A cloud is more than just coalesced water vapor. If it were then fog, mist and steam would all be considered a cloud. In truth, some definitions do say exactly that. However, we communicate most effectively when words have clear and distinct meanings. If I were to ask you to visualize a cloud, you would think of the puffs of grandeur in the sky. No matter what you think of in addition, that image would be invoked. Even if you are unsure of the context, that image would be amongst the most likely possibilities. Sky clouds, as envisioned, do require water vapor but they also require air, space, pressure and light to form that common image.
What's the point? The point is that the word, 'cloud', has a commonly understood meaning, regardless of the technical or scientific details that can make that specific meaning less exclusive. No one is served by making the definition more ambiguous. Similarly, the description and components of cloud computing should not be watered down to allow every conceivable enterprise feature or outcome.
Cloud computing is a way to maximize capacity and utilization and to minimize space, maintenance and to simplify governance. It offers these benefits by employing virtualization concepts and capitalizing on the emergence of patterns in enterprise topologies.
Virtualization is not a cloud solution, but a cloud solution will require virtualization in some form, whether it be cloning or full virtual images. Similarly, parallel processing on pooled resources is not a cloud but the principles of that are important to the conception of an effective cloud. However, a cloud also requires understanding of the enterprise, a clear picture of patterns and topologies and an efficient process for managing images as distinct entities. In other words, it's not just water vapor.
Cloud computing is the product of the evolution of networks and enterprises. It requires many things that have existed for years but only now have developed to the point where we can achieve the power and flexibility that cloud computing offers. Weighing down the grandeur of the cloud concept by overemphasizing some constituent part or by understating the importance of its management and governance serves no one except for the few trying to get a free ride in the sky.
It's really hard to complain about my work week right now. As I write this blog, I'm sitting in the Congress Center in Düsseldorf, Germany looking out over the Rhine River. As an aside, in Germany it is the Rhein River, and I have a historical connection to this body of water. My surname, Amrhein, translates (loosely) to 'on the Rhein'. It does not take an expert in genealogy to conclude that I have ancestors who at one time or another lived very close to this important German waterway.
Okay, putting the family tree aside for a minute, there is a good reason that I am in Düsseldorf this week. The city, and specifically the Congress Center, is playing host to the IBM European WebSphere Technical Conference. I am here presenting sessions that include a WebSphere CloudBurst overview, a WebSphere CloudBurst hands-on lab, and an up-close look at one of our internal team's use of the appliance. I have done each of these sessions once so far, and attendance was great, audience participation high, and feedback forthcoming. I am hearing and seeing the same thing in other sessions, which is of course, ideal for us presenters.
Now, to focus in on WebSphere CloudBurst for a bit, it seems that I am hearing a recurring question this week from the mostly European audience: "Why is WebSphere CloudBurst delivered as an appliance?" I am sure that I addressed this question in a previous blog post, but I believe it bears revisiting. There are various reasons I could give for the appliance form factor, but I like to distill all of that down into three major reasons: Consumability, Performance, and Security.
From a solution consumability perspective, nothing beats the appliance approach. WebSphere CloudBurst is an integrated hardware and software solution that delivers a specific set of function. You do not have to install software, procure and maintain storage for resources on the appliance (images, patterns, scripts, etc.), and maintain software components over time. You simply drop the appliance in to your data center, perform a one-time initialization, hook it up to the network, and you are ready to start leveraging WebSphere CloudBurst to build out your private cloud. While there is definitely work to setup the cloud infrastructure that WebSphere CloudBurst deploys environments to, we can completely eliminate a significant portion of solution implementation lead time by delivering everything you need in the appliance.
The performance benefits of an appliance approach are a natural result of building an integrated hardware and software stack. Design and development teams provide optimizations in both the hardware and software based on the fact that both the hardware and software have intimate knowledge of each other's design. In other words, this is not a 'least common denominator' tuning approach. Rather, the integrated design leads to enhanced performance for the specific set of functionality provided by WebSphere CloudBurst.
Finally, appliances enable us to deliver a very hardened, secure device. We provide private key encryption of every resource stored on the appliance. That private key is unique to each appliance and cannot be modified. In addition, the physical casing is tamper-resistant. If someone removes the casing, a 'Get Smart' style kill switch puts the appliance in a dormant state. You must send the appliance to IBM so we can reset it before further use, thus providing an additional layer of physical protection on top of the encryption. These security features, plus more, like a shield that prevents anyone from executing code on the appliance, come right out of the box and require no end-user configuration activity. In this way, you can simply focus on leveraging the user security and access controls provided by WebSphere CloudBurst.
If you had any questions on the rationale behind the appliance form factor of WebSphere CloudBurst, I hope this helps. I am off for now... back to the conference and the wonderful city of Düsseldorf.
Not long ago I created a demonstration that highlighted the new support for the PowerVM platform introduced in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1. In that demonstration I showed how you can deploy to a PowerVM cloud by defining a new cloud group that interfaces with a VMControl instance to manage a pSeries cloud environment. However, in the demo I did not go into much detail about the components of a pSeries cloud used with WebSphere CloudBurst.
Since pictures help me out a lot, I thought I’d start the discussion with an image that depicts the components in the pSeries cloud environment and the workflow when using WebSphere CloudBurst to deploy systems to this environment.
The workflow begins when a user requests the deployment of a pattern and targets that deployment for a PowerVM cloud group. WebSphere CloudBurst first checks that the cloud group contains the compute resources necessary to deploy the pattern. After the resource checks are complete, WebSphere CloudBurst decides where to place each virtual machine that will be created from deployment using its intelligent placement algorithm. No matter the type of the cloud environment being utilized the appliance retains control over placement decisions, thus ensuring the virtual system has been deployed in a way that optimizes both performance and availability.
Once the placement decision has been made, WebSphere CloudBurst communicates with the VMControl instance, which in turn instructs the Hardware Management Console (HMC) to create LPARs on the targeted pSeries machines. These LPARs will host the virtual machines that represent the WebSphere Application Server nodes in your virtual system. After the LPARs have been created, WebSphere CloudBurst leverages VMControl to instruct the Network Installation Manager (NIM) to deploy virtual images to the necessary LPARs.
When the LPARs have been created and the virtual images have been deployed to those LPARs, the common process of virtual system creation can proceed. This process includes starting virtual machines, starting WebSphere Application Server components, and running any user-supplied scripts. The end result is a ready to use, virtualized WebSphere Application Server cell running on the PowerVM hypervisor platform.
I hope this provides a nice overview of the underlying environment when PowerVM hypervisors are used with WebSphere CloudBurst. As for those users who are not WebSphere CloudBurst cloud administrators, the information above is nice to know but not necessary. The user experience with respect to building, deploying, and managing your virtualized application environments with WebSphere CloudBurst is consistent regardless of the type of your cloud platform.
In the previous post Dustin shared a great video demonstrating the value of the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool that is now delivered with IBM Workload Deployer V3.1. This is certainly one of the key new features of IBM Workload Deployer V3.1. However, there are also a number of other compelling enhancements and features that we would like communicate.
