If you've read anything I've written about WebSphere CloudBurst up to this point you know all about patterns. Using the appliance you can easily and quickly build, deploy, and manage these representations of your middleware application environments. Today, I want to focus in on the deployment piece in particular and take a look at how you can easily automate this process.
You can use the WebSphere CloudBurst web console to deploy patterns, and when doing so you can even schedule the deployment to happen at a later date. This scheduling capability certainly gets you on the road to an automated deployment process, but what if you want to take it one step further and eliminate the need for someone to login and manually move around the web console to schedule automated deployments? In this case, you can use either the CLI or the REST interface that WebSphere CloudBurst offers.
In this post I thought I'd take a look at using the CLI interface in order to set the stage for some nice automation around pattern deployment. It starts out with a properties file that provides details about my deployment. This includes the cloud to deploy to, the pattern to deploy, password information, and the time at which the virtual system should start.
SYSTEM_NAME_PREFIX=New App Development
TARGET_CLOUD=Default ESX group
TARGET_PATTERN=WebSphere single server
Imagine that the properties file above gets written as the result of some other action, such as the completion of your application's build process. With the properties file in place, and I'll point out that your properties file can and probably will be more robust than above, let's move on to the code that handles the deployment process based on the information in said file. First, we have a small amount of CLI code to retrieve and parse the input data (I omitted the straight-forward properties retrieval for space):
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
from java.util import Properties
from java.io import FileInputStream
// read in and retrieve properties using java.util.Properties API (i.e. props.getProperty('DEPLOYMENT_DATE'))
parsedParts = deploymentDate.split(" ")
systemName = systemName + "_" + deploymentDate
dateParts = parsedParts.split("/")
timeParts = parsedParts.split(":")
monthPart = int(dateParts)
dayPart = int(dateParts)
yearPart = int(dateParts)
hourPart = int(timeParts)
minutePart = int(timeParts)
Next is the code that actually schedules the pattern deployment:
First we get the desired deployment time and current time as datetime objects. After that, assuming the desired deployment time has not already elapsed, we calculate the difference between the desired deployment time and current time. This difference, in seconds, is then added to the result of the time.time() value to come up with a start time. After that is done, we simply retrieve the cloud that was indicated in the properties file, and then we call the runInCloud method for the pattern indicated. When calling the runInCloud method we supply the name of the virtual system that will be created, password information, and the start time we calculated earlier. As a result of this method call, a task will be generated in the target WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance and the virtual system will be started at the specified time. This will happen in an automated fashion with no human intervention required.
That's really all there is to automating the pattern deployment process using the CLI. In a more complete, end-to-end scenario you may envision the completion of one process, such as an application build process mentioned above, result in the writing of the properties file and in turn the call into the CLI to deploy a pattern. As always, feel free to send me any comments or questions.
In WebSphere CloudBurst, a script package is your vehicle to provide custom middleware configuration. This may mean installing applications, configuring application dependencies, or otherwise tuning the middleware layer. Script packages are essentially ZIP files that include some executable (shell script, wsadmin script, Java program, etc.), and optionally, artifacts that support the execution of the script. As was the intention, you can achieve just about anything you want with a script package. This allows you to be as flexible and creative as you need to be, but it can also leave you asking "Where do I start?" In this post, I want to take an in-depth look at constructing and using a script package in WebSphere CloudBurst.
Specifically, I want to create a script package that supplies configuration functionality for something I believe a fair number of you do: change the default ports used in WebSphere Application Server. To create this and deploy a pattern using the script package, I do the following:
Create a shell script that configures the desired ports
Add the new script as a WebSphere CloudBurst script package
Create a pattern with the new script package
Deploy the pattern and verify the result
First things first. I create the following shell script that configures the ports:
The script uses documented ANT commands included with the WebSphere Application Server to update the ports based on a starting port number. You will notice the script first sources the /etc/virtualimage.properties file. This file is automatically created by WebSphere CloudBurst on every virtual machine it starts. The file is a key/value file with basic information about the WebSphere cell such as the install root ($WAS_INSTALL_ROOT), the profile name ($PROFILE_NAME), host name ($HOSTNAME), and more. For a full list of the data that WebSphere CloudBurst includes in this file, check out this documentation.
