Understand the pitfalls of benchmarking Java code


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This content is part # of # in the series: Robust Java benchmarking, Part 1

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This content is part of the series:Robust Java benchmarking, Part 1

Stay tuned for additional content in this series.

Program performance, even in the age of multigigahertz/multicore processors and multigigabytes of RAM, remains a perennial concern. New, challenging applications (or increased programmer laziness) have matched every gain in hardware capability. Benchmarking code — and drawing correct conclusions from the results — has always been problematic, and few languages are trickier to benchmark than the Java language, especially on sophisticated modern virtual machines.

This two-part article addresses only program-execution time. It doesn't consider other important execution characteristics, such as memory usage. Even within this limited definition of performance, pitfalls abound in trying to benchmark code accurately. Their number and complexity make most attempts at "roll-your-own" benchmarking inaccurate and often misleading. This first part of the article is devoted to covering just these issues. It lays out the terrain you need to cover if you want to write your own benchmarking framework.

A performance puzzler

I'll start the discussion with a performance puzzler that illustrates some benchmarking issues. Consider the code in Listing 1 (see Related topics for a link to the full sample code for this article):

Listing 1. Performance puzzler
protected static int global;

public static void main(String[] args) {
    long t1 = System.nanoTime();

    int value = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 100 * 1000 * 1000; i++) {
        value = calculate(value);

    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    System.out.println("Execution time: " + ((t2 - t1) * 1e-6) + " milliseconds");

protected static int calculate(int arg) {
    //L1: assert (arg >= 0) : "should be positive";
    //L2: if (arg < 0) throw new IllegalArgumentException("arg = " + arg + " < 0");

    global = arg * 6;
    global += 3;
    global /= 2;
    return arg + 2;

Which version runs fastest?:

  1. Leave the code as it is (no arg test inside calculate)
  2. Uncomment just line L1, but run with assertions disabled (use the -disableassertions JVM option; this is also the default behavior)
  3. Uncomment just line L1, but run with assertions enabled (use the -enableassertions JVM option)
  4. Uncomment just line L2

You should at least guess that A — having no test — must be fastest, with bonus points if you guess that B should be almost as fast as A, because with assertions off, line L1 is dead code that a good dynamic optimizing compiler should eliminate. Right? Unfortunately, you might be wrong. The code in Listing 1 is adapted from Cliff Click's 2002 JavaOne talk (see Related topics). His slides report these execution times:

  1. 5 seconds
  2. 0.2 seconds
  3. (He doesn't report this case)
  4. 5 seconds

The shock, of course, is B. How can it possibly be 25 times faster than A?

Six years later, I run the code in Listing 1 on this modern configuration (which I use for every benchmark result in this article unless I note otherwise):

  • Hardware: 2.2 GHz Intel Core 2 Duo E4500, 2 GB RAM
  • Operating system: Windows® XP SP2 with all updates as of March 13, 2008
  • JVM: 1.6.0_05, with -server used for all tests

I get:

  1. 38.601 ms
  2. 56.382 ms
  3. 38.502 ms
  4. 39.318 ms

B is now distinctly slower than A, C, and D. But the results are still strange: B ought to be the same as A, and the fact that it is slower than C is surprising. Note that I took four measurements for each configuration and obtained totally reproducible results (within 1 ms).

Click's slides discuss why he obtained his strange results. (They turn out to be due to complicated JVM behavior; also, a bug was involved.) Click is the architect of the HotSpot JVM, so it's no surprise that he came up with a rational explanation. But is there any hope that you, an ordinary programmer, can do correct benchmarks?

The answer is yes. In Part 2 of this article, I present a Java benchmarking framework that you can download and use with confidence because it handles many of the benchmarking snares. The framework is easy to use for most benchmarking needs: just package the target code into some type of task object (either a Callable or Runnable) and then make a single call to the Benchmark class. Everything else — performance measurements, statistical calculations, and the result report — occurs automatically.

As a quick application of the framework, I'll rebenchmark the code in Listing 1 by replacing main with the code in Listing 2:

Listing 2. Performance puzzler solved using Benchmark
public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    Runnable task = new Runnable() { public void run() {
        int value = 0;
        for (int i = 0; i < 100 * 1000 * 1000; i++) {
            value = calculate(value);
    } };
    System.out.println("Cliff Click microbenchmark: " + new Benchmark(task));

Running the code on my configuration yields:

  1. mean = 20.241 ms ...
  2. mean = 20.246 ms ...
  3. mean = 26.928 ms ...
  4. mean = 26.863 ms ...