I created the attached video to highlight some of these features included in new Workload Deployer release. The video uses the web console to highlight some of the features and capabilities, giving a brief introduction for each one. Without going into a lot of depth, I think it gives a nice overview. This may be especially helpful if you already have Workload Deployer v3.0 and want to see the value you will get when you upgrade to Workload Deployer v3.1. Check it out.
We believe that these new features make IBM Workload Deployer V3.1 an even better solution for your private cloud needs. Please let us know what you think.
I wanted to take a brief moment to remind you that the Enabling cloud computing with WebSphere campaign is well underway. Check out the various presentations and podcasts on solutions such as WebSphere Virtual Enterprise, WebSphere CloudBurst, Cast Iron Systems, WebSphere DataPower Application Optimization, WebSpan Integration as a Service Cloud, WebSphere Application Server Feature Pack for Dynamic Scripting, and more. All you have to do is navigate to the site, and you can download presentations or listen to audio/video replays at your convenience.
In addition to the podcast sessions, I want to point out a couple of upcoming events. The first is a live Q&A webcast that takes place next Thursday (9/23). Myself and other IBMers will be joining the webcast to answer your questions about cloud computing and WebSphere solutions. You can register to attend the session here, and you can submit questions ahead of time here.
A week after the live Q&A webcast (9/30), there will be an online JAM. Think of this as an online chat between IBMers and you, our users. You can ask questions, give us your feedback and suggestions, or just watch the proceedings. Like with the live Q&A webcast, you can submit questions ahead of time by navigating here.
I hope you are getting a chance to take advantage of some, or all of the campaign. Of course, you do not have to wait for the sessions to ask questions or give feedback. You can always leave a comment here or reach out to me on Twitter (@damrhein). Happy Friday!
In keeping with the impressive release pace, WebSphere CloudBurst 184.108.40.206 is now available for download from the IBM Support site. In some ways, this release is typical of what you may expect from a service release. In other words, there are defect fixes and other general enhancements in the new version of the firmware. However, this release is a bit more than your typical service release in that there are a couple of major additions of which you should be aware.
First, starting in WebSphere CloudBurst 220.127.116.11, you will be able to provision WebSphere CloudBurst patterns to IBM Power7 systems. We already supported both Power5 and Power6 systems, and this new addition allows you to take advantage of some of the significant enhancements in the IBM Power7 hardware. In addition, this means that from a single appliance you can provision environments to multiple different releases of VMware, IBM z/VM, and IBM PowerVM hypervisor technologies. The best thing about this is that WebSphere CloudBurst provides an effective abstraction layer over the underlying infrastructure so that no matter which of the hypervisor solutions you use, the end-user experience with the appliance remains the same. You get all of this from a single device!
The other major element in WebSphere CloudBurst 18.104.22.168 is the introduction of Environment Profiles. Traditionally, WebSphere CloudBurst controlled most of the pattern deployment process. While this allows the appliance to provide a lot of configuration activity without input from the user, it made some usage scenarios hard to accommodate. For instance, historically you have not been able to assign specific IP addresses to machines in your deployment, and you have not been able to deploy a pattern across multiple cloud groups. Now, with environment profiles you can. Environment profiles give you more control over deployment behavior, including the ability to assign IP addresses (as opposed to WebSphere CloudBurst automatically doing so), deploy parts across multiple cloud groups, and apply virtual machine naming standards. The use of these new resources is completely optional, so you can still use the traditional deployment model, but this provides you with flexibility if you so choose. You can learn more about this new capability by watching the short demonstration here.
As an aside to the above information concerning WebSphere CloudBurst 22.214.171.124, I should also point out new WebSphere Hypervisor Edition announcements detailed here. I encourage you to read the announcement, but to summarize there are two major pieces of information. First, when you buy PVUs of entitlement for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition or WebSphere Message Broker Hypervisor Edition, those entitlements also apply to WebSphere Application Server and WebSphere Message Broker respectively. You can use the Hypervisor Edition images and traditional software packages in any combination, up to the level of use based on your Hypervisor Edition entitlements. Second, there is a new licensing for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition called IBM HTTP Server for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition. This allows you to deploy IBM HTTP Server instances using the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition without paying for the full Hypervisor Edition license. Again, for more details and term information, please read the announcement referenced previously.
There will be more to come about WebSphere CloudBurst 126.96.36.199, including an article on the use of environment profiles, but I wanted to give everyone a quick heads up. Let me know if you have any questions or feedback for us.
When I talk to users familiar with both WebSphere CloudBurst and the IBM Systems Director VMControl offering, there is sometimes a bit of confusion. It is not surprising. Both WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Systems Director VMControl allow users to create and manage virtualized environments. That leads us to an oft-asked question: What is the difference between WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Systems Director VMControl?
The simple answer is that the difference in the two offerings is the degree to which they are purpose-built. IBM Systems Director VMControl equips users with broadly applicable capabilities to create and manage environments consisting of virtual machines. These capabilities extend to PowerVM, z/VM, VMware, and Microsoft Hyper-V hypervisor platforms. IBM Systems Director VMControl is not necessarily knowledgeable about the software running in the virtual machine, but it does allow the user to manage that asset effectively.
Compare and contrast that with the capabilities provided by WebSphere CloudBurst. The appliance also enables users to create and manage environments consisting of virtual machines. The difference is that WebSphere CloudBurst is purpose-built to provide you with the ability to create, deploy, and manage virtualized WebSphere environments quickly and easily.
What does that mean? Well, on one hand it means that WebSphere CloudBurst does not treat the virtual machines it creates like a black box. In fact, it knows quite a bit about the software running inside those machines, and provides users with out-of-the-box configuration and administration capabilities for said software. WebSphere CloudBurst knows how to interact with the software in the virtual machines to do things like federate WebSphere nodes into a cell, create application server clusters, configure environments for optimal performance, apply fixes and upgrades, and more. The best part is you do not need to supply any of your own scripts to do this. In short, the appliance ships with WebSphere intelligence.
Beyond this WebSphere intelligence, WebSphere CloudBurst enables users to create customized WebSphere environments (from the operating system up) and codify those customized environments in the form of patterns. These patterns, which represent your very own WebSphere application environments, enable you to deploy your applications rapidly, repeatedly and with extremely consistent results. In addition, the appliance allows you to define varying roles for users, each of those mapping to traditional data center responsibilities (i.e. customizing the operating system, building application infrastructure, carrying out middleware customizations, etc.). Again, WebSphere CloudBurst was purpose-built with WebSphere environments in mind.
It is not all about comparing and contrasting WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Systems Director VMControl. In the case that you are using WebSphere CloudBurst to create and manage virtualized WebSphere environments on top of the PowerVM hypervisor platform, IBM Systems Director VMControl is actually a required component. In this scenario, the two offerings are complementary. WebSphere CloudBurst communicates with IBM Systems Director VMControl in order to create and configure the virtualized WebSphere environment requested by the user. This image below depicts how the two products work in conjunction in a PowerVM environment.
I hope this helps to shed light on how WebSphere CloudBurst compares to, contrasts with, and complements IBM Systems Director VMControl. Feel free to reach out to me on the blog or on Twitter (@damrhein) with any questions I did not answer here.
