Dependency injection with Guice

Testable code with less boilerplate

Guice is a dependency injection (DI) framework. I've suggested for years that developers use DI, because it improves maintainability, testability, and flexibility. By watching engineers react to Guice, I've learned that the best way to convince a programmer to adopt a new technology is to make it really easy. Guice makes DI really easy, and as a result, the practice has taken off at Google. I hope to continue in the same vein in this article by making it really easy for you to learn Guice.

Guice 2.0 beta

As I write this, the Guice team is working hard on Guice 2.0 and expects to release before the end of 2008. An early beta is posted on the Google Code download site (see Related topics). This is good news, because the Guice team has added features that will make your Guice code easier to use and understand. The beta lacks some features that will make it into the final version, but it's stable and high quality. In fact, Google uses the beta version in production software. I advise you to do the same. I've written this article specifically for Guice 2.0, covering some new Guice features and glossing over features from 1.0 that have been deprecated. The Guice team has assured me that the features I cover won't change between the current beta and final release.

If you already understand DI and know why you'd want a framework to help you with it, you can skip to the Basic injection with Guice section. Otherwise, read on to learn about DI's benefits.

The case for DI

I'll start with an example. Let's say I'm writing a superhero application, and I'm implementing a hero named Frog Man. Listing 1 contains the code, as well as my first test. (I hope I don't need to convince you of the value of writing unit tests.)

Listing 1. A basic hero and his test
public class FrogMan {
  private FrogMobile vehicle = new FrogMobile();
  public FrogMan() {}
  // crime fighting logic goes here...

public class FrogManTest extends TestCase {
 public void testFrogManFightsCrime() {
    FrogMan hero = new FrogMan();
    //make some assertions...

All seems well until I try running the test, whereupon I get the exception in Listing 2:

Listing 2. Dependencies can be troublesome
java.lang.RuntimeException: Refinery startup failure.
  at HeavyWaterRefinery.<init>(
  at FrogMobile.<init>(
  at FrogMan.<init>(
  at FrogManTest.testFrogManFightsCrime(

It seems that the FrogMobile constructs a HeavyWaterRefinery and, well, let's just say there's no way I can construct one of those in my test. I can do so in production, sure, but no one will grant me a second refinery permit just for testing. In real life, you're not likely to refine deuterium oxide, but you are likely to depend on remote servers and beefy databases. The principle is the same: These dependencies are hard to start and slow to interact with, and they cause your tests to fail more often than they should.

Enter DI

To avoid this problem, you can create an interface (for example, Vehicle) and have your FrogMan class accept the Vehicle as a constructor argument, as in Listing 3:

Listing 3. Depend on interfaces, and have them injected
public class FrogMan {
  private Vehicle vehicle;

  public FrogMan(Vehicle vehicle) {
    this.vehicle = vehicle;
  // crime fighting logic goes here...

This idiom is the essence of DI — have your classes accept their dependencies through references to interfaces instead of constructing them (or using static references). Listing 4 shows how DI makes your test easier:

Listing 4. Your test can use mocks instead of troublesome dependencies
static class MockVehicle implements Vehicle {
  boolean didZoom;

  public String zoom() {
    this.didZoom = true;
    return "Mock Vehicle Zoomed.";

public void testFrogManFightsCrime() {
  MockVehicle mockVehicle = new MockVehicle();

  FrogMan hero = new FrogMan(mockVehicle);

  // other assertions

This test uses a hand-written mock object to replace the FrogMobile. Not only does DI free the test from the painful refinery startup cost, but it also keeps the test from knowing about FrogMobile. All it needs is the Vehicle interface. In addition to making tests easier, DI also helps your code's overall modularity and maintainability. Now, if you want to switch the FrogMobile for the FrogBarge, you can do so without modifying FrogMan. All FrogMan depends on is the interface.

There's a catch, however. If you're like me the first time I read about DI, you're thinking: "Great, now all FrogMan's callers have to know about the FrogMobile (and the refinery, and the refinery's dependencies, and so on...)." But if that were true, DI would never have caught on. Instead of forcing callers to assume the burden, you can write factories to manage the creation of an object and its dependencies.

Factories are where frameworks come in. Factories require a lot of tedious, repetitive code. In the best case, they annoy the program author (and readers), and in the worst, they never get written because of the inconvenience. Guice and other DI frameworks serve as flexible "super factories" that you configure to build your objects. Configuring the framework is a lot easier than writing your own factories. As a result, programmers write more code in a DI style. More tests, better code, and happy programmers follow.

Basic injection with Guice

I hope I've convinced you that DI adds value to your designs and that using a framework will make your life even easier. Let's dive into Guice, starting with the @Inject annotation and modules.

