If you read some of my entries from time to time, chances are you know that you can use WebSphere CloudBurst to apply interim fixes and fixpacks to your deployed virtual systems. When you choose to apply either a fix or fixpack, WebSphere CloudBurst temporarily stops the virtual system, takes a snapshot of the system (the entire WebSphere cell), applies the fix or upgrade, and then starts the system back up. The result is an updated, running WebSphere cell, and if you need to, you can rollback the virtual system to the previous configuration by simply clicking a button.
In WebSphere CloudBurst 1.0 the application of fixes and upgrades were applied via the web console which made it hard to automate this process. However, in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1 you can use the command line interface to apply fixes and fixpacks to virtual systems. The appliance still takes the actions I described above, thus the process is still simple, safe, and fast. The only difference is the interface through which you drive the application of the maintenance.
What does it look like? Quite frankly, it's very simple. You can go through all of my virtual systems and apply both fixes and fixpacks with the seven line script below:
for virtualSystem in cloudburst.virtualSystems:
fixes = virtualSystem.findFixes()
if len(fixes) > 0:
upgrades = virtualSystem.findUpgrades()
if len(upgrades) > 0:
You can write this script once, save it as a Jython file, and run it with the CLI's batch mode anytime you want to roll out maintenance to your virtual systems. It's really amazing to me that the above SEVEN lines are capable of rolling out all fixes and all upgrades within your WebSphere CloudBurst catalog to every virtual system the appliance is managing. I can't think of an easier or safer way to automate the deployment of fixes/upgrades to your WebSphere environments.
Let me know if you have any questions. As always you can reach me on Twitter @WebSphereClouds.
For the last post in my FAQs Revisited series, I'm going to cheat a little bit. Instead of addressing one particular question, I'm going with a grab bag of a few different questions. These are questions that I get asked quite frequently, but do not demand an entire blog post explanation. Let's get on with it.
Question: Do the new software license management capabilities provided in WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0 depend on ILMT or other supporting components?
Answer: No. The license management features are completely standalone. Of course, you can still take advantage of ILMT (through easy integration in WebSphere CloudBurst I might add) to track licenses in your cloud if you so choose.
Question: Can I deploy a pattern, make changes to my virtual system, and then recapture that as an updated pattern?
Answer: You cannot do this with WebSphere CloudBurst alone, but you can use WebSphere CloudBurst in conjunction with the Rational Automation Framework for WebSphere to do just this. Check out this article (shameless plug alert!).
Question: What if I have an urgent operating system fix to apply before IBM delivers an update to the OS in the Hypervisor Edition image?
Answer: You can either manually apply the fix to the appropriate virtual machines, or you could package up the fix as a custom WebSphere CloudBurst fix, load it into the catalog, and use the appliance to automate the application of said fix.
Question: Can I change the install location for WebSphere Application Server in the virtual image?
Answer: I've just shown you all this really cool, useful, and easy to use stuff, and you worry about install locations? Seriously though, I understand the genesis of this question usually has to do with existing scripts that assume a certain install location for WebSphere Application Server. I certainly do not advocate changing those scripts, but you cannot change the install location for WebSphere Application Server in the images. There is nothing to keep you from creating a symbolic link however.
Question: Once I deploy a pattern, what do I need to do to add more processing capacity (i.e. more application server processes)?
Answer: You have a couple of options here. You can use normal WebSphere administration techniques to add more application servers to an existing node. If that will not work (perhaps a particular node is operating at max capacity), you can use the new dynamic virtual machine operations in WebSphere CloudBurst to add an entirely new node/virtual machine. If you find yourself consistently making these types of adjustments to the runtime environment based on ebb and flow of demand, you may also want to consider the Intelligent Management Pack option for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition.
I hope this FAQs Revisited series was helpful. Stay tuned for a look at some recent work I did to integrate WebSphere CloudBurst deployments with the new WebSphere DataPower XC10 appliance.
I write a lot about WebSphere CloudBurst script packages. Typically, I write about what they are, how to create them, and even provide some samples from time to time. I find that most of the time I'm either writing or talking about script packages from the standpoint that they allow you to automate the delivery of customizations to environments you deploy with WebSphere CloudBurst. More specifically, I usually explain how you can include these script packages in your patterns to ensure that your custom scripts execute as part of every pattern deployment. The truth is, that is not the whole story. In fact, it's only 1/3 of the story.