When IBM Workload Deployer V3.0 was introduced last year, one of the "hidden" values that it delivered was a base image used for virtual application patterns. I say "hidden" because this image, while delivered primarily for use in virtual application patterns, could also be leveraged for virtual system patterns. By now you may be scratching your head and wondering just what I'm talking about. Let me explain...
To begin with, it is helpful to understand a little bit about how virtual applications are deployed and how that differs from virtual system patterns. As you may already know, virtual system patterns are built from IBM Hypervisor Edition images to launch the virtual machines for your deployment. The IBM Hypervisor Edition images include the Operating System and middleware components together in the image. Therefore, building a virtual system pattern basically starts with a fairly complete image and activates the parts in that image necessary to fulfill the particular role this virtual machine will pay in a virtual system pattern. Virtual application patterns take a somewhat different approach. The starting point for a virtual application pattern is the base image which only includes the base Operating System. Workload Deployer launches a virtual machine with just this base image and then the appliance manages installation, configuration, and integration of software and applications to complete the role this virtual machine must fulfill for this virtual application pattern. At a high level you could consider virtual system patterns a template approach and virtual application patterns more of a build it as you need it approach.
So just what is the "hidden" value of these base images provided for virtual application patterns and how can that be used for virtual system patterns? The hidden value is that the base images used for virtual application patterns are delivered with IBM Workload Deployer in the image catalog and can be used for building virtual system patterns. If you already have an appliance you can take a look ... you will see the base images there under Catalog > Virtual Images right along side more familiar images like the IBM Hypervisor Edition images for WebSphere Application Server. For x86 systems this image is appropriately named "IBM Workload Deployer Image for x86 Systems". These images each include a base part called "Core OS" that can be included in a virtual system pattern.
So now you may be saying to yourself - well that's all great news but what is new about this? The new thing is that in IBM Workload Deployer V3.1 a significant new feature was added - the ability to deploy virtual application images to PowerVM environments using AIX. To enable that feature a base image was created for AIX, the "IBM OS Image for AIX Systems." As with the x86 image, this new image is now also available for your use in the image catalog. You can now employ that default AIX image for your own needs in virtual systems patterns - creating a very nice extension mechanism for PowerVM and AIX users.
This new base image contains the IBM AIX 6100-05 operating system and the Core OS part that you can include in virtual system patterns. As with the x86 base image delivered earlier, there are no restrictions on how you use or customize this image. To make it suitable for your purposes you can employ the IBM Workload Deployer extend and capture capability to install additional software content into the image. You can also enhance this image using the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool (ICCT) that is now included with IBM Workload Deployer v3.1. When you include this part in a virtual system pattern you can also associate any configuration scripts that you may need, just as you would with any other part. Just as with the x86 part - this provides substantial value and a significant convenience for AIX users.
I hope this clues you in on the "hidden" benefits of a substantial new feature included in IBM Workload Deployer V3.1. We have often been asked to provide base OS images to build upon as starting from scratch is sometimes difficult when you need to create your own custom image. Now, with IBM Workload Deployer v3.1, you have your choice of two default images in addition to the many IBM Hypervisor Edition images delivered as well as a robust set of new features in IBM Workload Deployer V3.1!
This week is a busy week getting ready for IMPACT next week. I'm looking forward to the conference, and I thought I would share a few things on my agenda. Naturally, my agenda includes the sessions I am running:
10:15 AM - 11:30 AM
TDC-2973A Meet the Experts and Demo: WebSphere Cloudburst Appliance
Come and meet the experts responsible for the WebSphere Cloudburst Appliance, and see a demo of its functionality in this informal setting.
1:30 PM - 4:30 PM
TDC-1369A Lab: Working with the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance
Come and work hands on with the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance to create your own WebSphere application environments in a cloud. The lab will guide you through using WebSphere CloudBurst to create and deploy WebSphere virtual systems in a private cloud. Youll learn how to create custom WebSphere and DB2 topologies by extending virtual images, creating patterns, and using scripts. You'll get a chance to work with the easy to use Web 2.0 user interface. Youll be amazed at the ease of use WebSphere CloudBurst brings to configuring, deploying, and running WebSphere environments in a private cloud.
1:30 PM - 2:45 PM
TAD-1370A Simplifying Development using Rational Tools with WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance
Are you looking to really simplify your WebSphere development and test environments - including never needing to install or configure WebSphere again? If so, come hear about how you can use the IBM WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance along with Rational tools like the Rational Automation Framework for WebSphere and Rational Software Architect to create a dynamic development and test cloud. With the integration of WebSphere CloudBurst and selected Rational tools, you worry about the application development, while WebSphere CloudBurst worries about the WebSphere infrastructure and your cloud resources. Come to this combination of presentation and demo to see how easy development and testing can be.
In addition to these, there are some other exciting WebSphere CloudBurst sessions on tap:
3:45 PM - 5:00 PM
TDC-2498A WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance at Lowe's
Lowe's is evaluating WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance (WCA) as a tool for managing their X86 and PowerVM environments in a cloud fashion. Come to hear how Lowes believes WCA fits into an enterprise companys cloud strategy. This session will discuss the work done at Lowes so far and the use cases planned for WCA at Lowe's. Attendees can understand how WCA is delivering value in an adopter's environment.
5:15 PM - 6:30 PM
TDC-1368A Introduction to WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance
The WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance delivers capabilities to create, monitor, and maintain private WebSphere clouds. It provides you the capability to quickly and simply create, deploy, and maintain virtualized WebSphere application environments running on a heterogeneous, shared pool of resources that make up your cloud. In this session, we will provide an overview of the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance features and benefits and demonstrate the latest capabilities.
1:30 PM - 2:45 PM
TDC-1758A Building Private Clouds with WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance
Come join us as we discuss how the WebSphere development and test organization built a large private cloud from the ground up using WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. We have lowered the entry requirement to get a meaningful WebSphere Application Server development environment (days down to minutes), saved costs by improving hardware utilization while simplifying our management of physical resources and topologies. We will discuss best practices for adhering to security requirements, creating reusable automation scripts for your applications and configurations and maintaining your cloud. Allow us to share our experience in using WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance to create our automated regression infrastructure, and to provide up-to-date deployments to our test team.
4:45 PM - 6:00 PM
TDC-1946A BSkyB's Experiences using the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance V1.1
At Impact 2009, IBM announced the launch of the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. BSkyB witnessed this launch and were very keen to understand the device's potential. This presentation details their experiences to date, and their vision for incorporating the appliance into their organization. Details will include bringing the device in house, setting up the cloud, and doing deployments. BSkyB will also discuss the customisation process, and how they used the extend / capture and scripting capabilities to add content including WebSphere Process Server. The presenters will share their lessons learned as they continue their journey using WebSphere CloudBurst for agile environment provisioning and simplified WebSphere Administration.
10:15 AM - 11:30 AM
TDC-2063A Panel: WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance Customers Describe their Experiences
A panel of several customers who have adopted WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance will discuss their experiences with the product, and answer questions related to their experiences.