Tell Guice you want your class @Inject-ed

The only difference between FrogMan and FrogMan on Guice is @Inject. Listing 5 shows FrogMan's constructor with the annotation:

Listing 5. FrogMan has been @Injected
public FrogMan(Vehicle vehicle) {
  this.vehicle = vehicle;

Some engineers dislike the idea of adding an @Inject to their class. They prefer that a class be totally ignorant of the DI framework. This is a reasonable point, but I'm not convinced by it. As dependencies go, an annotation is pretty mild. The @Inject tag takes on meaning only when you ask Guice to construct your class. If you don't ask Guice to create FrogMan, the annotation has no effect on the code's behavior. The annotation provides a nice clue that Guice will participate in the construction of the class. However, using it does require source-level access. If the annotation bothers you or you're using Guice to create objects whose source you don't control, Guice has an alternate mechanism (see the Other uses for provider methods sidebar later in the article).

Tell Guice which dependency you want

Now that Guice knows that your hero needs a Vehicle, it needs to know which Vehicle to provide. Listing 6 contains a Module : a special class that you use to tell Guice which implementations go with which interfaces:

Listing 6. The HeroModule binds Vehicle to FrogMobile
public class HeroModule implements Module {
  public void configure(Binder binder) {

A module is an interface with a single method. The Binder that Guice passes to your module lets you tell Guice how you want your objects constructed. The binder API forms a domain-specific language (see Related topics). This minilanguage lets you write expressive code such as bind(X).to(Y).in(Z). You'll see more examples of what the binder can do as we proceed. Each call to bind creates a binding, and the set of bindings are what Guice uses to resolve injection requests.

Bootstrap with an Injector

Next, you bootstrap Guice using the Injector class. Typically you want to create your injector very early in your program. This lets Guice create most of your objects for you. Listing 7 contains an example main program that starts a heroic adventure using an Injector:

Listing 7 Bootstrapping your application with an Injector
public class Adventure {
  public static void main(String[] args){
    Injector injector = Guice.createInjector(new HeroModule());
    FrogMan hero = injector.getInstance(FrogMan.class);

To get an injector, you call createInjector on the Guice class. You pass createInjector a list of modules it should use to configure itself. (This example has only one, but you could add a VillainModule that configures evildoers.) Once you have the injector, you ask it for objects with getInstance, passing in the .class you'd like to get back. (Astute readers will notice that you don't need to tell Guice about FrogMan. It turns out that if you ask for a concrete class, and it has an @Inject constructor or public no-argument constructor, Guice creates it without needing a call to bind.)

This is the first way of getting Guice to construct your objects: asking explicitly. However, you don't want to do this outside of your bootstrapping routine. The better, easier way is to have Guice inject your dependencies, and the dependencies' dependencies, and so on. (As the saying goes, "it's turtles all the way down"; see Related topics). This will seem disconcerting at first, but after a while you'll get used to it. As an example, Listing 8 shows the FrogMobile having its FuelSource injected:

Listing 8. The FrogMobile accepting a FuelSource
public FrogMobile(FuelSource fuelSource){
  this.fuelSource = fuelSource;

This means that when you retrieve FrogMan, Guice constructs a FuelSource, a FrogMobile, and then finally a FrogMan, even though your application interacted with the injector only once.

Of course, you don't always get the chance to control your application's main routine. Many Web frameworks, for example, automagically construct "actions," "templates," or something else that serve as your starting point. You can usually find a place to shim Guice in, either with a plug-in for the framework or some handwritten code of your own. (For example, the Guice project has released a plug-in for Struts 2 that lets Guice configure your Struts actions; see Related topics.)

Other forms of injection

So far, I've shown @Inject applied to constructors. When it finds this annotation, Guice picks through the constructor arguments and tries to find a configured binding for each of them. This is known as constructor injection. According to the Guice best practices guide, constructor injection is the preferred way to ask for your dependencies. But it's not the only way. Listing 9 shows another way to configure the FrogMan class:

Listing 9. Method injection
public class FrogMan{
  private Vehicle vehicle;

  public void setVehicle(Vehicle vehicle) {
    this.vehicle = vehicle;
//etc. ...

Notice that I've gotten rid of the injected constructor and instead have a method tagged with @Inject. Guice calls this method immediately after it constructs my hero. Fans of the Spring Framework may see this as "setter injection." However, Guice cares only about @Inject; your method can be named anything you like, and it can take multiple parameters. It can be package-protected or private too.

If you think Guice's decision to access private methods seems intrusive, wait until you see Listing 10, in which FrogMan uses field injection:

Listing 10. Field injection
public class FrogMan {
  @Inject private Vehicle vehicle;
  public FrogMan(){}
//etc. ...

