So how do you tell if something is wrong with a message? Here's a pattern.
A messaging consumer receives a message.
How can a consumer make sure it has received a valid message?
A consumer can only process a message if the message is valid, meaning that the message's format and contents fit the consumer's expectations. Otherwise, the consumer won't be able to process the message and make sense out of it. If the message contents are supposed to conform to a particular XML schema, the contents had better be valid for the schema. If the message is supposed to contain a message/request ID to use as a reply's correlation identifier, the message had better contain that ID.
Part of the value of detecting invalid messages is so that they can be put on an invalid message channel, kind of an error log for invalid messages. This gets the bad messages off the main queues and on to a side queue where error handling code can try to do something with them.
Some consumers can assume that all messages are valid, that only valid messages are put on the queue. But that's often not a safe assumption.
For data validation, the consumer could try to commit the data to the database and see if that fails; but if the commit does fail, then the transaction is ruined. The consumer should be a transactional consumer so that messages are not lost, but if the transaction fails, then it can only be rolled back, after which the message will just be consumed again and fail again. To put the message on the invalid message channel, the transaction must be able to commit successfully.
So invalid messages need to be detected, and must do so without invalidating the transaction.
Use a message validator, which parses the message format and checks the data, making sure that the message is valid.
A message validator can be a separate object--you pass in the message, it answers whether or not the message is valid. Or the validator can be the message processing code which errors out if a problem is encountered--for example, parsing XML data using a validating parser. In any event, the validation must be contained in the consumer's transactional context, so that once the consumer detects an invalid message, it can move the message to an invalid message channel and commit successfully.
If the message is valid, but processing it fails, then the cause must be a problem with the resources being used to process the message. As long as the message is valid, save the message to retry it again when the resource is fixed by using message consumer rollback to put the message back on the queue.