and enable the LDAP authentication feature, you no longer specify password information when defining users of the appliance. When users login, the password they specify will be authenticated against information stored in the LDAP server. Naturally, if you add a new WebSphere CloudBurst user with LDAP authentication enabled, that user must be defined in the LDAP server. Otherwise, WebSphere CloudBurst will prevent you from adding the user because it has no way to authenticate that person.
From a user groups standpoint, integrating with LDAP means you can no longer modify user group membership. User membership in groups is determined by information in the LDAP server. As a result, the same rule concerning adding new users applies when adding new user groups: You cannot define new user groups that do not exist in the LDAP server.
If you want to take a look at what LDAP integration looks like with WebSphere CloudBurst, I put together a short video. Let me know what you think.
Dustin and i manned the IBM booth at InterOp in Las Vegas last week. The conference was very different from the industry conferences I remember, but then again I haven't been to one in a long time. I don't recall seeing boxing matches, light shows or bikini models but I think they are a welcome addition.
Ostensibly this conference was focused on cloud computing and was even called the "Cloud Summit". However, in the vendor area, there were few real cloud computing specific peds. Most of the vendor displays were about hardware, system monitoring and security.
Ric Telford of IBM gave a keynote address and sspoke of IBM's cloud offerings. After the keynote, there was a flurry of visitors asking about IBM, Cloud Computing and IBM's cloud offerings. Most of the visitors were looking for education and we were happy to have the opportunity to talk about the company and cloud computing from IBM's perspective.
We had the CloudBurst Appliance with us and it drew some interest. The purple case definitely stood out and drew inquiries. Some excitement is being generated but I think now the industry and the market has to catch up to us.
If you frequently find yourself setting up and tearing down application environments that run on offerings from the WebSphere portfolio (like WebSphere Application Server or WebSphere Process Server), I have little doubt that you see the benefit of WebSphere CloudBurst. The appliance allows you to setup these environments with unprecedented speed and extreme simplicity. In fact, WebSphere CloudBurst makes it so simple and fast to setup these environments, it would be surprising if you did not spin up more WebSphere application environments with WebSphere CloudBurst than you did before your adoption of the appliance. Soon, you will find yourself faced with another challenge: that of managing and governing an increasingly growing ecosystem of your application environments.
From the beginning, WebSphere CloudBurst focused on the complete lifecycle for WebSphere application environments in an on-premise cloud. Therefore, in addition to easily creating and deploying these environments, the appliance delivers many features that help you manage and govern the dispensed virtual systems. This includes capabilities such as usage monitoring, fix and upgrade application, and virtual system state management. In the recently announced WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0, management capabilities go a step further, and now you can manage software license usage for your on-premise cloud.
What does it mean to be able to manage your software licenses? Well, in the new version of the appliance (firmware released planned for June 18th), as you dispense environments, WebSphere CloudBurst will keep track of the PVUs you are consuming for the particular IBM software you are instantiating. In doing this, it accounts for the physical machine architecture on which the supporting hypervisor sits, and it takes into account the IBM subcapacity/virtualization licensing policy. This means you can get an accurate view of your PVU usage at any point, and the appliance can produce a highwater mark report for any product over a date period you specify. This is license counting made easy!
In addition to simply tracking your PVU usage, you can optionally configure enforcement behavior. Enforcement behavior tells the appliance what to do when you exceed your PVU threshold for a particular product. You have three basic options: Ignore, Warn, Enforce. In Ignore mode, nothing happens when you exceed your PVU entitlement for a given product. Deployments that use those products continue to deploy as usual. In Warn mode, deployments for products for which you have exceeded your PVU entitlement continue as usual, but appliance administrators receive an email warning them of the situation. Lastly, in Enforce mode deployments that will put you over your PVU threshold for a given product simply fail. This prevents you or deployers using your appliance from overstepping your entitlement.
The software license management features in WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0 really add to the overall management capabilities of the appliance. I want to be sure to reiterate that the configuration of enforcement behavior, specifically the Warn and Enforce modes, is optional. It is not required from IBM. The software license management capabilities delivered in WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0 are purely meant to enhance your capability to manage and govern environments in your on-premise cloud. If you are interested in seeing this in action, check out this short video.
The concepts that govern users and user groups in WebSphere CloudBurst are fairly basic, but I get asked about them enough that I believe they warrant a short discussion. First things first, you can define users in WebSphere CloudBurst and optionally define user groups to assemble users into logical collections. For both users and user groups, you can assign roles that define the actions a particular user or group of users can take using the appliance.
