As many of you well know, virtual images are the foundation of virtual system patterns in IBM Workload Deployer. Whether you are using IBM Hypervisor Edition images or custom-built images produced by the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool, every virtual system pattern has at least one virtual image as part of its foundation. So, if virtual images are the foundation of virtual system patterns, what is the foundation of these virtual images?
While you could probably make a good argument for a number of different things being the foundation of the virtual image (operating system, other installed software, etc.), I like to think that, at least in the context of IBM Workload Deployer, the activation engine inside the virtual image is the true foundation. Inside this activation engine, you will find a collection of scripts and services that are capable of configuring the virtual machine for use. Not only does this engine perform basic system-level actions like configuring the machine's hostname, IP address, time, and network interfaces, but it also configures the software on the inside of the virtual machine. For instance, the activation engine in the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition image is capable of fixing up profile information, federating nodes, creating application server clusters, and more. Best of all, in the case of IBM Hypervisor Edition images, you (the user) get all of this right out of the box. There is no logic to perform or administrative tasks to undertake in order for you to benefit from the activation engine. It is simply there!
So, at this point you may ask yourself 'If all of this is included right out of the box, why do I need to care?' That is a fair question, but ultimately I feel it is always important to understand the foundational elements of any technology. In this respect, I do not feel like the activation engine in the IBM Hypervisor Edition images is any different. Lately, I have been telling my users to take at least a little time to understand what the activation engine is and even more importantly, what it is doing for you during deployment. Specifically, I always suggest taking a little time to look at the scripts in the activation engine -- most often found in the /opt/IBM/AE/AS directory of a virtual machine deployed by IBM Workload Deployer.
What can be gained by taking the time to peruse through these scripts? I think most importantly, you will learn what the engine does for you and what you cannot do if you expect the image to deploy correctly. For instance, if you look in some of those activation engine scripts, you will see that it uses the sudo command in several places. While I know many of you may be tempted to remove the sudo command during extend and capture, if you do so it will break the activation engine. I have seen this happen multiple times, and trust me, if you did not know the activation engine used that command it is not necessarily an easy problem to debug. This is a case where the value of at least superficially understanding the activation engine is clear.
Want another example? Okay, consider that you want to run WebSphere Application Server as a user called wasadmin. At pattern deployment time, it is easy enough to supply wasadmin in the appropriate field of the part configuration data and click OK. IBM Workload Deployer deploys the system and voila, WebSphere Application Server is magically running as wasadmin. Everything is fine so far, but let's take this a step further and say that you previously performed an extend and capture, and you installed software components in the image that should be owned by your wasadmin user. It is technically possible to define users during extend and capture and then install software content via that user, but if you also want to specify that user as the WebSphere Application Server administrative user at deployment time, you will run into an issue. This is because the activation engine runs the usermod command during deployment to change the existing and default virtuser into the user that you specify -- in this case wasadmin. If the usermod command attempts to change virtuser to wasadmin but wasadmin already exists as a user on the operating system, the command will not complete properly, and it is very likely you will see further errors downstream. A simpler way to do this is to create the user during extend and capture, install any components via that user, and then delete the user before capturing. You can attach a deploy-time script that fixes up the appropriate settings for wasadmin (like user ID and group ID), and it will run after the activation engine successfully does a usermod and changes virtuser to wasadmin.Problem averted!
In reading some of the above, I fully realize that it may be a little confusing at first. That said, I assure you that there is not much to it at all once you have a basic understanding of the activation engine. With a basic understanding of the activation engine in tow, you will know what you do not need to do (e.g. create profiles, federate nodes, etc.), what you cannot do (e.g. remove the sudo command), and what you can do with a little bit of reconciliation work (e.g. define your WebSphere Application Server administrative user during image extension). I encourage you to take a little time with your next deployment and give the activation engine a once over. You will undoubtedly have a better understanding of the deployment process, and you will ultimately be in a position to most effectively leverage virtual system patterns in IBM Workload Deployer.