In addition to utilizing the standard set of variables provided by WebSphere CloudBurst, my script above also makes use of the $STARTING_PORT variable. Obviously this variable is not in the standard set. In fact, I define the STARTING_POINT variable when I define my new script package in WebSphere CloudBurst.
First I zip up the shell script above and attach it to the new script package. Next, I tell WebSphere CloudBurst where to unzip the script package on the virtual machine, how to invoke the included script, and the name of any parameters to associate with the script. Once that is done I can use the script package in a new pattern.
For the sake of simplicity here, I create a new pattern by cloning an existing WebSphere Application Server single server pattern. I drag and drop the new Configure ports script package on the single part and end up with the pattern shown below.
Now I am ready to deploy the pattern by clicking the Deploy button. During the deployment process I configure each part in the pattern (in this there is only a single part). I supply configuration information like virtual memory allocation, WebSphere cell name, WebSphere node name, and password information. In addition, I also supply a value for the STARTING_PORT parameter that is part of the Configure ports script package included in the pattern. The value I supply here will get inserted into the /etc/virtualimage.properties file on the virtual machine, and the value's key will be STARTING_PORT.
Once the configuration information is supplied, I click OK on the configuration panel and deployment panel, and WebSphere CloudBurst goes about standing up my virtualized WebSphere cell and running my script to configure the ports for the server instance. When it is done, I login to the WebSphere Application Server administration console to verify my results. To do this, I navigate to the configuration for the single application server instance, and pull up its port definitions.
Based on the results I can see my customizations took effect. I successfully captured my own unique WebSphere environment (in this case with a custom port range) in the form of a pattern. This custom environment can be deployed as many times as I need, in an automated fashion, and I'm guaranteed consistent results each and every time.
I hope this gives you a better idea of what script packages are all about and how they can utilize both WebSphere CloudBurst and user-supplied data that exists in the /etc/virtualimage.properties file of each virtual machine. If you have any questions let me know. I'm on Twitter @damrhein, or you can leave a comment right here.
If you are going to install and use WebSphere CloudBurst in your own environment, it is very likely that you would want at least two appliances. Perhaps you want to have a standby appliance in case of a failure on the main appliance, or maybe you have different teams that are looking to utilize the appliance in different data centers. In any case, once you install multiple appliances there's another requirement that will pop up pretty quickly. Naturally you are going to want to share custom artifacts among the various WebSphere CloudBurst boxes.
When I say custom artifacts, namely I mean virtual images, patterns, and script packages. Script packages have been easy enough to share since WebSphere CloudBurst 1.0 because you can simply download the ZIP file from one appliance and upload it to another. However, there are some enhancements in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1 that make it easy to share both patterns and images among your different appliances.
As far as patterns go, there is a new script included in the samples directory of the WebSphere CloudBurst command line interface package called patternToPython.py. This script will transform a pattern you specify into a python script. The resulting python script can then be run against a different WebSphere CloudBurst (using the CLI), and the result is the pattern is created on the target appliance. You need to be sure that the artifacts that pattern references (script packages and virtual images) exist on the target appliance and have the exact same name as they do on the appliance from which the pattern was taken. There are no other caveats, and this new sample script makes it really simple to move patterns between appliances.
For virtual images, a new feature was added that allows you to export a virtual image from the WebSphere CloudBurst console. Simply select a virtual image, specify a remote machine (any machine with SCP enabled), and click a button to export the image as an OVA file. This OVA file can then be added to another WebSphere CloudBurst catalog using the normal process for adding virtual images. You can see this feature in action here.
Stay tuned for more information about some of the handy new features in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1. We also should have a comprehensive look at the new release coming soon in a developerWorks article.
I'm out at the RSA conference in San Francisco this week, and I'm expecting a lot of good conversations about WebSphere CloudBurst and security. This topic always comes up when I'm out and talking to customers, and I approach it from a few different angles.
First of all, WebSphere CloudBurst enables the creation of on-premise clouds (clouds in your data center). This means that you retain control over the resources that make up and support your cloud, and you have the ability to very tightly secure said resources. Notice that I say "you have the ability". I'm careful to point out that on-premise clouds do not inherently make your environment secure. If you don't already have a robust security strategy in place within your enterprise, then simply moving to a cloud model will not solve much. That being said, if you do have a comprehensive security strategy in place, one built around customized processes and access rights, then on-premise clouds are likely to make much more sense for you.
