From a patient’s perspective, one would hope that medicine was always based on the rational use of evidence and not simply dispensed arbitrarily at the practitioner’s whim. However, with the rapidly increasing volume of medical research being conducted and clinical laboratory tests being developed, doctors are challenged increasingly on how best to integrate evidence in making decisions about the day-to-day care of their patients.
Regarding advances in technology and medicine, there exist different resources of studying evidences for doctors to precept therefore effective usage of evidences in making decision is getting increasingly important. There are many ways to dissect the complicated process of decision making. We face certain challenges likely which decision would be optimal. How to make decision in a minimal period of time. How to decrease the the tolerance of fault decision, regarding its social and mental effects. Many biases can occur at every phase of doctors interactions with patients and the aim is to find a solution to minimize them. No surefire methods exist for eliminating biases in medical decision making, but there is some evidence that the adoption of an evidence-based medicine approach or the incorporation of formal decision analytic tools can improve the quality of doctors reasoning. By taking these and other possible issues into account, it is recommended to consider diagnosis and treatment as rational procedure. In a common approach, the procedure is a sequential steps of making a diagnosis and choosing a course of treatment. By this approach, we have a sequential demonstration of all information which are classified and connected by rational procedure. This will make it easier to choose optimal evidences, this helps to obtain a result with less complexity. By having a transparent demonstration of further phases of diagnosis, the rationality of the approach conduct us to a decision with less uncertainty. The positive point here is that by having a rational vision of the procedure we can evaluate the functionality. In order to obtain an optimal diagnosis having a clear vision on functionality which is the result of rationality would not be enough. And we can pose the question, is the diagnosis useful? In the other word, by having only rational vision we cannot judge the usefulness of the approach. Functionality is not all there is to the pragmatic choice situation. The ultimate choice has to be a balancing between functionality and usefulness. Therefore, not all the rational choices will be in accord with the recommendations that we have discussed so far. These considerations about usefulness may seem to undermine the whole idea that functionality and positive evidence are so important. But functionality is important to usefulness simply because nothing is useful unless it works.A decision is a choice made by some entity of an action from some set of alternative actions. A good decision identifies an alternative that the decision maker believes will prove at least as good as other alternative actions. Good decisions are formally characterized as actions that maximize expected utility, a notion involving belief, goodness and usefulness.
Therefore the decision theory is important because by choosing the the best action between variety of rational alternatives we can have a clear vision of different possible diagnosis, evaluate different rational choices and useful set of actions, and discuss these possibilities with patient. The advantage is that having this approach we can involve patient in the decision making process. This procedure will lead to optimal diagnosis.