All of that is straight forward, but it can get a bit tricky once we start considering the effects of user permissions when managing at the user group level. The basic premise is that when a user belongs to a group or groups, the user's effective permissions are a sum of the permissions to all of the groups to which they belong. While that is easy to say, and maybe even to understand, I feel like an example always helps.
Consider that we have a single user WCAGuy that belongs to the PatternAuthors, ContentCreators, and CloudAdmins groups. The permissions for those groups are as follows:
PatternAuthors: Users in this group have permission to create and deploy patterns
ContentCreators: Users in this group have permission to create catalog content as well as create and deploy patterns
CloudAdmins: Users in this group have permission to administer the cloud, create catalog content, and create and deploy patterns
Naturally then, it follows that the WCAGuy user can administer the cloud, create catalog content, create patterns, and deploy patterns. So then, what happens if we remove the WCAGuy user from the CloudAdmins user group? Well, as you may expect, there is an update to the user's permissions. The WCAUser user can no longer administer the cloud, but they can still create catalog content, create patterns, and deploy patterns (owing to their membership in the other two groups). Similarly, if we next removed the WCAGuy user from the ContentCreators group, then the user would retain only the permission to create and deploy patterns.
Just one more thing, let's talk about what happens when I remove a user from a group and they no longer belong to any groups. Consider that I created the WCAGuy user with the permission to create catalog content as well as create and deploy patterns. Next, I added the user to the CloudAdmins group, meaning the user now has the permission to administer the cloud. I promptly decide that the user has no business with those permissions, so I remove the user from the CloudAdmins group. What happens? The user retains the permission set of the last group to which they belonged. In this case, that means the WCAGuy user retains cloud administration rights. I have to update the user's permission set if I want to take that right away, but in this case, it will not automatically disappear upon removing them from the CloudAdmins group.
I hope this helps clear up any ambiguity you may have had concerning users, user groups, and permission sets in WebSphere CloudBurst.
It's about the time of year when we all look back and try to determine exactly how we spent the past twelve months. Whether we do it because we have to as part of year-end job reviews or because we like to take stock in what we've done and figure out where to improve next year, it's a time for reflection and recall. For me, this exercise made me take a look at various things we have done to deliver WebSphere CloudBurst technical collateral (articles, demos, blogs, etc.) in 2009.
For all practical purposes, our mission and efforts for such technical collateral for WebSphere CloudBurst started when it was announced at Impact in May of this year. Though there was certainly some preparatory work being done on this front, there was nothing we could really push to the public until after the announcement, and in some cases even after the appliance's release in June. Given that most of the content was produced over a six month stretch, I really think we put forth a strong effort, and I hope that this technical material has helped to both raise awareness of and educate users on the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance.
Seeing as I already went back and rounded up this content, I thought I'd provide you a centralized look at the information. To start, I accounted for the articles that we published to the IBM developerWorks site over the six month stretch. All together I counted 8 articles and a special column entry:
As you can see the articles cover quite a bit of content and range from general level overview articles to technical in-depth "how-to" style articles. In general they seem to have been received well with over 26,000 views to this point. Our goal is to keep the pace up for 2010, and we already have a few articles on our plate for early in the new year (including an overview of what's new in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1).
Another main medium we utilized to spread the word about WebSphere CloudBurst was YouTube. On our YouTube channel at http://youtube.com/websphereclouds, we currently have 17 different videos that demonstrate how to use certain features of the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. Though I think each demo provides value depending on exactly what a viewer is looking for, 3 of them really stick out for me.
Check out our videos if you get a chance. We've made an effort to keep them as short as possible while still providing value to viewers.
We have some WebSphere CloudBurst content spread around other places as well including this blog and my personal blog. Over the next few weeks we'll be taking a look at what worked and didn't work with respect to getting information out to the public. Of course at any time we very much appreciate your feedback on how you like to see content delivered because you are our target audience! If you have a comment, idea, or suggestion, leave a comment on the blog or send me a tweet to @WebSphereClouds.
It's here at long last! IBM PureSystems was announced today and in particular the IBM PureApplication System family member. IBM PureApplication System includes many of the capabilities that you have been hearing about and using in IBM Workload Deployer. While this solution includes and builds upon the capabilities of Workload Deployer, there's also a lot more functionality that is built into a completely integrated and optimized solution that not only manages your private cloud but runs it in the most optimized fashion. It really is a complete private cloud solution that is highly optimized to provide the best possible integration of software and hardware made simple for your cloud needs.
For the last post in my FAQs Revisited series, I'm going to cheat a little bit. Instead of addressing one particular question, I'm going with a grab bag of a few different questions. These are questions that I get asked quite frequently, but do not demand an entire blog post explanation. Let's get on with it.
Question: Do the new software license management capabilities provided in WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0 depend on ILMT or other supporting components?