Moving beyond the opportunity for customized security controls provided by on-premise clouds, WebSphere CloudBurst delivers additional, unique security features. It starts on the outside with the tamper-resistant physical casing. If a malicious user attempts to remove the casing to get to the inner contents, the appliance is put into a dormant state, and it must be sent to IBM to be reset. "So what!" you say. If the user removes the casing and gets to the contents, couldn't they simply read the contents off the flash memory or hard disks directly, or insert them into another WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance and read them from there? Nope. All of the contents stored on the appliance's flash memory and hard disks are encrypted with a private key that cannot be changed and is unique to each and every appliance.
If you are at all familiar with WebSphere CloudBurst, you know that the appliance dispenses and monitors virtual systems running on a collection of hypervisors. Obviously then, the appliance must remotely communicate with the hypervisors. In order to secure this communication, all information between WebSphere CloudBurst and the hypervisors (and vice versa) is encrypted. This encryption is achieved by using an SSL certificate that is exchanged when a hypervisor is defined in WebSphere CloudBurst. This certificate must be accepted by a user, thus preventing rogue hypervisors from being defined in WebSphere CloudBurst.
Finally, WebSphere CloudBurst provides for the definition of users and user groups with varying permissions and resource access rights in the appliance. You don't have to turn over the keys to your cloud kingdom when you add a user to the appliance. You have the capability to define varying permissions (from simply deploying patterns, to creating them, all the way up to administering the cloud and appliance), and you have the ability to control access to resources (patterns, virtual images, script packages, cloud groups, etc.) at a fine-grained level. These two capabilities combine to allow you to control not only what actions a user can take, but also on which resources they can take those actions.
WebSphere CloudBurst was designed with focus on delivering a secure cloud experience, and I think it hit the mark. I'm sure I didn't address all your WebSphere CloudBurst and security related questions. If you have something specific in mind, leave a comment on the blog or reach out to me on Twitter. I'll do my best to address your question.
In a recent post, Joe Bohn detailed some of the new capabilities and enhancements that come along with the recently delivered IBM Workload Deployer v3.1. To be sure, there are many valuable new features such as PowerVM support for virtual application patterns, the Plugin Developer Kit, WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition v8, and more. Each of these topics probably merit their own post, but today I want to talk about something I did not mention above. Specifically, I want to talk about the announcements regarding the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool (ICCT) and what that means for IBM Workload Deployer users.
You may have read an earlier post that I wrote about the ICCT, but allow me a brief overview here. In short, the ICCT enables the construction of custom virtual images for use in IBM Workload Deployer. You use the tool to create virtual images, much like IBM Hypervisor Edition images, and then you can use those custom images (containing whatever content you need) to create your own custom virtual system patterns. The key point about the custom images you create with the ICCT is that they are dynamically configurable. That is, the tool helps you to create the images in such a way that you can defer configuration until deploy time rather than burning such configuration directly into an image. For those of you familiar with virtual image creation, you know this type of 'intelligent construction' is a huge step towards keeping image inventory at a reasonable level.
Okay, enough of a general overview for now. Let's talk about the two new items of note regarding IBM Workload Deployer v3.1 and the ICCT. The first thing you should know is that starting in IBM Workload Deployer v3.1, the ICCT is shipped with the appliance. This means that you do not need to go anywhere else in order to get your hands on the tool to start creating your custom images. You simply log into IBM Workload Deployer and click the download link on the appliance's welcome panel (shown in image below).
Getting your hands on the tool is one piece of the puzzle, but using it is quite another. While the ICCT has been available as an alphaWorks project for some time, that also implies that there has never been official support for the tool. That changes starting with IBM Workload Deployer v3.1. The ICCT is now a generally available product from IBM, and that means that it is fully and officially supported as well. Further, the images you create using the tool are also officially supported for use as building blocks of your IBM Workload Deployer virtual system patterns. For many of you who have been using the ICCT for some time, but have been hesitant to expand use because of the lack of a formal support statement, you should now feel free to charge forward!
I hope this helps clear up exactly what the new Image Construction and Composition Tool announcements that were part of IBM Workload Deployer v3.1 actually mean. I cannot wait to hear about how you all are putting the ICCT to use with IBM Workload Deployer. Finally, don't forget to send us any questions, comments, or other feedback that you may have regarding this or any other new feature in IBM Workload Deployer v3.1!