9:00 AM - 10:15 AM
TDC-1884A Using WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance in a PowerVM Environment
This session will discuss the concepts and issues associated with implementing the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance (WCA) in a PowerVM environment. The components of the implementation including VMControl, IBM System Director, HMC, NIM. and WebSphere CloudBurst will be explained, along with their relationships and functions. This in-depth session will also provide best practices from early adopter deployments and performance experiences.
1:30 PM - 2:45 PM
TBR-2491A Customizing a Private Cloud for WebSphere Process Server Applications
Every enterprise has a unique set of standards when it comes to the applications that are deployed and the qualities of service that are required for those applications. Come to this session to learn some of the best practices around pattern customization and maintenance of the images in the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance for your specific requirements. We will use the creation of a WebSphere Process Server double gold topology pattern to show these best practices. This session will also cover the practices involved with maintaining these patterns.
As you can see there is going to be quite a bit of activity around WebSphere CloudBurst at IBM IMPACT 2010. The lists above is not all encompassing either. Visit the IBM Impact site for more information. If you are registered to attend, be sure to visit the agenda builder website for the conference.
Lately Joe and I have been pretty vocal about bringing up the new IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool capabilities in IBM Workload Deployer v3.1. While writing about such new capabilities is always good, I think seeing is believing. In that light, I hope you will take a look at the recent demo I put together that shows how to use the Image Construction and Composition Tool with IBM Workload Deployer v3.1!
Yesterday, we kicked off a WebSphere in the Clouds campaign designed to connect you with IBMers that can help you to leverage WebSphere solutions to build clouds. The campaign consists of webcasts, podcasts, live Q&A sessions, and online JAMs. You can listen to replays and sign up for upcoming events by visiting the Global WebSphere Community website.
Next week, the campaign delivers a series of podcasts that discuss the WebSphere technologies that form the building blocks of clouds. These podcasts will discuss both the business and technical aspects of these solutions, and they will cover topics like application infrastructure in the cloud, policy-based workload management using application virtualization, hybrid cloud integration, and more. Over the past few days, I had the opportunity to catch up with the various presenters of these podcasts to ask them a few questions about their solutions. These interviews provide a nice sneak peak at what is coming in the podcasts, and I will be posting them here in the coming days.
To kick things off, I'm posting a video interview with Marc Haberkorn. Marc is the WebSphere Product Manager for WebSphere CloudBurst, WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition, and WebSphere Virtual Enterprise. My colleague, Ryan Boyles, caught up with Marc and got his thoughts on how these solutions enable virtualization and automation for your cloud environments. Enjoy!
Virtual image parts play a huge role in WebSphere CloudBurst. When crafting your own customized patterns, you include anywhere from 1 to n parts from as many different virtual images as is necessary. These parts represent the different node types or personalities within a given Hypervisor Edition image, and form the basis of your pattern. When you deploy a pattern, such as the one pictured below, WebSphere CloudBurst creates a distinct virtual machine for each part.
This means that after deploying the above WebSphere Application Server pattern, you will have four virtual machines comprising your virtual system. This gives you a clean separation of concern by providing a unique container for each of your application environment nodes. This can attribute to performance optimization, increased availability, and much more. However, this approach is not suitable to all use cases. In some scenarios, especially when trying to control costs and increase consolidation, you may want to deploy a multi-node WebSphere Application Server environment within a single virtual machine. Based on what I showed you above, you might think our approach in WebSphere CloudBurst makes this impossible, but you would be overlooking an important component of patterns.
That component is of course the second building block of patterns... script packages. As you probably know, script packages allow you to supply just about any customization you want. In the case that you want a single virtual machine to host a number of WebSphere Application Server nodes, maybe even an entire cell, all you need to do is supply a script package that constructs the necessary nodes during deployment. In fact, you don't even have to write the script package. You can use the free sample in our samples gallery. As seen in the pattern below, you include this script package on a sole deployment manager part in a pattern.
The script script package provides parameters that define the node name, number of custom nodes, and number of web server nodes you want in your cell. During the deployment process, the script takes this information and constructs the cell you define. This includes creating the custom and web servers nodes and federating the custom nodes, thus completing the creation of your WebSphere Application Server cell. In this case, the script package provides deployment flexibility that is sometimes a necessity, and it is just another example of the many degrees of flexibility enabled by the script package design.
I should point out that a part in a pattern does not always map to a single node. For instance, in the case of WebSphere Process Server, there is a part that represents a complete, multi-node golden topology encapsulated within a single virtual machine. However, if you find yourself using images that do not contain these multi-node parts, rest easy knowing script packages provide you the flexibility you need.
Application-centric cloud computing is the main thrust behind the new capabilities of IBM Workload Deployer v3.0. But what does that really mean? After all, application-centricity is really just a concept. Granted, it is an important concept, but it is fairly meaningless until it is put into action or implemented. IBM Workload Deployer does just that with its new Virtual Application Patterns (VAPs).
VAPs are the embodiment of the workload pattern approach I briefly discussed in an overview post a few weeks back. The idea with a VAP is to give the user an interface through which they can provide their application, specify dependencies, declare functional and non-functional requirements and then deploy. Of course application middleware is a part of the overall solution, but IBM Workload Deployer has the smarts to build, configure, and integrate the necessary infrastructure in order to support the user's application. This is completely hidden from the user, so they are liberated to focus on the application and its requirements.
If we scratch a bit further beneath the surface of a VAP, we see that these patterns contain three primary pieces. These primary pieces are components, links, and policies, and they are fundamental to understanding how virtual application patterns work. Let's start with the building blocks of VAPs, components. Put simply, components represent different resources and functionality profiles that make up your application environment. As an example, the IBM Workload Deployer Pattern for Web Applications is a VAP that contains components for an EAR file, WAR file, message queue, and any number of other components that are typical requirements for a web application. The components will certainly vary based on the workload type (i.e. the components included in a web application VAP would be different than those included in a batch application VAP), but they are the foundation of any VAP.
From the ground up, the next logical element we come to in the VAP is a link. A link is a way to declare a dependency or integration point between two components. As an example, consider a VAP with a WAR file component and a database component. You might draw a link between the WAR component and the database component to indicate that your web application uses or otherwise depends on the database. IBM Workload Deployer interprets this link, and takes it as a directive to configure the integration between the two components as a part of deployment. In this case, that may mean configuring a data source in the application's container. This is just a simple example, and an application may have any number of links between components.
Finally, we come to the policy element within the VAP. A policy is a way for a user to specify functional and non-functional requirements for their application environment. Users attach policies to the VAP, or to components in their VAP, and IBM Workload Deployer interprets and enforces those policies. In the context of a web application, one example of a policy could be a scaling policy. The scaling policy might indicate scaling requirements for the application that included minimum application instances, maximum application instances, and conditions that triggered scaling activities. IBM Workload Deployer would use the information in a scaling policy within a VAP to appropriately manage the deployed, running environment. Other examples of a scaling policy may include a JVM policy that provides configuration directives for the java virtual machines in your application environment or a logging policy that defines logging configuration options. In any case, the policy element allows VAP builders to influence the configuration and management of the application environment.