Finally, sanity: A and B have essentially the same execution time. And C and D (which do the same argument checking) also have about the same (slightly longer) execution time.

Using Benchmark yields the expected results in this case, probably because it internally executes task many times, with the "warmup" results discarded until the steady-state execution profile emerges, and then it takes a series of accurate measurements. In contrast, the code in Listing 1 immediately starts measuring execution, which means that its results might have little to do with the actual code and more to do with JVM behavior. Although I suppressed it in the results above (as indicated by the ...), Benchmark performs some powerful statistical calculations that tell you the results' reliability.

But don't just immediately use the framework. Familiarize yourself at some level with this whole article, particularly some of the tricky issues with Dynamic optimization, as well as some of the interpretation problems I discuss in Part 2. Never blindly trust any numbers. Know how they were obtained.

Execution-time measurement

In principle, measuring code-execution time is trivial:

  1. Record the start time.
  2. Execute the code.
  3. Record the stop time.
  4. Compute the time difference.

Most Java programmers probably instinctively write code similar to Listing 3:

Listing 3. Typical Java benchmarking code
long t1 = System.currentTimeMillis();;    // task is a Runnable which encapsulates the unit of work
long t2 = System.currentTimeMillis();
System.out.println("My task took " + (t2 - t1) + " milliseconds to execute.");

Listing 3's approach should usually be fine for long-running tasks. For example, if task takes one minute to execute, it's unlikely that the resolution issues I discuss below are significant. But as task's execution time decreases, this code becomes increasingly inaccurate. A benchmarking framework should automatically handle any task, so Listing 3 warrants examination.

One problem is resolution: System.currentTimeMillis, as its name indicates, returns a result with only nominal millisecond resolution (see Related topics). If you assume that its result includes a random ±1 ms error, and you want no more than 1 percent error in the execution-time measurement, then System.currentTimeMillis fails for tasks that execute in 200 ms or less (because differential measurement involves two errors that could add up to 2 ms).

In reality, System.currentTimeMillis can have ~10-100 times worse resolution. Its Javadocs state:

Note that while the unit of time of the return value is a millisecond, the granularity of the value depends on the underlying operating system and may be larger. For example, many operating systems measure time in units of tens of milliseconds.

People have reported the figures in Table 1:

Table 1. Table using a heading tag
ResolutionPlatformSource (see )
55 msWindows 95/98Java Glossary
10 msWindows NT, 2000, XP single processorJava Glossary
15.625 msWindows XP multi processorJava Glossary
~15 msWindows (presumably XP)Simon Brown
10 msLinux 2.4 kernelMarkus Kobler
1 msLinux 2.6 kernelMarkus Kobler

So, the code in Listing 3 could easily start breaking down for tasks that execute in less than about 10 seconds.

A final issue with System.currentTimeMillis that affects even long-running tasks is that it is supposed to reflect "wall-clock" time. This means that its values can occasionally have abrupt leaps (backward or forward) in time that are due to events such as the change from standard time to daylight saving time, or Network Time Protocol (NTP) synchronization. These adjustments can, on rare occasions, cause erroneous benchmark results.

JDK 1.5 introduced a much higher-resolution API: System.nanoTime (see Related topics). It nominally returns the number of nanoseconds since some arbitrary offset. Some of its key features are:

  • It is useful only for differential time measurements.
  • Its accuracy and precision (see Related topics) should never be worse than (but may be as poor as) System.currentTimeMillis.
  • On modern hardware and operating systems, it can deliver accuracy and precision in the microsecond range.

Conclusion: for benchmarking, always use System.nanoTime, because it usually has better resolution. But your benchmarking code must handle the possibility that it does no better than System.currentTimeMillis.

JDK 1.5 also introduced the ThreadMXBean interface (see Related topics). It has several capabilities, but its getCurrentThreadCpuTime method has particular relevance for benchmarking (see Related topics). This method offers the tantalizing possibility of measuring not the elapsed ("wall clock") time, but the actual CPU time used by the current thread, which is less than or equal to elapsed time.