I hardly ever have a conversation about WebSphere CloudBurst, or generally cloud computing for application middleware, without the topic of databases coming up. Databases are such an important piece of nearly every application middleware environment, so users want to be sure that whatever they do for their application servers, they can also do for the databases on which their applications rely. That is why the capability to deploy DB2 from WebSphere CloudBurst has been around for as nearly as long as the capability to deploy WebSphere Application Server.
Even though DB2 deployment capability has been around for a while, there are still some common misconceptions regarding the offering. First, I have talked to a fair number of users who are under the impression that we only offer a trial version of DB2 for deployment via WebSphere CloudBurst. While that was true for the first few months of the offering, that is no longer the case. For several months now, a fully supported, 64 bit, production-ready DB2 image has been ready for use in WebSphere CloudBurst. If you were waiting for a DB2 image that you could go live with, wait no longer!
The other misconception, or rather, point of confusion, arises from the fact that the DB2 image for WebSphere CloudBurst is not, by name, a Hypervisor Edition image. I can assure you that is in name only. The DB2 image looks like and behaves like any other IBM Hypervisor Edition image once you load it into the appliance. You can use it to build and deploy patterns in the same way you use other images in WebSphere CloudBurst. You may just have trouble finding it if you search for 'DB2 Hypervisor Edition' as opposed to 'DB2 Server for WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance.'
Instead of going into further detail, I want to refer you to a blog entry from a fellow IBMer, Leon Katsnelson. Leon is a program director for DB2 and is responsible for the team that develops and delivers the DB2 image for WebSphere CloudBurst. In his most recent post, he provides a nice overview of the image and gives good information for those looking to use DB2 and WebSphere CloudBurst (there is also a bit on cloud computing at the beginning that I think is spot on). Check out Leon's post, and let us know what you think!
When it comes to managing users and user groups within WebSphere CloudBurst, you can choose to manage all aspects of those resources within the appliance. Mainly this means that you can define and store user information (including login passwords) within the appliance, and you can define and maintain user groups and their associated membership list on the appliance. While you can do this and be sure that your information is extremely secure, you may instead want to integrate with an existing LDAP server that has some of this user and user group data. WebSphere CloudBurst certainly allows you to integrate with LDAP servers, but what does that mean for you?
For starters, when you integrate WebSphere CloudBurst with an LDAP server and enable the LDAP authentication feature, you no longer specify password information when defining users of the appliance. When users login, the password they specify will be authenticated against information stored in the LDAP server. Naturally, if you add a new WebSphere CloudBurst user with LDAP authentication enabled, that user must be defined in the LDAP server. Otherwise, WebSphere CloudBurst will prevent you from adding the user because it has no way to authenticate that person.
From a user groups standpoint, integrating with LDAP means you can no longer modify user group membership. User membership in groups is determined by information in the LDAP server. As a result, the same rule concerning adding new users applies when adding new user groups: You cannot define new user groups that do not exist in the LDAP server.
If you want to take a look at what LDAP integration looks like with WebSphere CloudBurst, I put together a short video. Let me know what you think.
One of the key benefits of WebSphere CloudBurst adoption is rapid -- seriously fast -- deployments of middleware application environments. Our users are leveraging the appliance to bring up enterprise-class middleware environments in mere minutes. If you know a little bit about WebSphere CloudBurst, that statistic may be a little surprising considering the appliance dispenses large virtual images from the appliance over the network to a farm of hypervisors. You may ask how the appliance can achieve such rapid deployments in light of the mere physics involved in transferring large amounts of data over a network. The simple answer is caching of course!
WebSphere CloudBurst creates a cache for each unique virtual image on datastores associated with the hypervisors in your cloud. On subsequent deployments of the same virtual image to the same datastore, WebSphere CloudBurst does not need to transfer the image over the wire. It simply uses the virtual disks that are in the cache on the datastore. In the context of the virtual image cache, the deployment process goes something like this:
WebSphere CloudBurst identifies the images necessary to deploy the pattern selected by the user.
WebSphere CloudBurst identifies the hypervisors and associated datastores that will host the virtual machines created during deployment.
WebSphere CloudBurst checks the selected datastores to see if they already have caches for the images it will be deploying. From here, one of two things happens:
WebSphere CloudBurst detects that there is no cache on the datastore and transfers the images over to the hypervisor, thereby creating the cache on the underlying datastore.