In the example VAP below you can see the use of components (Enterprise Application, Database, User Registry, Messaging Service), links (blue lines between components), and policies (Scaling Policy, JVM Policy):
In total, when I look at a VAP a particular word sticks out to me: declarative. VAPs really enable declarative, application-centric cloud computing. What do I mean? By declarative, I mean you are telling IBM Workload Deployer what you want, but not necessarily how you want it done. It is the job of IBM Workload Deployer to take care of the how. This shift in approach to application environments enables the potential for significant savings, and more importantly to me, lays the foundation for a more agile, flexible approach to deploying and managing application environments.
There will be more in the weeks and months to come on IBM Workload Deployer, so stay tuned. I also want to put a plug in for a new blog from Jason McGee. For those that do not know Jason, he is an IBM Distinguished Engineer, and the lead architect behind IBM Workload Deployer. Be sure to check out his blog for insights on this new offering, as well as for all things cloud.
Over the past several months industry focus on cloud computing seems to have only intensified. Within IBM and for the purposes of this blog, WebSphere, there have been several announcements and offerings that indicate our commitment and belief in the cloud computing approach.
To further highlight WebSphere's focus and offerings in the cloud computing realm, we are embarking on a "WebSphere in the Clouds" campaign during the months of September and October. Our intent is to virtually deliver information about our cloud strategy and offerings directly from the experts to you, our WebSphere users.
The event will be kicked off by WebSphere's Director of Product Management, Kareem Yusuf, on September 23rd from 9-10 EDT. Kareem will talk about cloud computing in the enterprise, and its unique relationship to SOA thoughts and principles. In addition, he'll give an overview of what WebSphere has been doing in the cloud computing space. This will be followed by sessions from technical experts that detail WebSphere offerings in both the public and private clouds, as well as sessions that discuss enablers of application and application infrastructure elasticity.
To find out more about the "WebSphere in the Clouds" campaign, you can check out the main announcement page. To sign up for the series of virtual events visit the registration page. We hope you will join us for the series of webcasts to learn all about WebSphere's work in the clouds.
Usually when I am discussing WebSphere CloudBurst with clients, the subject of tracking usage comes up. While 'tracking usage' is pretty broad and could apply to any number of things, we often come back to two major concepts. First, users want to be able to track compute resource usage in the WebSphere CloudBurst cloud, as this helps in cloud capacity planning. Second, users want to be able to track usage by individual WebSphere CloudBurst users in order to facilitate chargeback. In both cases, WebSphere CloudBurst provides reports that help you.
When it comes to tracking compute resource usage in your WebSphere CloudBurst cloud, the appliance provides a set of pre-defined reports on the Cloud --> Machine Activity page.
As you can see from the snapshot above, WebSphere CloudBurst provides usage reports for both memory and CPU attributed to either individual hypervisors or virtual machines. In addition, the appliance tracks storage usage by device and IP usage in your cloud. For each report type, you can specify a desired date range and let WebSphere CloudBurst produce a graph showing usage over that time. The below picture shows the report for memory usage by hypervisor over a one month period.
Tracking compute resource usage is certainly important, but if your interests are mostly about using WebSphere CloudBurst to facilitate chargeback, you likely want to know about our user reports. You can find these reports on the Cloud --> User Activity page of the appliance. On this page, you will find a table that lists each user and their usage of virtual machines, CPUs, memory, and storage over a period of time that you specify. Further, you can download a comma separated value file that contains this data for further parsing or processing on your part. The image below shows an example of the user activity table.
In addition to the user usage data provided above, many WebSphere CloudBurst users find that they want to track the amount of time users had running virtual systems deployed through WebSphere CloudBurst. While the appliance does not provide a direct report with this information, you can use this free sample to calculate virtual system duration times. This free tool uses data available in the WebSphere CloudBurst audit log (data you can process to produce any custom report you need), and it calculates virtual system duration time as well as virtual system time attributed to each user. You use the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI to invoke this tool, providing it with your start and end dates for the calculation (you can find further invocation instructions inside the ZIP file containing the tool). The image below shows example output for both the virtual system duration and user virtual system time reports.
'Tracking usage' means many different things to different people and use cases. I hope the above information regarding usage tracking in WebSphere CloudBurst gives you a good idea of what you get out of the box, as well as what you can do by using the audit log (in a similar fashion to the free tool mentioned above). If you have any questions, requests, or feedback, please let me know.
I spent most of my time growing up doing two things, going to school and playing sports. I made many fond memories -- mostly from the latter :) -- and learned more than a few lessons over that time. Of all of those lessons, there was one in particular that stuck out in both the classroom and on the baseball diamond: Sometimes you have to get back to the basics.
In that vein, I think it is time to revisit the basics of WebSphere CloudBurst. In revisiting the basics, I am not talking about the technical basics of the appliance. Rather, I am talking about revisiting exactly why WebSphere CloudBurst exists in the first place. In other words, let's take a look at the problem domains WebSphere CloudBurst addresses, and let's discuss a little bit about how the appliance does so.
I point this out about script packages because recently I put one together that is not a WebSphere Application Server administration task, but does provide configuration logic common to many WAS deployments. Specifically, I put together a script package that configures an IBM HTTP Server to be a reverse proxy server. This of course, allows clients to send requests to the IBM HTTP Server and have those requests pass through to a specified back-end destination (i.e. a service hosted on WebSphere Application Server) based on URI paths.
The script package is not all that different from many of the ones I put together. It contains a shell script (which provides configuration and orchestration logic) as well as a cbscript.json file that defines the script package's characteristics when I upload it into WebSphere CloudBurst. The notable difference in this script package is that I include a Perl script that modifies the IBM HTTP Server configuration file. This just reiterates the point that you are not limited to only wsadmin and shell scripts within your script packages.
The workings of the script package are quite straightforward. It starts with a call to the shell script that modifies the IBM HTTP Server's configuration file to ensure the loading of a couple proxy modules:
sed -i s/"#LoadModule proxy_module modules\/mod_proxy.so"/"LoadModule proxy_module modules\/mod_proxy.so"/g $HTTP_CONF
sed -i s/"#LoadModule proxy_http_module modules\/mod_proxy_http.so"/"LoadModule proxy_http_module modules\/mod_proxy_http.so"/g $HTTP_CONF
As you can see, the createProxy.pl script accepts a single argument. This argument represents the reverse proxy configuration information provided by the user during deployment. The Perl script parses the single argument and creates the appropriate proxy directives in the IBM HTTP Server's configuration file:
After the invocation of the script above, control returns to the shell script. The shell script restarts the IBM HTTP Server so that the configuration changes take place. The result is an up and running IBM HTTP Server acting as a reverse proxy based on information supplied during deployment. The listings here do not show the full script package, but I hope to have it up on our WebSphere CloudBurst Samples Gallery soon.
If the script above provides some configuration logic you can use, that is good. However, my main point for bringing it up here is to point out that WebSphere CloudBurst script packages can be more than shell and wsadmin scripts that perform WebSphere Application Server configuration tasks. You can use them to do any sort of scripted activity that is essential to your application middleware deployment process. Happy scripting!