In WebSphere CloudBurst, when you define a script package you also define its execution mode. The execution mode can be one of three values, and it indicates the invocation time for the script. The default value is at virtual system creation, and that tells WebSphere CloudBurst to automatically invoke the script as part of the deployment process. This seems to be the most commonly used execution mode, and in the original version of WebSphere CloudBurst it was the only available mode (which probably attributes to why I only usually tell 1/3 of the story here). As you may expect, there is a wide range of usage scenarios for this class of script packages including installing applications, activating monitoring agents, registering cells with an externally managed DNS server, and much more.
If you are like me (and many humans), you enjoy and actually expect symmetry. In that regard, it probably comes as no surprise that there is a script package execution mode called at virtual system deletion. As the name indicates, this class of script packages executes as an automatic part of the virtual system deletion process. When a user tells WebSphere CloudBurst to remove a virtual system, before it shuts down the machines in the system, it will run each script package marked to execute at virtual system deletion. Typical use cases for these scripts include removing information about the cell from externally managed DNS servers, freeing up connections with external systems, and other external 'clean up' activities.
So this leaves the final execution mode for script packages, the when I initiate it mode to be precise. This class of script packages executes when explicitly triggered by a user. In the virtual machine detail section for a deployed virtual system, you can see a list of user-initiated script packages for a given machine. There is a start button by each of the user-initiated script packages that allows you to invoke the script when, and as many times as you need to. While these script packages have many different use cases, the most common use case is to deploy application updates. Users build these application update scripts, attach them to a pattern, and invoke them whenever they want to deliver an updated application into their already deployed environment.
WebSphere CloudBurst script packages are one of the main vehicles for delivering your customizations to your cloud environments. The three execution modes mentioned above allow you to determine when the right time to deliver those customizations is.
I’m going to take a different approach this week in the blog. Instead of me telling you about some of the features or uses of WebSphere CloudBurst, I thought I would catch up with someone using the product everyday, WebSphere Test Architect Robbie Minshall. Robbie is responsible for a team of testers that harness a lab of over 2,000 physical machines to put our WebSphere Application Server product through some pretty rigorous testing. Toward the beginning of this year Robbie’s team started to leverage the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance in order to create the WebSphere Application Server environments needed for their testing.
Robbie, can you tell us a little bit about what the WebSphere Application Server test efforts entail?
In WebSphere Application Server development and test we have two primary scenarios. The first is making sure that developers have rapid access to code, test cases and server topologies so that they can write code, test cases and then execute test scenarios on meaningful topologies. The second scenario is an automated daily regression where in response to a build, we provision a massive amount of WebSphere Application Server topologies and execute our automated regression tests.
Previously we have supported these scenarios through the deployment of the Tivoli Provisioning Manager for operating system provisioning, some applications for checking out environments, and then a lot of automation scripts for the silent install and configuration of WebSphere Application Server cells.
Given those scenarios and the existing solution, what are your motivations for setting up a private cloud using WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance?
We are supporting these scenarios through a pretty complicated combination of technologies. These include silent WAS install scripts, wsadmin configuration scripts, a custom hardware leasing application and the utilization of Tivoli Provisioning Manager for OS Provisioning. This solution is working very well for us though as always we are looking for areas to improve, opportunities to simplify and to reduce our dependency on investment in our custom automation scripts. Mainly, there were 3 areas where we wanted to improve our framework: Availability, Utilization and Management. This is why we started looking to the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance.
Can you expand a bit on what you are looking for in those three areas?
The first focus area we have is availability of environments. We really wanted to lower the entry requirement for the skills and education necessary to get a development or test environment. Setting up these environments has just been too hard, too time consuming, and too error prone. Using WebSphere CloudBurst we can provide an easy push button solution for developers to get on-demand access to the topologies they need.
The second area we are looking for significant improvements on is hardware utilization. Our budgets are tight and in our native automation pools we are only using between 6-12% of the available physical resources. In order to improve this we were looking at leveraging virtualization. WebSphere CloudBurst offers the classic benefit of virtualization with the nice additions of optimized WebSphere Application Server placement and really good topology and pattern management. In our initial experiments we were able to push the hardware utilization up to 90% of physical capacity and consistently were leveraging around 70% of our physical capacity.
Finally we are looking to improve and simplify our management of physical resources and automation. We work in a lot of small agile teams and organizational priorities change from iteration to iteration. Not only does WebSphere CloudBurst allow us to maintain a catalog of topologies or patterns for releases but it also allows us to adjust physical resource allocation to teams through the use of sub clouds or cloud groups.
Basically we felt that WebSphere CloudBurst would improve the availability of application environments, enhance automation, and improve hardware utilization all with very low physical and administrative costs.
What were some of the challenges involved with getting a cloud up and running in your test department?