Typically we spend most of the real estate on this blog talking about cloud computing and specifically, IBM Workload Deployer. However, I am hoping that this week you permit me to take a bit of a detour to discuss a very important new announcement. Last week, IBM announced the early availability of the WebSphere Application Server v8.5 Alpha. In all fairness, your response may be 'You guys always have WAS Alphas. Why should I care about this one?' I have two words for you: Liberty Profile.
Based on my own experience in the IBM labs and my conversations with numerous enterprise developers out there, I think I understand many of the needs to create an efficient development environment. Developers need tools and runtimes that are lightweight, easy to install, simple to configure, and fast to recycle or otherwise update. Enhancements in our WebSphere Application Server v8.0 took many of these concerns head on with features such as directory-based install and drastically improved server startup times. The new v8.5 Alpha, and specifically the Liberty Profile, extend this developer focus even further.
The Liberty Profile is a lightweight, fast, and easy to use application runtime that you can download for free by visiting the WASdev community site. The design of the runtime is best described as fit-for-purpose and you configure it by selectively enabling and disabling features based on application need. For example, you may enable the servlet, JPA, and JSP features, or you may decide you only need to enable the servlet feature of the runtime. It is completely up to you! In addition to this innovative new runtime, the WebSphere Application Server v8.5 Alpha also includes free tools for Eclipse. These tools make it simple to create Liberty Profile server instances, start server instances, stop server instances, install applications, and remove applications. In fact, you can do all of this and even download and install the WebSphere Application Server v8.5 Alpha without ever leaving your Eclipse workspace! Check out the demonstration below to see an example of installing and using the new Alpha.
I really hope that you will participate in the new WebSphere Application Server v8.5 Alpha. The setup process that includes both tools and runtime will take just a few minutes of your time, and leaves but a small footprint on your machine (the Liberty Profile of the WAS v8.5 Alpha is only ~50 MB unzipped). In the meantime, you can find more information about the Alpha on the WASdev site or in the new Information Center. Finally, don't forget to join in on the conversation on the WASdev forum!
For those of you basically familiar with IBM Workload Deployer, you are likely aware that the appliance has many different capabilities. On the surface it is a cloud management device for middleware and middleware applications. Of course, there are quite a few details that are important to understanding the functionality provided, and I spend quite a bit of my time talking with various users and potential users about these details. One thing I have noticed that can become an obstacle in having effective communication regarding IBM Workload Deployer is the lack of a commonly understood language. I sometimes find that me and the user are simply using different terminology to describe the same thing. As you can imagine, this just serves to create confusion, and neither party gets the most out of the conversation.
In order to combat this communication gap, I thought I would put together a simple presentation that introduces and defines IBM Workload Deployer terminology. Check it out below (you can also download it here):
While the presentation does not dive deep into the terms it introduces, it does provide a basic definition and illustrative example of each. My hope is that this fosters an understanding of some of the basic concepts in IBM Workload Deployer, and ultimately pushes us towards a common vernacular. Please let me know what you think!
It seems like it was announcement day across IBM, and specifically in WebSphere. While the announcements were numerous and touched many different topics, I want to focus on a couple of announcements of particular interest to those of you interested in WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Hypervisor Edition virtual images.
First, for all of our WebSphere Process Server and WebSphere Business Monitor users, there are a couple of important pieces of information in this announcement. This announcement outlines the availability of WebSphere Business Monitor Hypervisor Edition. The new image allows you to dispense WebSphere Business Monitor 7.0 environments using WebSphere CloudBurst to VMware hypervisors. In addition, the announcement outlines the expansion of the existing WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition image to support the z/VM platform and the Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) operating system for VMware.
Moving beyond our BPM set of solutions, IBM also announced the availability of a WebSphere Message Broker Hypervisor Edition. This virtual image allows you to construct and deploy WebSphere Message Broker and WebSphere MQ environments using WebSphere CloudBurst. The stack includes the RHEL operating system, and it is ready to run on VMware hypervisors.
With that in mind, here's an update to the WebSphere CloudBurst supported product matrix:
* Availability subject to dates documented in referenced announcement letters
As you can see, we are continuing our effort to expand the choice you have when using WebSphere CloudBurst to create and deploy application environments to your cloud. If you are interested in using WebSphere CloudBurst for WebSphere Business Monitor, WebSphere Process Server, or WebSphere Message Broker, check out the above announcements. You will find more technical information as well as planned availability dates.