If you follow this blog often, you know that from time to time I like to post frequently asked questions. Well, it's been a while since I have done that, and since then I have added some new questions to my list -- along with some regulars. Take a look below, and if I don't answer your question feel free to leave a comment!
Can IBM Workload Deployer deploy software that is not IBM software? Yes. You can use one of the included images as a springboard and customize them with your own software via extend and capture. Additionally, you can use the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool (I'm getting ahead of myself here) to create your own custom images from the ground up and use those within IBM Workload Deployer.
Can I use VMotion for the systems I deploy with IBM Workload Deployer? Yes. IBM Workload Deployer has tolerated the use of VMotion since the WebSphere CloudBurst days (see the Additional Considerations section on this page for more information). IBM Workload Deployer v3 introduced the notion of virtual machine mobility initiated directly from the appliance. This capability takes advantage of VMotion in the case of VMware-based cloud environments.
Can IBM Workload Deployer deploy just a base operating system? Yes. IBM Workload Deployer v3 introduced a base operating system image that contains 64-bit Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Internally, IBM Workload Deployer uses this as the foundation on top of which virtual application patterns are deployed. You can use it to deploy virtual machines containing just the base OS, or you can customize it to deploy software of your choosing. (As an aside, IBM Workload Deployer v3.1 will include a base operating system image for AIX)
Can I automate the process of calling/using IBM Workload Deployer? Yes. IBM Workload Deployer is built to fit a specific need -- creating and managing a cloud of middleware and middleware-based workloads. In that light, it would be a shortcoming if IBM Workload Deployer did not to fit well into more holistic or enterprise-wide cloud management systems. The REST API and CLI allow you to automate the use of IBM Workload Deployer, thereby allowing it to be mashed up into other processes.
Can I group two appliances together for high availability? Yes. IBM Workload Deployer v3.1 introduces the ability to configure appliances in a master/slave setup. You can connect two appliances, allow them to share a floating IP address, and be confident that data is continuously replicated between the two. If one appliance fails, the other appliance picks up the floating IP ensuring continuous service.
Are images created using the Image Construction and Composition Tool supported for use within IBM Workload Deployer? Yes. Part of the new IBM Workload Deployer 3.1 announcement was a statement of support for using images created by the Image Construction and Composition Tool as a component of your virtual system patterns. This is a very important enhancement as it allows you to extend the set of content deployed by IBM Workload Deployer while being sure that you are operating within the boundaries of intended use.
Can I use IBM Workload Deployer to provision to public clouds? No... and yes. If you install an IBM Workload Deployer appliance in your datacenter, you cannot use it to deploy to a public cloud environment. However, you may have recently heard about the IBM SmartCloud Application Services portfolio. IBM has announced that the pattern-based provisioning that one gets with IBM Workload Deployer will also be available as part of this portfolio. This means that you will be able to build and deploy patterns using a service hosted on the IBM SmartCloud. Further, your deployed systems will run on the IBM SmartCloud. Check out this demo for more information.
** IBM Workload Deployer 3.1 firmware is available on 11/18.
One of the most exciting announcements at IBM IMPACT last week was that of the new WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition. This new virtual image allows you to provision complete WebSphere Process Server environments into your on-premise cloud using the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. Just like with the other environments you can provision using WebSphere CloudBurst (namely WebSphere Application Server, DB2, and Portal Server), you can stand up these WebSphere Process Server environments in a matter of minutes.
The WebSphere Process Server does not come pre-loaded on the appliance, but it does come with a cool utility that helps you get it on the appliance. The WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition loader provides a wizard-like tool that loads the image into the catalog of an appliance you specify. The tool is simple to use and is included as part of the image package that you download from Passport Advantage.
Not only does the loader above populate the WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition into the appliance's catalog, but it also creates a set of patterns for the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. These patterns encapsulate golden topology environments for WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition. At the time of my post, the patterns created by the loader include the following:
Standalone server: This pattern represents a single server instance of WebSphere Process Server. Deployment of the pattern results in a single virtual machine that contains both the server instance and a DB2 instance.
Simulated environment: This pattern contains a single part called a 'Full function control node'. Deployment of the pattern results in the creation of a deployment manager, proxy server, DB2 environment, and three WebSphere Process Server clusters (application target cluster, support cluster, and messaging cluster), all in a single virtual machine.
Scalable environment: This pattern contains a deployment manager, 'Basic function nodes' part, DB2 part, and a proxy server. Deploying the pattern results in the same components as the pattern above, but in this case each component resides in its own virtual machine.
The announcement of the WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition only serves to increase the applicability of WebSphere CloudBurst for constructing on-premise WebSphere clouds. If you have any questions, or want to learn more about this new virtual image, please let me know.
A couple of weeks ago, I dropped by the Intel Developer Forum to present a session and listen in on a few others. As always in these types of shows, I learned quite a bit. Most strikingly though, I was reminded of something that is probably quite obvious to many of you: Consumer interest in cloud computing will not be letting up any time soon.
Based on this, and some of the other things I heard at the show, I decided to catch up with fellow IBMer Marc Haberkorn. Marc is an IBM Product Manager and is responsible for IBM Workload Deployer amongst other things. I asked him about IBM Workload Deployer, the competition, and cloud in general. Check out what Marc had to say below:
Me:IBM Workload Deployer is one among many of a growing wave of cloud management solutions. How do you differentiate the focus and business value of it versus the myriad of other solutions out there?
Marc: To sum it up, we offer a combination of depth and breadth. IWD delivers both workload aware management and general purpose management. Workload aware management differentiates IWD from its competition, as it can deliver more value for the set of products for which it has context. There is a set of actions that workload aware management tools can do that is normally left to the user by general purpose management tools. This list includes configuring a middleware server to know its hostname/IP address, configuring multiple middleware servers to know of one another, arranging clusters, applying maintenance, and handling elasticity. By handling more of these activities in the automated flow, there are fewer chances for manual errors and inconsistencies to enter a managed environment.
That said, without infinite resource or time, it’s impossible to deliver this context-aware management for everything under the sun. As such, in order to allow IWD to deliver differentiated value AND allow it to handle a customer's entire environment, we offer a mix of workload-aware management and general purpose management.
Me:VMware is a good example of a company active in the cloud space, and they seem to keep a consistent pace of new product delivery. What do you think of their product development focus?
Marc: I think VMware has built a very compelling set of capability in the virtualization space. I think the main difference between VMware's suite and IBM Workload Deployer is the perspective from which the environments are managed. VMware puts the administrator in the position of thinking about infrastructure from the ground up. The administrator is thinking about virtual images, hypervisors, and scripts. In IBM Workload Deployer, we think about things from the perspective of the app, because that's ultimately what the business cares about. By providing a declarative model through which an application can be instantiated and managed, we feel we deliver a deeper value proposition to clients, through workload-aware management.
Me:The 'one tool to do it all' approach is a popular, if not hard to achieve goal. What is your advice to users when it comes to choosing between breadth and depth for cloud management solutions?