Unfortunately, getCurrentThreadCpuTime has some problems:

  • It might not be supported on your platform.
  • Its semantics can differ across supported platforms. (For example, a thread that uses I/O might get billed the CPU time to do the I/O, or the time might be billed to an OS thread instead.)
  • The ThreadMXBean Javadocs include this ominous warning: "Enabling thread CPU measurement could be expensive in some Java virtual machine implementations." (This is an OS-specific issue. On some OSs, the microaccounting needed to measure thread CPU usage is always turned on, so getCurrentThreadCpuTime causes no additional performance hit. Others have it off by default; if enabled, it exhibits lower performance on all threads in the process or possibly all processes.)
  • Its resolution is unclear. (Because it returns a result with nominal nanosecond resolution, it's natural to think that it has the same accuracy and precision limitations as System.nanoTime. However, I have not been able to find any documentation stating this, and one report states that it is much worse (see Related topics). My experience with using getCurrentThreadCpuTime compared to nanoTime is that it does tend to yield mean execution times that are smaller. On my desktop configuration, the execution times are about 0.5 to 1 percent smaller. Unfortunately, the measurement scatter is much higher; for example, the standard deviation could easily be three times larger. On an N2 Solaris 10 machine, execution times were 5 to 10 percent lower, and there was never an increase — sometimes there was a large decrease — in measurement scatter.)
  • Worst of all: the CPU time used by the current thread can be irrelevant. Consider a task that has the calling thread (the current thread whose CPU time will be measured) merely establish a thread pool, then send a bunch of subtasks off to the pool, and then sit idle until the pool finishes. The CPU time used by the calling thread will be minimal, while the overall elapsed time to complete the task takes arbitrarily long. Thus, totally misleading execution times could be reported.

Because of these issues, it is too dangerous for a general-purpose benchmarking framework to use getCurrentThreadCpuTime by default. The Benchmark class presented in Part 2 requires special configuration to enable it.

One word of caution about all of these time-measurement APIs: they have execution overhead, which affects how frequently they can be called before they overly distort the measurement. This effect is highly platform dependent. For example, on modern versions of Windows, System.nanoTime involves an OS call that executes in microseconds, so it should not be called more than once every 100 microseconds or so to keep the measurement impact under 1 percent. (In contrast, System.currentTimeMillis merely involves reading a global variable, so it executes extremely quickly, in nanoseconds. As far as measurement impact is concerned, it could be called more frequently, but because that global variable is not updated very often — about every 10 to 15 milliseconds according to Table 1— there's no point in calling it more frequently.) On the other hand, with most Solaris (and some Linux®) machines, System.nanoTime usually executes faster than System.currentTimeMillis.

Code warmup

In the performance puzzler, I attributed Benchmark's sane results to the fact that it measures task's steady-state execution profile, as opposed to the initial performance. Most Java implementations have a complicated performance life cycle. In general, the initial performance is usually relatively slow, and then it greatly improves for a while (usually in discrete leaps) until it reaches a steady state. Assuming that you want to measure this steady-state performance, you need to understand all the factors that lead up to it.

Class loading

JVMs typically load classes only when they're first used. So, a task's first execution time includes the loading of all classes it uses (if they're not already loaded). Because class loading usually involves disk I/O, parsing, and verification, it can greatly inflate a task's first execution. You can usually cure this effect by executing the task multiple times. (I say usually— instead of always— cured, because the task might have complicated branching behavior that causes it not to use all of its potential classes on any given execution. The hope is that if you execute the task enough times, these branches get fully explored and all relevant classes soon get loaded.)

If you use custom classloaders, another issue is that JVMs can decide to unload classes that have become garbage. This is likely not a major performance hit, but it is still less than ideal to have happen in the middle of your benchmark.

You can check whether or not class loading/unloading is occurring in the middle of your benchmark by calling the getTotalLoadedClassCount and getUnloadedClassCount methods of ClassLoadingMXBean before and after the benchmark (see Related topics). If either result changed, then steady-state behavior has not been achieved.

Mixed mode

Modern JVMs typically let code run for a while (usually purely interpreted) in order to gather profiling information before doing Just-in-time (JIT) compilation (see Related topics). What this means for benchmarking is that a task might need to execute many times before its steady-state execution profile emerges. For example, the current default behavior of Sun's client/server HotSpot JVM is that 1,500 (client) or 10,000 (server) calls must be made to a code block before the containing method is JIT compiled.

