Licenses and their types:
What Is a License?
A software license (or software licence in normal English & Commonwealth usage) is a legal instrument (usually by way of contract law) governing the usage or redistribution of software. All software is copyright protected, except material in the public domain. Contractual confidentiality is another way of protecting software. A typical software license grants an end-user permission to use one or more copies of software in ways where such a use would otherwise potentially constitute copyright infringement of the software owner's exclusive rights under copyright law.
Most IBM Rational software products require specific license keys in order to use them. They can be downloaded from the License Key Center,
An authorized user license (formerly called a node-locked license) is created for a specific client. The authorized user license allows a user to use an IBM Rational® product only on that specified client. The user can use multiple sessions of a product concurrently on the specified computer by using a single license key. Because authorized user licenses are uncounted licenses, no license server is required to manage them.
Example of an Authorized user license is as shown below, license once generated will look like:
Authorized user fixed term license (FTL)
An IBM Rational Authorized User FTL (formerly called a user-based license or per-user license) allows a single, specific individual to use a Rational product for a specific length of time. Purchasers must obtain an Authorized User FTL for each individual user accessing the product in any manner. An Authorized User FTL might not be reassigned unless the purchaser is replacing the original assignee on a long-term or permanent basis.
Currently, this license type is not available for Rational products based on the Eclipse framework.
For details please see the following link: http://www.ibm.com/software/rational/howtobuy/licensing/faq.html
Licenses are active based on the date you bought the license, or the date your maintenance period ends (whichever is later).
You cannot use versions of Rational products that are released after your maintenance contract has expired. New licenses are issued to you when your maintenance is renewed.
For example, an INCREMENT line for Rational DOORS looks similar to this line: INCREMENT DOORS rational 2011.1231. The license version 2011.1231 reflects the maintenance expiry date.
Note: Licenses generated since October 2010 do not contain FEATURE lines. INCREMENT lines are used.
A license administrator installs the Rational License Key Server on single, multiple, or redundant servers. The administrator then installs the floating licenses on the license servers. These floating licenses are created for the specific license server.Client users obtain licenses from the license server when they start the license server. One license is granted per client per product, except performance testing products. Performance testing products can check out multiple licenses.
Floating licenses allow anyone on your network to use Rational products while a license is available. The number of licenses that you purchase and register in License Key Center determines the maximum number of users who can use Rational products concurrently.
Please see below how a Floating License looks like, It will have a sever line with a VENDOR DEMON ( shown in RED BOX ).
Similar to a floating license, except the license administrator assigns licenses to specific users. Only specific users can request floating license keys from the license server. A named-user floating license requires a license administrator to create a list of authorized users.
Named-user license keys act as floating license keys, except during the import process. IBM Rational® License Key Administrator (LKAD) gives you the opportunity to specify a user for each license key. You assign a user to a key by editing the options file ibmratl.opt. The options file locks the floating license key to the user; allowing the user to use IBM Rational products on multiple clients.
How to set up an option file and common feature used in the file, please see the links below:
A license activation kit contains the permanent license key for your product. You purchase the activation kit, download the activation kit compressed file to your computer, and then use IBM® Installation Manager to import the activation kit (a .jar file) to activate the license for your product.
How to Import an Activation kit, Please see below,
Technically, token licenses work the same way as a floating license. However, there is a difference when it comes to the way the license checks out for consumption.
The Token based license model allows you to buy a certain number of Tokens (or token-based licenses) for a group of entitled products in an organization. If you use a Rational tool that utilizes a token-based licensing model, then the FEATURE/INCREMENT line in the license file will specify the number of Tokens for check out in total. Tokens do not tie to a product. When the applications are closed, the tokens return to the pool for other end users with any token enabled application to use them.
A process permits and keeps track of the number of licenses used. Each application that uses FLEXnet has its own vendor daemon. Rational License Server TL daemon is telelogic, while the Rational License Server v8.1.1, which supports token licensing, comes with the ibmratl daemon. The IBM Rational product and the Telelogic daemon communicate in typical client-server architecture by making use of TCP/IP protocol.
As described, token based licensing helps in re-using the same licenses for different products as and when the need arises.
Please see the order quantity in bulk 1853 now this can be used according to the value of the token for each product.
Note: Mixing tokens-based and non-token-based licenses is not a recommended practice. However, you can mix tokens with traditional product floating licenses. The consuming occurs with floating licenses first, followed by the tokens. You can specify the floating licenses and tokens in the same license file for a single license server. You can also separate into different license files or license servers. The floating licenses must precede the token licenses in the license.dat file.
You cannot mix user-based, per-user, node locked licenses with token-based licenses.
Pictorial representation of how Tokens work:
Temporary (evaluation or emergency) :
TLA (Term License Agreement) TLAs allow users access to IBM Rational software for a negotiated time. The expiration date is built in to the license key. A time-limited license issued to a customer for using IBM Rational products. You can use the license on a computer until the specified expiration date. Temporary license keys can be floating or authorized user. Temporary keys are generated only for single or multiple license servers. The keys are not generated for redundant servers.
Note: The Rational Client Support Team does not have authorization to provide Temp/Eval Licenses and if needed, user will have to get in touch with their respective Sales Representatives, To evaluate a product, ask your marketing representative for an evaluation key.
License key files are installed in install_dir\common\ unless otherwise noted.
License key files file name with description:
- rational_temp.dat : Contains all authorized user temporary license keys. Obtain a permanent license key to use your IBM Rational product past the temporary license key expiration date.
rational_perm.dat : Contains all authorized user permanent license keys. Go to IBM Rational License Key Center to request permanent license keys.
rational_server_temp.dat : Contains all temporary floating license keys on a license server. Obtain a permanent license key to continue to use your Rational product.
rational_server_perm.dat : Contains all permanent floating license keys on a license server. Go to Rational License Key Center to request new permanent license keys.
These links are document references or as other sources of information:
Author: Saurabh Tyagi