Marc: The advantages of a "one tool to do it all" are many: less integration, more uniformity, less complexity. As such, customers will always prefer a single tool when possible. This is why IBM Workload Deployer has focused on not only providing differentiated, deeper value for common use cases but also providing a way to handle the "everything else." As such, my advice to users is not to choose between breadth and depth - use IBM Workload Deployer which offers both.
Me:To close, I'm curious to know where you think we are heading in the cloud market. What do you think users will be most readily adopting over the next one to two years? Where does the cloud industry need the most innovation?
Marc: I think most users are currently looking at the broad picture of cloud computing, and have been adopting primarily in the private cloud realm. There are several reasons for this. One reason is that many customers have a large set of hardware resources which amount to sunk cost that needs to be leveraged. Another reason is around data security concerns in off-premises clouds, and still another reason is around the human factor of comfort, which has taken time to develop around off-premise cloud models. However, businesses have become increasingly comfortable with various sources of outsourcing in recent years, especially in mission critical areas involving very sensitive data. Just look at IBM's Strategic Outsourcing business, which handles entire IT operations for many large businesses. I think that trend will (and really, has already begun to) continue in the area of cloud computing, and will lead to more public and ultimately hybrid cloud computing adoption. In order to get to hybrid cloud computing, I see much of the focus and innovation being associated with data security, workload portability (across private and public, in a seamless fashion), and license transferability between private and public. When this space reaches fruition, clients will be able to enjoy true elastic economics in a computing model that allows a mixture of owning and renting compute resources and software licenses.
I recently read a post by David Linthicum in which he proposes that a key benefit of cloud computing is the ability to transfer risk from the enterprise to the cloud provider.
At first glance, this seems an obvious benefit of using a public cloud for computing resources. Cloud providers take care of the onerous task of providing computing resources across an organization. If the resources need to be updated, require critical maintenance, or need emergency action, the cloud provider will provide those services. Enterprise IT departments are left to devote effort toward delivering technological capabilities to the business. However, does any of this imply a transfer of risk?
I'd answer that question with "It depends." Whether or not an enterprise has transferred risk by contracting with a public cloud provider depends on the provisions in the Service Level Agreement (SLA) that exists between the enterprise and provider. In some cases (maybe most) the SLA simply provides a refund for a portion of the service fee based on the impacted services. This is clearly not a case of transference of risk. The loss of current and new business sustained by the enterprise during the service outage is not indemnified by the cloud provider. In this sense, the enterprise has done nothing more than transfer the management of their risks to a third party.
True risk transference can be achieved, but it means that SLAs provide both service fee refunds and business loss indemnification. During a service outage, an enterprise's risk is not the fee they are paying for the service but instead the impact on current and future profits. There must be stipulations in the SLAs to address these losses for risk transfer to have taken place.
The differences between transferring risk and risk management may seem obvious, but it does serve to underscore the importance of SLAs in the cloud computing world. Enterprises need to fully understand these SLAs in order to accurately assess the benefits of using a cloud proider. SLAs are poised to be critical in the cloud computing world, and I'm interested to see how they will help shape the competitive landscape of the industry.
In my last post, I concentrated on the new enhancements to WebSphere CloudBurst 188.8.131.52. One of the major new additions was the introduction of Environment Profiles, and I promised a developerWorks article would be forthcoming. The article is now live along with a demo that showcases the capability of environment profiles.
As I mentioned in my last post, environment profiles center around giving you more customization capability during the pattern deployment process. In WebSphere CloudBurst, the pattern deployment process consists of the five main steps depicted below.
Traditionally, WebSphere CloudBurst controlled the entire deployment process, thus closing it off to the deployer. Environment profiles extend the customization reach of users to be able to effect steps 1-3 in the above diagram. Specifically, environment profiles give you the following control:
Control over the assignment of IP addresses and hostnames to pattern parts: Instead of having WebSphere CloudBurst automatically assign IP addresses, and thus hostnames, to virtual machines during deployment, you can explicitly set both values during the deployment process.
Ability to deploy single patterns to multiple cloud groups: Previously, when deploying a pattern you selected a single cloud group and WebSphere CloudBurst deployed all the parts in the pattern to machines within that cloud group. While this may be okay for many cases, other cases may require you to deploy some parts of the pattern to one group of machines while other parts map to a separate set of machines. Before environment profiles, you could accomplish this with multiple patterns. With environment profiles, you can accomplish it with a single pattern.
Ability to supply virtual machine naming standards: As part of deploying a pattern, WebSphere CloudBurst creates one to many virtual machines with distinct names. Environment profiles allow you to supply a naming standard that WebSphere CloudBurst will use when creating the machines as opposed to default naming schemes previously used.
It is important to note that the use of environment profiles is completely optional, and you can continue to use the traditional deployment process, thereby leaving WebSphere CloudBurst in control. That said, the introduction of environment profiles is a direct response to consistent user feedback we received regarding the need for more control during the deployment process. Based on my user conversations, these profiles address many of said needs in an easy to use, straightforward manner. We are, of course, eager to know what you think. As always, you can let me know right here, through email, or on Twitter (@damrhein).
Over time, many of our users learn to effectively leverage WebSphere CloudBurst user roles and fine-grained access controls to map activities and responsibilities in the appliance to the appropriate people and teams within their organization. Using these controls, they are able to define actions that a user or group can take, and they can define the set of resources on which they can take those actions. It is efficient, flexible, and an absolute necessity in many enterprise scenarios.
In some cases though, I talk with users that want a little more control, or probably better put, governance over the actions a user can take within a given role. Most often, this need arises when the discussion of pattern authoring comes up. If you want a user in WebSphere CloudBurst to be able to create patterns, you simply give them the Create new patterns permission. Once you give them that permission, the user can create patterns using both virtual image parts and script packages in the catalog. For many of the users I talk with, this approach suits their needs.
However, in some scenarios administrators want a little more insight and control over how the pattern authors build their patterns. Specifically, they want to ensure that patterns contain only approved virtual image parts and script packages. While you can certainly use the fine-grained access controls of the appliance to expose only the 'approved' virtual image parts and script packages, that alone may not be enough. After all, the definition of what is 'approved' may be different when building a pattern for testing purposes versus one built for production purposes. If the same pattern author builds both of those patterns, fine-grained access controls do not help as much. So, what can you do?
Have I ever told you how much I love the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI? It's powerful, easy to use, and a great automation enabler. It is also the perfect tool for our problem above. If you are looking to enforce certain constraints on WebSphere CloudBurst patterns, I strongly recommend using the CLI as a governance tool.
To provide a concrete example of what I mean, let's take a look at a generic pattern checking script I am working on now (I hope to have this in the samples gallery soon). Consider the case that I want to check that all of my test patterns for a specific application environment contain 1 deployment manager and between 1 and 3 custom nodes. In addition, I want to make sure that the parts for these nodes come from an approved virtual image, and I want to verify that the deployment manager contains the correct application installation script package. With the script I am currently writing, you would start by encapsulating this information in a properties file.