Note that I used the general phrase code block, which can refer not only to entire methods, but even to blocks within a method. For example, many JVMs are sophisticated enough to recognize that a block of code being looped over constitutes "hot" code, even if there's only a single call to the method that contains that block. I'll elaborate on this point in this article's On-stack replacement section.

So, benchmarking the steady-state performance requires something like:

  1. Execute task once to load all classes.
  2. Execute task enough times to ensure that its steady-state execution profile has emerged.
  3. Execute task some more times to obtain an estimate of its execution time.
  4. Use Step 3 to calculate n, the number of task executions whose cumulative execution time is sufficiently large.
  5. Measure the overall execution time t of n more calls of task.
  6. Estimate the execution time as t/n.

The goal behind measuring n executions of task (n >= 1) is to make the cumulative execution time so large that all the time measurement errors I discuss above become insignificant.

Step 2 is tricky: how do you know when the JVM has finished optimizing the task?

You could try the seemingly clever approach of measuring execution times until they converge. This sounds good, but it fails if, say, the JVM was actually still profiling, and it suddenly applies that profiling to a JIT compile once you start Step 5; this could be especially problematic in the future.

Furthermore, how do you quantify convergence?

Another approach (which the Benchmark class uses) is simply to execute the task continuously for a predetermined, reasonably long time. A 10-second warmup phase should suffice (see page 33 of Click's talk). This approach might not be any more reliable than measuring the execution times until they converge, but it is simpler to implement. It's also easier to parameterize: users should intuitively understand the concept and recognize that longer warmup times lead to more reliable results (at the cost of longer benchmarking times).

You can greatly increase your confidence about achieving steady-state performance if you can determine when JIT compilation occurs. In particular, if you think that you have achieved steady-state performance and start benchmarking, but then find that compilation occurred inside your benchmark, then you can abort and retry.

To my knowledge, no perfect way to detect JIT compilation exists. The best technique is to call CompilationMXBean.getTotalCompilationTime before and after a benchmark. Unfortunately, the implementation of CompilationMXBean was botched, so this approach has issues. Also note that another technique involves parsing (or manually watching) stdout when the -XX:+PrintCompilation JVM option is used (see Related topics).

Dynamic optimization

Besides warmup issues, dynamic compilation done by JVMs involves several other concerns that affect benchmarking. They are subtle. Even worse, the responsibility for coping with them lies solely with you, the benchmark programmer— a benchmark framework can do little to address them. (This article's Caching and Preparation sections also discuss some issues that the benchmark programmer is responsible for, but those issues are mostly common sense.)


One concern is deoptimization (see Related topics): the JVM can stop using a compiled method and return to interpreting it for a while before recompiling it. This can happen when assumptions made by an optimizing dynamic compiler have become outdated. One example is class loading that invalidates monomorphic call transformations. Another example is uncommon traps: when a code block is initially compiled, only the most likely code path is compiled, while atypical branches (such as exception paths) are left interpreted. But if the uncommon traps turn out to be commonly executed, then they become hotspot paths that trigger recompilation.

So, even if you followed the advice in the preceding section and appear to have achieved steady-state performance, you need to be aware that performance could abruptly change. This is one more reason why it is crucial to try to detect JIT compilation inside your benchmark.

On-stack replacement

Another concern is on-stack replacement (OSR), an advanced JVM feature that helps optimize certain code structures (see Related topics). Consider the code in Listing 4:

Listing 4. Example of code subject to OSR
private static final int[] array = new int[10 * 1000];
static {
    for (int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) {
        array[i] = i;

public static void main(String[] args) {
    long t1 = System.nanoTime();

    int result = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 1000 * 1000; i++) {    // outer loop
        for (int j = 0; j < array.length; j++) {    // inner loop 1
            result += array[j];
        for (int j = 0; j < array.length; j++) {    // inner loop 2
            result ^= array[j];

    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    System.out.println("Execution time: " + ((t2 - t1) * 1e-9) +
        " seconds to compute result = " + result);

If the JVM solely kept count of method calls, then a compiled version of main would never be used because it is called only once. To solve this problem, JVMs can keep count of code-block executions inside of methods. In particular, with the code in Listing 4, the JVM can track how many times each loop is executed. (The end brace of a loop constitutes a "backward branch.") By default, any loop should trigger compilation of the entire method after 10,000 iterations or so. Because main is never called again, a simple JVM would never use this compiled code. However, a JVM using OSR is smart enough to replace the current code with the newer compiled code in the middle of the method call.