Just one last scrap of food for thought. Feedback from you, our users, is instrumental as we continue to expand software choice with WebSphere CloudBurst. Please continue to let us know your thoughts and needs!
When we talk about the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition, we often get a lot of questions about whether or not SUSE Linux is the only flavor of the Linux operating system that we support. The short answer to that question is no.
While it is true that we only deliver the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition with a SUSE Linux operating system, we will support the use of the virtual image packaging with Red Hat Enterprise Linux as the base operating system. The basic process consists of creating a virtual machine disk based off of a suitable Red Hat install, altering the OVF file in WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition to reference this virtual disk instead of the SUSE virtual disk, and then packaging a new OVA file that contains all the same WebSphere virtual disks (profiles, binaries, IBM HTTP Server) but swaps out the Red Hat virtual disk for the SUSE virtual disk. We have done this many times in both the lab and field, and we offer services to users who need help in creating the image.
Customers often ask if there is any difference in using Red Hat versus SUSE Linux. The answer is, of course, yes and no. The answer is yes in that users must bring their own licenses of Red Hat (SUSE Linux licenses are included in the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition), and users must support and maintain the Red Hat operating system on their own. However, once the image is built, there is absolutely no difference in the use of that image within WebSphere CloudBurst.
Once built, users upload the image into their WebSphere CloudBurst catalog and it is available for use in pattern building just like any other image. I mentioned that users are responsible for updating and maintaining the image, well users can use WebSphere CloudBurst to create these updated images. When patches or updates are ready for the Red Hat operating system, the Extend/Capture facility available for images in WebSphere CloudBurst can be used to create a new custom Red Hat operating system with your desired fixes. This is all done without ever having to worry about actually recreating and repackaging the image again.
I know seeing is believing, so with respect to the "sameness" of using a Red Hat version of the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition within WebSphere CloudBurst, I've created a short demo you can watch here. As always, let us know what you think and send any questions our way.
The WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition virtual image is made up of four different virtual disks. One of those disks contains pre-created and pre-configured WebSphere Application Server profiles. When the image is activated (either through WebSphere CloudBurst or in a standalone fashion), all of the profiles not being used are deleted leaving only the intended WebSphere profile type.
Since the profiles are pre-created, this implies that certain information must be updated after the image is activated to reflect things that change with each node that is created. Among other things, the cell name, node name, and host name of the WAS profile configuration are usually updated during the image activation process. Nearly every time I talk to WAS administrators about WebSphere CloudBurst and WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition they are intrigued by this particular configuration update and almost always ask "How do you do it?" (Dustin's note: Since the command to rename the cell is not officially documented, I have removed it from this post. I'm sorry, but it is for your own good!)
Most of the time this question pops up because users are attempting to, with a more narrow focus than WAS Hypervisor Edition, freeze-dry certain WAS configurations in their organization. However, no matter how they do that (virtual images, zipped up configuration files, etc.), they too need to update things like the cell, node, and host names when attempting to reuse the configuration. Many have gone down the route of trying to identify all of the different XML files they need to change in order to update this information, but this is untenable and in fact unnecessary.
If you need to update the node or host name, forget manually updating XML files. Instead, use these three wsadmin commands:
The commands can be run from a standalone node or from a deployment manager node. They are pretty straight forward, and if you need more information about them just take a look in the WebSphere Application Server Information Center. I hope this is helpful information, and stay away from those XML files!
I hate sitting on secrets. I always have. I understand that sometimes it's in the best interest of everyone (and your job) to keep tight lips, but that does not make it any more fun. Inevitably, the run-up to our annual Impact conference means everyone in the lab is doing their fair share of secret keeping -- just waiting for announce time. For a lot of us, that day ended Tuesday with the announcement of the IBM Workload Deployer v3.0.
Now, you may be wondering, 'I have never heard of this. Why is it version 3.0??' Well, IBM Workload Deployer is a sort of evolution of the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance, which was previously at version 2.0. This is good news for all of our current WebSphere CloudBurst users because all of the functionality (plus new bits of course) that they have been using in WebSphere CloudBurst are present in IBM Workload Deployer. You can use and customize our IBM Hypervisor Edition images in IBM Workload Deployer. You can build and deploy custom patterns that contain custom scripts in order to create highly customized IBM middleware environments. So, what's the big deal here? Two words: workload patterns.