Again, all Guice cares about is the @Inject annotation. It finds any fields you annotate and tries to inject the appropriate dependency.

Which one is best?

All three versions of FrogMan exhibit the same behavior: Guice injects the appropriate Vehicle when they're constructed. However, I prefer constructor injection, as do Guice's authors. Here's a quick analysis of the three styles:

  • Constructor injection is straightforward. Because Java technology guarantees constructor invocation, you don't need to worry about objects arriving in an uninitialized state — whether or not Guice creates them. You can also mark your fields final.
  • Field injection harms testability, especially if you mark the fields private. That defeats one of the main aims of DI. You should use field injection only in very limited circumstances.
  • Method injection can be useful if you don't control a class's instantiation. You can also use it if you have a superclass that needs some dependencies. (Constructor injection makes this difficult.)

Selecting your implementation

So let's say you have more than one Vehicle in your application. The equally heroic Weasel Girl can't drive the FrogMobile! At the same time, you don't want to hardcode a dependency on the WeaselCopter. Guice solves this problem by letting you annotate your dependencies. Listing 11 shows Weasel Girl requesting a faster mode of transport:

Listing 11. Use annotations to request a specific implementation
public WeaselGirl(@Fast Vehicle vehicle) {
  this.vehicle = vehicle;

In Listing 12, the HeroModule uses the binder to tell Guice that the WeaselCopter is "fast":

Listing 12. Tell Guice about your annotation in your Module
public class HeroModule implements Module {
 public void configure(Binder binder) {

Notice that I chose an annotation that describes the sort of vehicle I want in abstract terms (@Fast) rather than ones that are too closely tied to the implementation (@WeaselCopter). If you use annotations that describe the intended implementation too precisely, you create an implicit dependency in the minds of your readers. If you use @WeaselCopter and Weasel Girl borrows the Wombat Rocket, it could confuse programmers reading or debugging the code.

To create the @Fast annotation, you need to copy the boilerplate in Listing 13:

Listing 13. Copy-paste this code to create a binding annotation
@Target({ElementType.FIELD, ElementType.PARAMETER})
public @interface Fast {}

If you write a lot of BindingAnnotations, you'll wind up with a lot of these little files, each of which differs only in the name of the annotation. If you find this really annoying or want to do some quick prototyping, you could consider Guice's built-in @Named annotation, which accepts a string attribute. Listing 14 illustrates that alternative:

Listing 14. Using @Named instead of a custom annotation
// in WeaselGirl
public WeaselGirl(@Named("Fast") Vehicle vehicle) {

// in HeroModule

This works, but because the name lives inside a string, you give up the benefits of compile-time checks and autocompletion. On the whole, I'd rather write my own annotations.

What if you don't want to use an annotation at all? Even adding @Fast or @Named("Fast") makes your class partially responsible for configuring itself. If that troubles you, read on.

Provider methods

You're sick of sending Frog Man on every adventure. You'd like a random hero for each new escapade. However, Guice's default binder API doesn't allow a call like "bind the Hero class to a different implementation each call." However, you can tell Guice to use a special method to create every new Hero. Listing 15 shows a new method added to the HeroModule, annotated with the special @Provides annotation:

Listing 15. Using a provider to write custom creation logic
private Hero provideHero(FrogMan frogMan, WeaselGirl weaselGirl) {
  if (Math.random() > .5) {
    return frogMan;
  return weaselGirl;

Guice automatically discovers all methods in your Modules that have the @Provides annotation. Based on the return type of Hero, it works out that when you ask for a hero, it should call this method to provide it. You can stuff provider methods with logic to construct your object, pick it randomly, look it up from a cache, or obtain it by other means. Provider methods are an excellent way to integrate other libraries into your Guice module. They're also new as of Guice 2.0. (The Guice 1.0 way was to write custom provider classes, which were clunkier and more verbose. If you've decided to use Guice 1.0, the user's guide has documentation on the old way, and the sample code supplied with this article has a custom provider you can look at.)

Guice automatically injects the provider method in Listing 15 with the correct arguments. This means Guice will find WeaselGirl and FrogMan from its list of bindings without you needing to construct them manually within the provider method. This illustrates the "it's turtles all the way down" principle. You rely on Guice to provide your dependencies, even when you're configuring your Guice module itself.

Asking for a Provider instead of a dependency

Suppose you want multiple heroes in one story — a Saga. If you ask Guice to inject a Hero, you'll get only one. But if you ask for a "provider of heroes," you can create as many as you like, as in Listing 17:

Listing 17. Inject a provider to take control of instantiation
public class Saga {
  private final Provider<Hero> heroProvider;

  public Saga(Provider<Hero> heroProvider) {
    this.heroProvider = heroProvider;

  public void start() throws IOException {
    for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
      Hero hero = heroProvider.get();

Providers also let you delay the retrieval of the heroes until the saga actually starts. This is handy if the hero depends on data that's time- or context-sensitive.