At first glance, OSR looks great. It seems as if the JVM can handle any code structure and still deliver optimum performance. Unfortunately, OSR suffers from a little-known defect: the code quality when OSR is used can be suboptimal. For instance, OSR sometimes cannot do loop-hoisting, array-bounds check elimination, or loop unrolling (see Related topics). If OSR is being used, you might not be benchmarking the top performance.

Assuming that you want top performance, then the only cure for OSR is to recognize where it can occur and restructure your code to avoid it if possible. Typically this involves putting key inner loops in separate methods. For example, the code in Listing 4 could be rewritten as shown in Listing 5:

Listing 5. Rewritten code no longer subject to OSR
public static void main(String[] args) {
    long t1 = System.nanoTime();

    int result = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 1000 * 1000; i++) {    // sole loop
        result = add(result);
        result = xor(result);

    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    System.out.println("Execution time: " + ((t2 - t1) * 1e-9) +
        " seconds to compute result = " + result);

private static int add(int result) {    // method extraction of inner loop 1
    for (int j = 0; j < array.length; j++) {
        result += array[j];
    return result;

private static int xor(int result) {    // method extraction of inner loop 2
    for (int j = 0; j < array.length; j++) {
        result ^= array[j];
    return result;

In Listing 5, the add and xor methods will each be called 1,000,000 times, so they should get fully JIT compiled into optimal form. For this particular code, the first three runs measured execution times of 10.81, 10.79, and 10.80 seconds on my configuration. In contrast, the Listing 4 code (which has all the loops inside main and therefore triggers OSR), has twice the execution time. (21.61, 21.61, and 21.6 seconds were its first three runs.)

One final comment about OSR: it is usually only a performance problem in benchmarking, when programmers are lazy and put everything in a single method such as main. In real applications, programmers naturally (we hope) write many finer-grained methods. Furthermore, code in which performance matters usually runs for a long time and invokes the critical methods many times. So, real-world code is usually not vulnerable to OSR performance problems. In your applications, don't be too anxious about it or mutilate otherwise elegant code over it (unless you can prove that it is an issue). Note that Benchmark by default executes the task several times in order to gather statistics, and these multiple executions have the nice side effect of eliminating OSR as a performance issue.

Dead-code elimination

The other subtle concern is dead-code elimination (DCE) (see Related topics). In some circumstances, the compiler can determine that some code will never affect the output, and so the compiler will eliminate that code. Listing 6 shows the canonical example where this can be done statically (that is, at compile time, by javac):

Listing 6. Example of code subject to DCE
private static final boolean debug = false;

private void someMethod() {
    if (debug) {
        // do something...

javac knows that the code inside the if (debug) block in Listing 6 will never get executed, and so it eliminates it. Dynamic compilers, especially once method inlining takes place, have many more ways to determine that code is dead. The problem with DCE during benchmarking is that the code that is executed can end up being only a small subset of your total code — entire computations might not even take place — which can lead to falsely short execution times.

I've been unable to find a good description of all the criteria that compilers can use to determine what constitutes dead code (see Related topics). Unreachable code is obviously dead, but JVMs often have more aggressive DCE policies.

For example, reconsider the code in Listing 4: note that main not only computes result but also uses result in the output that it prints. Suppose that I make just one tiny change and remove result from the println. In this case, an aggressive compiler might conclude that it does not need to compute result at all.

This is no mere theoretical concern. Consider the code in Listing 7:

Listing 7. Stopping DCE by using result in output
public static void main(String[] args) {
    long t1 = System.nanoTime();

    int result = 0;
    for (int i = 0; i < 1000 * 1000; i++) {    // sole loop
        result += sum();

    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    System.out.println("Execution time: " + ((t2 - t1) * 1e-9) +
        " seconds to compute result = " + result);

private static int sum() {
    int sum = 0;
    for (int j = 0; j < 10 * 1000; j++) {
        sum += j;
    return sum;

I consistently find that the code in Listing 7 executes in 4.91 seconds on my configuration. If I modify the println statement to eliminate the reference to result — changing it to System.out.println("Execution time: " + ((t2 - t1) * 1e-9) + " seconds to compute result"); — I consistently find that it executes in 0.08 seconds. Clearly DCE is eliminating the entire computation. (See Related topics for another example of DCE.)