Workload patterns represent a new cloud deployment model and are an evolution of the traditional topology patterns you may have seen with WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance (I am a little torn between evolution and revolution, but that's splitting hairs). Fundamentally, workload patterns raise the level of abstraction one notch higher than topology patterns and put the focus on the application. That means, when you use a workload pattern the focus is on the application instead of the application infrastructure. Perhaps an example would be helpful to illustrate how a workload pattern may work in IBM Workload Deployer.
Let's consider the use of a workload pattern that was part of the recent announcement, the IBM Workload Deployer Pattern for Web Applications v1.0. Just how might something like this work? It's simple really. You upload your application (maybe a WAR or EAR file), upload a database schema file (if you want to deploy a database with the solution), upload an LDIF file (if you want to setup an LDAP in the deployment to configure application security), attach policies that describe application requirements (autonomic scaling behavior, availability guidelines, etc), and hit the deploy button. IBM Workload Deployer handles setting up the necessary application middleware, installing and configuring applications, and then managing the resultant runtime in accordance with the policies you defined. In short, workload patterns provide a completely application centric approach to deploying environments to the cloud.
Now, if you are a middleware administrator, application developer, or just a keen observer, you probably have picked up on the fact that in order to deliver something as consumable and easy to use as what I described above, one must make a certain number of assumptions. You are right. Workload patterns encapsulate the installation, configuration, and integration of middleware, as well as the installation and configuration of applications that run on that middleware. Most of this is completely hidden from you, the user. This means you have less control over configuration and integration, but you also have significantly reduced labor and increased freedom/agility. You can concentrate on the development of the application and its components and let IBM Workload Deployer create and manage the infrastructure that services that application.
Having shown and lobbied a bit for the benefits of workload patterns, I also completely understand that sometimes you just need more control. That is not a problem in IBM Workload Deployer because as I said before, you can still create custom patterns, with custom scripts based on custom IBM Hypervisor Edition images. The bottom line is that the IBM Workload Deployer offers choice and flexibility. If your application profile meshes well with a workload pattern, by all means use it. If you need more control over configuration or more highly customized environments, look into IBM Hypervisor Edition images and topology patterns. They are both present in IBM Workload Deployer, and the choice is yours.
If you happen to be coming to IBM Impact next week, there will be much more information about IBM Workload Deployer. I encourage you to drop-by our sessions, ask questions, and take the opportunity to meet some of our IBM lab experts. Hope to see you in Las Vegas!
Since its introduction and initial release around one year ago, activity around WebSphere CloudBurst has been a steady buzz. New images, features, enhancements have been rolling in, and can sometimes be a little overwhelming to digest. With that in mind, I want to address a related and frequent question. What products does IBM support for use in WebSphere CloudBurst?
To answer that question, we only need to look at the IBM Hypervisor Edition images currently provided by IBM. Here's a quick matrix of those images:
When one uses IBM Workload Deployer (previously WebSphere CloudBurst) to deploy a virtual system pattern, they benefit from a completely automated deployment process. The automation includes the creation and placement of virtual machines, injection of IP addresses, initiation of internal processes, and invocation of included scripts. Most of these processes are straightforward and require little more than a brief overview. However, the placement of virtual machines stands out, and it's inner workings are the subject of quite a few questions when I discuss the appliance. With that in mind, I thought I would provide a little more information on how the placement algorithm in IBM Workload Deployer works.
The placement subsystem in IBM Workload Deployer considers three primary elements: compute resource, availability, and license optimization. Compute resource availability is the gating factor for placement. That means that IBM Workload Deployer first looks at the available CPU, memory, and storage resource in the collection of hypervisors making up the cloud group(s) you are targeting for deployment. If a particular hypervisor cannot provide enough resource based on the amount you requested for your deployment, then it is automatically taken out of the eligible hosts pool. It is important to note that IBM Workload Deployer will overcommit CPU, and it will overcommit storage if you direct it to do so. It will not overcommit memory because that could severely degrade the performance of the application(s) running in the virtual machines.