One of our challenges seems like it would be common to many scenarios, especially in today’s world. Our budget for new hardware to build out our cloud infrastructure was initially very limited. Most cloud infrastructure designs depict very ideal hardware scenarios including SANs, large multicore machines, and private and public networks within a dedicated lab. Quite frankly we did not have the budget to create this from scratch. It was important for us to demonstrate value and data to warrant future investment in dedicated infrastructure. After some performance comparisons we were very happily surprised to see that we could leverage our existing mixed hardware within a distributed cloud. The performance of application environments dispensed by WebSphere CloudBurst on many small existing boxes in comparison to large multicore machines with a SAN was very comparable. This allows us to leverage existing hardware, with minimal investment all the while demonstrating the value and efficiencies of cloud computing. That data in turn has allowed us to obtain new dedicated hardware to iteratively build up a larger lab specifically for use with WebSphere CloudBurst.
Specifically with WebSphere CloudBurst, are there any tips/hints you would offer users getting started with the appliance?
Sure. First, we quickly realized as we added hypervisors to our WebSphere CloudBurst setup it was critical to have someone with network knowledge on hand. This is because the hypervisors came from various sections of our lab, and we really needed people with knowledge of how the network operated in those different sections. Once we had the right people we were able to setup WebSphere CloudBurst and deploy patterns within an hour and a half.
Moving forward we continued to have challenges as we dynamically moved systems between our native hardware pool and our cloud. Occasionally the WebSphere CloudBurst administrator would move a system into the cloud but incorrectly configure the network or storage information. This lead to some misconfigured hypervisors polluting our cloud. We overcame this, quite simply and satisfactorily I may add, by creating some simple WebSphere CloudBurst CLI scripts which add the hypervisors, test them individually, by carrying out a small deployment to that hypervisor, and then move the correctly configured hypervisors into the cloud after verifying success. Misconfigured hypervisors go into a pool for problem determination. This has allowed us to maintain a clean cloud, and we are able to dynamically move our hardware in and out of the cloud to meet our business objectives.
We also use the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI to prime the cloud so to speak. Before using a given hypervisor in our cloud, we execute scripts that ensure each unique virtual image in our catalog has been deployed to each of our hypervisors at least once. When the image is first deployed to a hypervisor, a cache is created on the hypervisor side of the connection, thus meaning subsequent deployments do not require the entire image to be transferred over the wire. This gives us consistent and fast deployment times once we are using a hypervisor in our cloud.
I would assume that like many applications deployed on WebSphere Application Server, your team’s applications have several external dependencies. Some of these dependencies won’t necessarily be in the cloud, so how did you handle this?
You’re right about the external dependencies. Our applications and test cases run on the WebSphere Application Server but are dependent upon many external resources such as databases, LDAP servers, external web services etc. WebSphere CloudBurst allows us to deploy WAS topologies in a very dynamic and configurable way but the 1.0.1 version does not allow us to deploy these external resources in the same manner. This was overcome by using script packages in our patterns. These script packages allow us to associate our test applications with various patterns we have defined. The script package definition also allows us to pass in parameters to the execution of our scripts. We supply these parameter values during deploy time, and these values are used to convey the name or location of various external resources. The scripts that install our applications can access these values and ensure the application is properly integrated with the set of resources not managed by the appliance.
What is your team looking to do next with WebSphere CloudBurst and their private cloud?
The next challenge on our plate is to keep up with the demand of our expanding cloud and to develop a more dynamic relationship between our native pools and our cloud using the Tivoli Provisioning Manager. These are fun challenges to have and we look forward to sharing our progress.
I'm glad I got to spend some time with Robbie to glean some insight into their work and progress with WebSphere CloudBurst. I hope this information was useful to you. It's always nice to hear about a product from practitioners who can give you hints, tips, gotchas, and other useful information. Be sure to let me know if you have any questions about what Robbie and his team are doing with WebSphere CloudBurst.
If you've read anything I've written about WebSphere CloudBurst up to this point you know all about patterns. Using the appliance you can easily and quickly build, deploy, and manage these representations of your middleware application environments. Today, I want to focus in on the deployment piece in particular and take a look at how you can easily automate this process.
You can use the WebSphere CloudBurst web console to deploy patterns, and when doing so you can even schedule the deployment to happen at a later date. This scheduling capability certainly gets you on the road to an automated deployment process, but what if you want to take it one step further and eliminate the need for someone to login and manually move around the web console to schedule automated deployments? In this case, you can use either the CLI or the REST interface that WebSphere CloudBurst offers.
In this post I thought I'd take a look at using the CLI interface in order to set the stage for some nice automation around pattern deployment. It starts out with a properties file that provides details about my deployment. This includes the cloud to deploy to, the pattern to deploy, password information, and the time at which the virtual system should start.