The Provider interface has one method: get<T>. To access the object provided, you simply call the method. Whether or not you get a new object each time, and how that object is configured, depends on how Guice was configured. (See the next section on Scopes for details about singletons and other long-lived objects.) In this case, Guice uses your @Provides method because it's the registered way to construct a new Hero. This means the saga should consist of a mix of three random heroes.

Providers shouldn't be confused with provider methods. (In Guice 1.0, they were considerably harder to tell apart.) Although the Saga gets its heroes from your custom @Provides method, you can ask for a Provider of any Guice-instantiated dependency. If you wanted, you could rewrite FrogMan's constructor according to Listing 18:

Listing 18. You can ask for a Provider instead of the dependency
public FrogMan(Provider<Vehicle> vehicleProvider) {
  this.vehicle = vehicleProvider.get();

(Note that you didn't have to change the module code at all.) This rewrite doesn't serve any purpose; it just illustrates that you can always ask for a Provider instead of the dependency directly.


By default, Guice creates a new instance of each dependency you ask for. If your objects are lightweight, this policy will serve you well. However, if you have an expensive-to-create dependency, you may want to share an instance among several clients. In Listing 19, HeroModule binds the HeavyWaterRefinery as a singleton:

Listing 19. HeavyWaterRefinery bound as a singleton
public class HeroModule implements Module {
  public void configure(Binder binder) {

This means Guice will keep the refinery around, and whenever another instance requires a fuel source, Guice will inject the same refinery. This prevents more than one refinery from starting up in the application.

Guice offers you an option when you select scopes. You can configure them using the binder, or you can annotate the dependency directly, as in Listing 20:

Listing 20. Choosing scope with an annotation instead
public class HeavyWaterRefinery implements FuelSource {...}

Guice provides Singleton scope out of the box, but it allows you to define your own scopes if you wish. As an example, the Guice servlet package supplies two additional scopes: Request and Session, which serve up a unique instance of your class per servlet request and servlet session.

Constant binding and module configuration

The HeavyWaterRefinery requires a license key to start. It turns out that Guice can bind constant values as well as new instances. Check out Listing 21:

Listing 21. Binding a constant value in a module
public class HeavyWaterRefinery implements FuelSource {
  public HeavyWaterRefinery(@Named("LicenseKey") String key) {...}

// in HeroModule:

The binding annotation is necessary here because otherwise, Guice couldn't tell different Strings apart.

Note that I chose to use the @Named annotation despite recommending against it earlier. That's because I want to show off the code in Listing 22:

Listing 22. Configuring a module using a properties file
//In HeroModule:
private void loadProperties(Binder binder) {
  InputStream stream =
  Properties appProperties = new Properties();
  try {
    Names.bindProperties(binder, appProperties);
  } catch (IOException e) {
    // This is the preferred way to tell Guice something went wrong

//In the file

This code uses the Guice Names.bindProperties utility function to bind every property in the file to a constant with the right @Named annotation. This is cool in itself, and it also shows how you can make module code arbitrarily complex. If you like, you can load binding information from a database or XML file. Modules are plain Java code, and that gives you a lot of flexibility.

What comes next?

To summarize the main concepts of Guice:

  • You ask for dependencies with @Inject.
  • You bind dependencies to implementations in Modules.
  • You bootstrap using the Injector.
  • You add flexibility with @Provides methods.

There's plenty more to know about Guice, but you should be able to dive in with the topics I've covered in this article. I recommend downloading it, along with the sample code for this article, and giving it a whirl. Or better yet, create your own sample application. Playing with the concepts without worrying about your production code is a lot of fun. If you want to learn more about Guice's advanced features (such as its aspect-oriented programming support), I suggest following some of the links in Related topics.

Speaking of production code, one downside to DI is that it can feel viral. Once you inject one class, it leads to injecting the next and the next. This can be good, because DI makes your code better. On the other hand, it can lead to big refactorings of existing code. To keep the work manageable, you can store the Guice Injector somewhere and call it directly. You should treat this as a crutch — necessary, but something you want to do without in the long run.

Guice 2.0 should be out shortly. Some of the features that I didn't cover will make it easier to configure your modules and to support larger, more sophisticated configuration schemes. You can follow links in Related topics to learn about upcoming features.

I hope you'll consider adding Guice to your toolkit. In my experience, DI is critical for a flexible, testable codebase. Guice makes DI easy and even fun. What could be better than flexible, testable code that's a blast to write?

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Zone=Java development
ArticleTitle=Dependency injection with Guice