Answer: No. The license management features are completely standalone. Of course, you can still take advantage of ILMT (through easy integration in WebSphere CloudBurst I might add) to track licenses in your cloud if you so choose.
Question: Can I deploy a pattern, make changes to my virtual system, and then recapture that as an updated pattern?
Answer: You cannot do this with WebSphere CloudBurst alone, but you can use WebSphere CloudBurst in conjunction with the Rational Automation Framework for WebSphere to do just this. Check out this article (shameless plug alert!).
Question: What if I have an urgent operating system fix to apply before IBM delivers an update to the OS in the Hypervisor Edition image?
Answer: You can either manually apply the fix to the appropriate virtual machines, or you could package up the fix as a custom WebSphere CloudBurst fix, load it into the catalog, and use the appliance to automate the application of said fix.
Question: Can I change the install location for WebSphere Application Server in the virtual image?
Answer: I've just shown you all this really cool, useful, and easy to use stuff, and you worry about install locations? Seriously though, I understand the genesis of this question usually has to do with existing scripts that assume a certain install location for WebSphere Application Server. I certainly do not advocate changing those scripts, but you cannot change the install location for WebSphere Application Server in the images. There is nothing to keep you from creating a symbolic link however.
Question: Once I deploy a pattern, what do I need to do to add more processing capacity (i.e. more application server processes)?
Answer: You have a couple of options here. You can use normal WebSphere administration techniques to add more application servers to an existing node. If that will not work (perhaps a particular node is operating at max capacity), you can use the new dynamic virtual machine operations in WebSphere CloudBurst to add an entirely new node/virtual machine. If you find yourself consistently making these types of adjustments to the runtime environment based on ebb and flow of demand, you may also want to consider the Intelligent Management Pack option for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition.
I hope this FAQs Revisited series was helpful. Stay tuned for a look at some recent work I did to integrate WebSphere CloudBurst deployments with the new WebSphere DataPower XC10 appliance.
One of my favorite things to do with users or potential users of WebSphere CloudBurst is to help them understand how they can construct a custom environment using the appliance. Typically, we take one of their existing application environments and discuss the configuration steps that contribute to its makeup. From there, we map the required configuration actions to different customization capabilities in the appliance. It is one thing to talk about how you can customize every layer of your application stack with WebSphere CloudBurst, it is quite another to talk about it in the context of an existing environment. This exercise usually serves to greatly enhance a user's understanding of how to construct tailored environments with the appliance.
While I cannot take every one of you through this exercise in the context of one of your own application environments, I can propose a scenario that will help to illustrate the WebSphere CloudBurst customization process. Consider that I want to deploy a clustered WebSphere Application Server environment whose application server instances utilize WebSphere DataPower XC10 for HTTP session management. In order to deploy such an environment, I would need to do the following:
Install an OS and WAS
Install the WebSphere eXtreme Scale Client binaries - required for integration
Construct a clustered cell
Augment profiles with WebSphere eXtreme Scale profile templates
Configure the application server instances to use WebSphere DataPower XC10 for session management
So those are the steps, but how do they map to WebSphere CloudBurst? First, I know that the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition image used by WebSphere CloudBurst encapsulates the installation of the OS and WAS. I also know that WebSphere CloudBurst will automatically construct the clustered cell during the deployment process. That means I need to address the installation of client binaries, augmentation of profiles, and configuration of application server instances. In order to do this, I will use a combination of image extension and custom script packages.
To get started, I extend an existing WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition image and simply install the WebSphere eXtreme Scale Client binaries. I then capture that image and store it as my own unique image in the WebSphere CloudBurst catalog. Now, you may wonder why I did not capture the profile augmentation in the custom image. Remember, you cannot change profile configuration during the extend and capture process as WebSphere CloudBurst resets the profiles as part of capturing the custom image.
My custom image encapsulates the installation of the client binaries, so now I turn to custom script packages. I need two in this case. One script package will augment a profile (either deployment manager or custom node) with the WebSphere eXtreme Scale profile template. The second script package will configure application server instances to use WebSphere DataPower XC10 for HTTP session management. Once done with these script packages, I have all the assets I need to build my target environment.
Using my custom image, I build a pattern that contains the number and kind of WebSphere Application Server nodes that I want. I use the advanced options to define a WebSphere Application Server cluster ensuring its creation happens during deployment. Next, I drag and drop the profile augmentation script onto the deployment manager and custom node parts in my pattern. Finally, I drag and drop the WebSphere DataPower XC10 configuration script onto the deployment manager. The pattern is now ready to deploy!
For those of you that are visual learners like me, this demonstration provides a nice overview of exactly what I wrote about above. Check it out and let me know what you think.