The only way to guarantee that DCE will not eliminate computations that you want to benchmark is to make the computations generate results, and then use the results somehow (for example, in output like the println in Listing 7). The Benchmark class supports this. If your task is a Callable, make sure that the computation is used to calculate the result returned by the call() method. If your task is a Runnable, make sure that the computation is used to calculate some internal state that is used by task's toString method (which must override the one from Object). If you obey these rules, Benchmark should completely prevent DCE.

Like OSR, DCE is usually not an issue for real applications (unless you are counting on code executing in a specific amount of time). Unlike OSR, however, DCE can be an enormous issue for poorly written benchmarks: OSR can merely lead to somewhat inaccurate results, whereas DCE can lead to utterly wrong results.

Resource reclamation

Typical JVMs automatically do two types of resource reclamation: garbage collection and object finalization (GC/OF). From the programmer's perspective, GC/OF is almost nondeterministic: it is ultimately outside of your control and can occur any time the JVM deems necessary.

In benchmarking, GC/OF times that are due to the task itself ought to be included in the result. For example, it is wrong to claim that a task is fast because its initial execution is short, if it eventually causes huge GC times. (But note that some tasks do not need to create objects. Instead, they just need to access already created objects. Consider a benchmark that aims to determine the time it takes to access an array element: the task should not create the array. Instead, the array should be created elsewhere, and its reference be made available to the task.)

But you also need to isolate the task's GC/OF from GC/OF caused by other code in the same JVM session. The only thing you can do is try to clean up the JVM before doing a benchmark, and also try to ensure that GC/OF that's due to the task itself is fully finished before the measurement ends.

The System class exposes the gc and runFinalization methods, which can be used for JVM cleanup. Beware that the Javadocs for these methods state only that "When control returns from the method call, the Java Virtual Machine has made a best effort to [do GC/OF]."

The Benchmark class I present in Part 2 attempts to cope with GC/OF as follows:

  1. Before doing any measurement, it calls a method named cleanJvm, which aggressively makes as many calls to System.gc and System.runFinalization as necessary until memory usage stabilizes and no objects remain to be finalized.
  2. By default, it performs 60 execution measurements, each of which lasts at least 1 second (ensured by making multiple invocations of the task for each measurement if necessary). So the total execution time should be at least 1 minute, which should include enough GC/OF life cycles spread out over the 60 measurements that the full behavior is accurately sampled.
  3. After all the measurements are over, it does one final call to cleanJvm, but this time it measures how long that takes. If this final cleanup is 1 percent or more of task's total execution time, then the benchmark report warns that GC/OF costs might not be truly accounted for in the measurements.
  4. Because GC/OF acts like a noise source for each measurement, statistics are used to extract reliable conclusions.

A cautionary note: When I first wrote Benchmark, I tried to be clever and account for GC/OF costs inside each measurement using code like that shown in Listing 8:

Listing 8. Misleading way to account for GC/OF
protected long measure(long n) {
    cleanJvm();    // call here to cleanup before measurement starts

    long t1 = System.nanoTime();
    for (long i = 0; i < n; i++) {;
    cleanJvm();    // call here to ensure that task's GC/OF is fully included
    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    return t2 - t1;

The problem is that calling System.gc and System.runFinalization inside the measurement loop can give a distorted view of the GC/OF cost. In particular, System.gc does a full garbage collection of all generations using a stop-the-world collector (see Related topics). (That is the default behavior, but beware of JVM options such as -XX:+ExplicitGCInvokesConcurrent and -XX:+DisableExplicitGC.) In contrast, the garbage collector normally used by your application might operate quite differently. For example, it might be configured to work concurrently, and it might do many partial collections (especially of the young generation) with little effort. Likewise, finalizers are normally processed as a background task, so their cost is usually amortized across the system's idle time.


Hardware/operating system caches can sometimes complicate benchmarks. A simple example is file-system caching, which can take place in hardware or the OS. If you are benchmarking how long it takes to read the bytes from a file, but your benchmark code reads the same file many times (or you perform the same benchmark multiple times), then the I/O time can fall dramatically after the first read. If you want to benchmark random file reads, you likely need to ensure that different files are read to avoid caching.