PatternAssertion_1=Customer Processing Test Environments
PatternAssertion_1_Requirements=Deployment manager:1:415:Install customer process app;Custom nodes:1-3:415
In the above, the PatternAssertion_1 key provides a name for the pattern verification assertion. The PatternAssertion_1_Requirements key provides the requirements for the pattern. The above requirements indicate that for a pattern to meet the assertion, it must contain 1 deployment manager part from the virtual image with reference number 415. In addition, the deployment manager must contain a script named Install customer process app. A valid pattern must also contain 1 to 3 custom node parts, also based on the virtual image with reference number 415. When done defining my requirements in the properties file, I simply invoke a script and pass in the file. As a result, I get information about which patterns satisfy or do not satisfy the assertions. For example:
The Customer Process Application pattern satisfied the requirements of the Customer Processing Test Environments assertion.
OR The Customer Process Application pattern did not satisfy the requirements of the Customer Processing Test Environments assertion
due to the following reason: The pattern is required to have a minimum of 1 and a maximum of 3 Custom node part(s), but it had 4.
As I said, I hope to have this sample script posted to the samples gallery soon. I am going through some final revisions and enhancements that I hope make it better and more generally applicable. In the meantime, I wanted to point out that pattern governance is indeed doable, and in fact not very hard to achieve with the CLI. I will be sure to post an update when the sample script is ready. In the meantime, let me know if you have any questions or comments.
If you have been wanting to get some first hand experience with patterns of expertise in preparation for IBM PureApplication System or IBM Workload Deployer but you don't yet have a system of your very own to use ... then you will want to check out this post/video and then download the Virtual Pattern Toolkit for Developers! It's absolutely free and will get you up and running with a virtualized system in a short while. Check it out!
In the previous post I spoke about how a Virtual Application feature introduced in Workload Deployer v3.1 actually had benefits for Virtual System patterns as well. In that case I was talking about the ability to deploy Virtual Applications running on AIX to PowerVM hypervisors and how this had hidden benefits for Virtual Systems as well. This is a great example of how an enhancement to Virtual Applications can sometimes benefit Virtual Systems. However, this is not the only instance where the two pattern types intersect.
Several other new or enhanced features that are primarily for Virtual Applications are also being extended to benefit and improve Virtual Systems ... and vice-versa. One such area of improvement involves Shared Service in v3.1. These services were introduced in v3.0 specifically for the benefit of Virtual Applications. However, several enhancements have extended these capabilities to Virtual Systems and likewise, some functionality that was previously only available to Virtual Systems has been extended to Virtual Applications in the form of Shared Services.
As you may already know, Shared Services were first introduced in v3.0 and are just what the name implies; services that are deployed by a cloud administrator and used by multiple virtual application deployments. Let's start by taking a look at the shared services available under Cloud -> Shared Services in v3.1. You will notice that there are now more shared services listed than there were in v3.0.
In addition to the familiar Caching Service and ELB Proxy Service (formerly Proxy Service) there are now additional entries for an External Caching Service and an External Application Monitoring Service. For simplicity let's just start from the top and go down the list, discussing the function of each service, what is new/improved for v3.1 with regard to virtual applications, and when applicable how this service can be used by virtual systems.
The Caching Service was introduced in v3.0. Its primary purpose is to cache HTTP session data using a highly scalable and fast in-memory cache. This is the same core technology that is included in our WebSphere eXtreme Scale and DataPower XC10 Caching appliance. To make use of this service all you need to do is deploy an instance of the Caching Service with the configuration parameters of your choice into a cloud group where you want to leverage that service. As you create virtual application patterns you simply select the Enable session caching check-box when you add a scaling policy. When this pattern is deployed it will be automatically configured to leverage the Caching Service for session persistence. It's as simple as that.
Several new features were introduced in v3.1 for the Caching Service. First, the Caching Service can now be launched with parameters to define the behavior for automatic scaling to meet the ever changing demands of your applications. Once set, Workload Deployer will manage this service to ensure sufficient capacity based upon your requirements, adding or removing containers. Second, and this is significant for Virtual System patterns, the caching service has been enhanced to add new operations to support listing, creating, and deleting various types of object grids. You can then use the WebSphere eXtreme Scale ObjectGrid APIs to persist and manage content in the grid from your application code from Virtual System deployments. This saves you the trouble of creating and configuring your own caching service for these purposes outside of the cloud and permits sharing of the service you have already configured - a nice savings.
Caching Service (External)
The External Caching Service is one of the new additions for v3.1. Let's say that you already have configured a caching solution for your enterprise using the DataPower XC10 appliance or a collective of appliances. It would be nice if you could leverage this same solution instead of launching yet another caching solution within your private cloud. Leveraging your existing solution would consolidate your caching needs and preserve the cloud resources for other purposes. With this new external caching service you can do just that. It provides you the ability to leverage an external caching solution for both your Virtual Application session persistence needs as well as your Virtual System and even non-cloud caching needs. Just point an instance of this external caching service at your DataPower XC10 caching solution and all of the HTTP session persistence needed by your virtual applications in the same cloud group will make use of the external caching service. You can also point multiple instances of the external caching service in multiple cloud groups to share the same XC10 appliance or collective.
Monitoring Application (External)
With the External Monitoring Application service you can deploy an External Application Monitoring service reference within a cloud group to point at a Tivoli Enterprise Monitoring Server installation outside of the cloud. The TEMS server must be at version 6.2.2 Fix Pack 5 or later. Once created, the Unix or Linux OS monitoring agents and the Workload monitoring agent that is provided for virtual application workloads will be automatically connected to the defined instance of the Tivoli server using the supplied primary and fail-over Tivoli Enterprise Management server, protocol, and port. This is especially useful if you want to consolidate all of your monitoring to a common console. As with the External Caching Solution, this enhancement also extends the integration capabilities of Virtual Application Patterns beyond the scope of your private cloud and allows you to consolidate and leverage investments you have already made.
ELB Proxy Service
The Proxy Service was first introduced in v3.0 and renamed to the ELB Proxy Service in v3.1 for clarity. As the name implies, its primary purpose is to provide routing and load balancing to multiple deployed web applications. As with the caching service, you deploy this service based upon your requirements for load and availability within a cloud group. When defining virtual application patterns to leverage this service you simply add a routing policy and define your virtual host name. When the virtual application pattern instance is deployed to the cloud group the necessary configuration will performed to add the virtual host name and configure your application environment to use the ELB Proxy Service. New in v3.1 is the capability to scale the ELB Proxy Service itself to meet the changing demands of your application mix.
One other item that I should point out (and to which I've already alluded) is that you can now deploy multiple instances of each of the shared services - one per cloud group. Shared services can also now be deployed using environment profiles. This was not previously the case in v3.0 where each service was a singleton for the appliance. Allowing multiple instances of shared services gives you the flexibility to configure the sharing of your services as necessary for your particular environment.
I hope this post has provided a useful overview of the value of shared services and the new capabilities introduced in v3.1. I also hope that you can see how these services make it easier to implement your solutions for both virtual applications and virtual systems within a private cloud environment and shed a little light on how we are continuing to improve IBM Workload Deployer. As always, these improvements are driven by the feedback we receive from you so please let us know what you think!