After choosing the pool of hypervisors that are capable of hosting the virtual machines in your deployment from a compute resource perspective, the appliance then considers high availability. To better understand this particular placement stage, let's consider an example. Consider you are deploying a pattern based on WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition and it contains two custom node parts. It is conceivable, and in fact likely, that these two custom node parts will host members of the same cluster, and thus the two nodes will support the same applications. As such, IBM Workload Deployer will attempt to place the two custom nodes on different physical machines in order to prevent a single point of failure. Of course, this depends on having two hypervisors with enough resource (CPU, memory, storage) to host the virtual machines, but the appliance makes that decision in the first placement stage.
After considering compute resource and high availability, IBM Workload Deployer moves to the last stage of placement: license optimization. In this stage, the placement subsystem attempts to place the virtual machines on hypervisors in a way that minimizes the licensing cost to you. The appliance can do this because it is aware of IBM virtualization licensing rules and takes those into account during this stage (if you aren't familiar with virtualization licensing rules and you are curious, ask you're sales representative to explain some time). During this stage, it will not violate any resource overcommit directives or rules in place, nor will it compromise system availability, but it will seek to minimize costs within these parameters.
At this point, I should make something clear that may already have occurred to you. You can override most of these placement rules by creating a cloud group containing only one hypervisor. In this case, IBM Workload Deployer will put all virtual machines on the single hypervisor until it runs out of compute resource (memory is likely to be the constraining factor). I would not suggest that you do this unless you have a good reason or you are in a simple pilot phase, but I do like to point out the art of the possible!
While not incredibly deep from a technical perspective, I do hope that this provided a few helpful details on what goes on during the placement stages of deployment. If you have any questions, do let me know.
The majority of my posts on this blog address using various features of WebSphere CloudBurst to build private cloud computing environments. Today though, I want to switch gears and instead of talking private cloud, let's talk public cloud. Specifically, let's take a look at the capabilities and services delivered via the IBM Smart Business Development and Test on the IBM Cloud (hereafter referred to as the IBM Cloud).
For some of you, the fact that IBM has a public cloud offering may be a little surprising. After all, if you listen to some uninformed critics you may hear that IBM only cares about private clouds for large enterprises. That is simply untrue. The IBM Cloud is an Infrastructure as a Service public cloud that delivers rapid access to services hosted on IBM infrastructure via a self-service web portal. The IBM Cloud offers multiple payment options, including usage-based billing and reserved capacity billing, and even features a cost estimator so you can confidently establish a monthly budget for your usage.
Regardless of whether you use a private or a public cloud, security should always be a chief concern. As such, IBM takes security very seriously in the IBM Public Cloud. The infrastructure that constitutes the cloud is subject to internal IBM security policies that include regular security scans and tight administrative governance. Your data and virtual machines stay in the data center to which you provisioned them, and physical security policies match those of internal IBM data centers. Additionally, you can optionally make use of the virtual private network option to isolate access to the virtual machines that you provision on the IBM Cloud. Rest assured that security in the IBM Cloud was a guiding design principle and not an afterthought.
With the basics out of the way, let's get on to the question I'm sure you have: What can I run on the IBM Cloud? To get you started, the IBM Cloud provides a nice list of public images in its catalog that are ready for you to provision. These images include WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere sMash, DB2, WebSphere Portal Server, IBM Cognos Business Intelligence, Tivoli Monitoring, Rational Build Forge, and many more. In addition to the public images provided by the IBM Cloud, you can build your own private images. Private images allow you to start with a base public image and then customize it by adjusting the configuration or installing new software. Once customized, you can store these private images on the IBM Cloud and provision them whenever needed. Whether you are using public or private images, you have a number of server configurations to choose from in order to host your environments.
While very brief, I hope this overview provides you with some of the more important details regarding the IBM Cloud. There are few, if any, service providers out there with the enterprise expertise of IBM, and I think you see that reflected in the IBM Cloud. If you are looking at public cloud options for your enterprise application environments, you should definitely take a closer look at the IBM Cloud.