CPU caching of main memory is so important that it deserves special attention (see Related topics). For about 20 years now, CPUs have increased exponentially in speed, while main memory has weakly linearly increased in speed. To ameliorate this speed mismatch, modern CPUs use extensive caching (to the point where most of the transistors on a modern CPU are devoted to caching). A program that mates well with the CPU cache can have dramatically better performance than a program that doesn't. (Most real-world workloads achieve but a fraction of the CPU's theoretical throughput.)

Many factors affect how well a program mates with the CPU cache. For example, modern JVMs take great pains to optimize memory access: they might rearrange heap space, hoist values from the heap into the CPU register, do stack allocation, or perform object explosion (see Related topics). But an important factor is simply the size of the data set. Let n characterize the size of the task's data set (for example, suppose it uses an array of length n). Then any conclusions drawn from benchmarking with a single value of n can be highly misleading; you must do a series of benchmarks for various values of n. An excellent example is in an article by J. P. Lewis and Ulrich Neumann (see Related topics) They reproduce a graph of Java FFT performance relative to C as a function of n (the array size in this case) and find that Java performance oscillates between two times faster than C and two times slower, depending on which choice is made for n.


Benchmarking pitfalls don't begin and end with the benchmarking framework you develop. You should also address several areas on your system before running any benchmark program on it.


A low-level hardware problem, especially on laptops, is to make sure that power management (for example, Advanced Power Management [APM] or Advanced Configuration and Power Interface [ACPI]) does not make a state transition during the middle of your benchmark. Radical power-state changes, such as your computer going into hibernation, probably will not result because of the CPU activity of the benchmark itself, or will be easily detected. Other power-state changes, however, are more insidious. Consider a benchmark that is initially CPU-bound, during which time the OS decides to power off the hard drive, and then the task wants to use the hard drive at the end of its run: the benchmark will finish, but the I/O portion may take longer. Another example includes systems that use Intel SpeedStep or similar technology to throttle CPU power dynamically. Before benchmarking, configure your OS to stop these effects.

Other programs

While benchmarking a task, you obviously should run no other programs (unless seeing how your task behaves on a loaded machine is the goal). And you likely want to shut down all nonessential background processes, as well as prevent scheduled processes (such as screen savers and virus scanners) from kicking in during benchmarking.

Windows offers the ProcessIdleTask API, which allows you to execute any pending idle processes before benchmarking. You can access this API by executing:

Rundll32.exe advapi32.dll,ProcessIdleTasks

from the command line. Be aware that it can take several minutes to execute, especially if you have not called it for a while. (Subsequent executions usually finish in several seconds.)

JVM options

Dozens of JVM options can affect benchmarking. Some relevant ones are:

  • Type of JVM: server (-server) versus client (-client).
  • Ensuring sufficient memory is available (-Xmx).
  • Type of garbage collector used (advanced JVMs offer many tuning options, but be careful).
  • Whether or not class garbage collection is allowed (-Xnoclassgc). The default is that class GC occurs; it has been argued that using -Xnoclassgc is a bad idea.
  • Whether or not escape analysis is being performed (-XX:+DoEscapeAnalysis).
  • Whether or not large page heaps are supported (-XX:+UseLargePages).
  • If thread stack size has been changed (for example, -Xss128k).
  • Whether or not JIT compiling is always used (-Xcomp), never used (-Xint), or only done on hotspots (-Xmixed; this is the default, and highest performance option).
  • The amount of profiling that is accumulated before JIT compilation occurs (-XX:CompileThreshold), and/or background JIT compilation (-Xbatch), and/or tiered JIT compilation (-XX:+TieredCompilation).
  • Whether or not biased locking is being performed (-XX:+UseBiasedLocking); note that JDK 1.6+ automatically does this.
  • Whether or not the latest experimental performance tweaks have been activated (-XX:+AggressiveOpts).
  • Enabling or disabling assertions (-enableassertions and -enablesystemassertions).
  • Enabling or disabling strict native call checking (-Xcheck:jni).
  • Enabling memory location optimizations for NUMA multi-CPU systems (-XX:+UseNUMA).

Conclusion to Part 1

Benchmarking is extremely difficult. Many factors, both obvious and subtle, can affect your results. To obtain accurate results, you need a thorough command of these issues, possibly by using a benchmarking framework that addresses some of them. Go to Part 2 to learn about just such a robust Java benchmarking framework.

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Zone=Java development
ArticleTitle=Robust Java benchmarking, Part 1: Issues