WebSphere CloudBurst detects that there is a cache on the selected datastore and uses that cache in lieu of transferring the disk over the wire.
The process may sound complicated, but it is completely hidden from you, the user. You do not need to know how the cache works since WebSphere CloudBurst handles all of these interactions. So, why am I telling you all of this then? As a WebSphere CloudBurst user, it is good to be aware of the cache for two main reasons. First, you need to account for the storage space the cache needs when doing capacity planning for your WebSphere CloudBurst cloud. Second, anytime you upload or create a new image through extend and capture, I would strongly suggest you automatically prime the cache for this new image. You can do this by simply deploying a pattern built on the image to each unique hypervisor/datastore in your environment. This may take a temporary re-arrangement of cloud groups, but it is a simple process, and it guarantees rapid deployments for all users of the new image.
I hope this sheds a little light on a subject we do not discuss too often. As always, if you have any questions, do not hesitate to let me know!
Though I feel like we've come a long way in some of the initial confusion surrounding IBM CloudBurst and WebSphere CloudBurst, I still get quite a few basic questions on the solutions. The two most common questions are, 'Are they different products?', and 'Can/should I use them together?'. I put together a really brief overview that answers these questions and talks about the basics of the combined solution. I hope it provides a good introduction!
Every time I've visited with customers about WebSphere CloudBurst, without fail someone requests that the appliance support products besides the WebSphere Application Server. We started to address these requests with WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1 when we announced the availability of a DB2 Enterprise 9.7 trial virtual image specifically packaged for use in the appliance. Very recently we continued to respond to customer requests by extending the list of supported products in WebSphere CloudBurst to include WebSphere Portal.
The WebSphere Portal Hypervisor Edition, initially offered as a Beta product, is a virtual image packaging of WebSphere Portal 6.1.5 ready for use in the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. The image includes a pre-installed, pre-configured instance of WebSphere Portal. Also contained within the image is an IBM HTTP Server instance configured to route to the WebSphere Portal instance and a DB2 instance installed and configured as the external database for WebSphere Portal. The WebSphere Portal instance also includes Web Content Management enablement along with several samples to help users get started right away.
The user experience when building and deploying WebSphere Portal patterns remains consistent with the existing experience for WebSphere Application Server and DB2 patterns. Another good note is that you can expect similar rapid deployment capability for WebSphere Portal patterns. I got a running virtual system, with all the parts I mentioned above installed and configured (meaning no after the fact integration scripting was necessary) in under 15 minutes.
To see more, check out my new demonstration of the WebSphere Portal Hypervisor Edition for the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. If you have a WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance you can download the WebSphere Portal Hypervisor Edition image and a usage guide from here.
One of the most exciting announcements at IBM IMPACT last week was that of the new WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition. This new virtual image allows you to provision complete WebSphere Process Server environments into your on-premise cloud using the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. Just like with the other environments you can provision using WebSphere CloudBurst (namely WebSphere Application Server, DB2, and Portal Server), you can stand up these WebSphere Process Server environments in a matter of minutes.
The WebSphere Process Server does not come pre-loaded on the appliance, but it does come with a cool utility that helps you get it on the appliance. The WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition loader provides a wizard-like tool that loads the image into the catalog of an appliance you specify. The tool is simple to use and is included as part of the image package that you download from Passport Advantage.
Not only does the loader above populate the WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition into the appliance's catalog, but it also creates a set of patterns for the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. These patterns encapsulate golden topology environments for WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition. At the time of my post, the patterns created by the loader include the following:
Standalone server: This pattern represents a single server instance of WebSphere Process Server. Deployment of the pattern results in a single virtual machine that contains both the server instance and a DB2 instance.
Simulated environment: This pattern contains a single part called a 'Full function control node'. Deployment of the pattern results in the creation of a deployment manager, proxy server, DB2 environment, and three WebSphere Process Server clusters (application target cluster, support cluster, and messaging cluster), all in a single virtual machine.
Scalable environment: This pattern contains a deployment manager, 'Basic function nodes' part, DB2 part, and a proxy server. Deploying the pattern results in the same components as the pattern above, but in this case each component resides in its own virtual machine.
The announcement of the WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition only serves to increase the applicability of WebSphere CloudBurst for constructing on-premise WebSphere clouds. If you have any questions, or want to learn more about this new virtual image, please let me know.