SYSTEM_NAME_PREFIX=New App Development
TARGET_CLOUD=Default ESX group
TARGET_PATTERN=WebSphere single server
Imagine that the properties file above gets written as the result of some other action, such as the completion of your application's build process. With the properties file in place, and I'll point out that your properties file can and probably will be more robust than above, let's move on to the code that handles the deployment process based on the information in said file. First, we have a small amount of CLI code to retrieve and parse the input data (I omitted the straight-forward properties retrieval for space):
from datetime import datetime, timedelta
from java.util import Properties
from java.io import FileInputStream
// read in and retrieve properties using java.util.Properties API (i.e. props.getProperty('DEPLOYMENT_DATE'))
parsedParts = deploymentDate.split(" ")
systemName = systemName + "_" + deploymentDate
dateParts = parsedParts.split("/")
timeParts = parsedParts.split(":")
monthPart = int(dateParts)
dayPart = int(dateParts)
yearPart = int(dateParts)
hourPart = int(timeParts)
minutePart = int(timeParts)
Next is the code that actually schedules the pattern deployment:
First we get the desired deployment time and current time as datetime objects. After that, assuming the desired deployment time has not already elapsed, we calculate the difference between the desired deployment time and current time. This difference, in seconds, is then added to the result of the time.time() value to come up with a start time. After that is done, we simply retrieve the cloud that was indicated in the properties file, and then we call the runInCloud method for the pattern indicated. When calling the runInCloud method we supply the name of the virtual system that will be created, password information, and the start time we calculated earlier. As a result of this method call, a task will be generated in the target WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance and the virtual system will be started at the specified time. This will happen in an automated fashion with no human intervention required.
That's really all there is to automating the pattern deployment process using the CLI. In a more complete, end-to-end scenario you may envision the completion of one process, such as an application build process mentioned above, result in the writing of the properties file and in turn the call into the CLI to deploy a pattern. As always, feel free to send me any comments or questions.
I was at a customer meeting the other day, and someone asked me if they could query WebSphere CloudBurst for an inventory of all of their virtual system deployments. This person was of course aware that he could go to the web console and very quickly view all of the virtual systems. What he wanted though was something that he could run to generate a report that contained all of this information. For a purpose like this, harnessing the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI is exactly the way to go.
I thought I'd write a simple CLI script that provides an example of how you could do this.
from datetime import datetime
outFile.write("WebSphere CloudBurst Virtual System Inventory\n")
outFile.write("Total virtual systems: " + str(len(cloudburst.virtualsystems)))
def writeVSDetails(outFile, virtualSystem):
outFile.write("\tVirtual system name: " + virtualSystem.name)
outFile.write("\tCreated from pattern: " + virtualSystem.pattern.name)
outFile.write("\tVirtual system status: " + virtualSystem.currentstatus_text)
created = datetime.fromtimestamp(virtualSystem.created)
outFile.write("\tVirtual system creation date: " + created.strftime("%B %d, %Y %H:%M:%S"))
outFile.write("\tTotal virtual machines: " + str(len(virtualSystem.virtualmachines)))
def writeVMDetails(outFile, virtualMachine):
outFile.write("\t\tVirtual machine name: " + virtualMachine.name)
outFile.write("\t\tVirtual machine display name: " + virtualMachine.displayname)
outFile.write("\t\tCreated from image: " + virtualMachine.virtualimage.name)
outFile.write("\t\tVirtual machine hypervisor: " + virtualMachine.hypervisor.name + " | " + virtualMachine.hypervisor.address)
outFile.write("\t\tVirtual machine IP address: " + virtualMachine.ip.ipaddress)
outFileLoc = sys.argv
outFile = open(outFileLoc, 'w')
for virtualSystem in cloudburst.virtualsystems:
for virtualMachine in virtualSystem.virtualmachines:
As a result of invoking this script using the CLI's batch mode, content is written to the file location supplied by the caller.
WebSphere CloudBurst Virtual System Inventory
Total virtual systems: 3
Virtual system name: Single server
Created from pattern: WebSphere single server
Virtual system status: Started
Virtual system creation date: January 15, 2010 16:37:20
Total virtual machines: 1
Virtual machine name: Standalone 0
Virtual machine display name: Single server cbvm-110 default
Created from image: WebSphere Application Server 126.96.36.199
Virtual machine hypervisor: Ruth ESX | https://<hypervisor_host>/sdk
Virtual machine IP address: <ip_address>
Virtual system name: Development WAS Cluster
Created from pattern: Custom WAS Cluster - Development
Virtual system status: Started
Virtual system creation date: January 18, 2010 14:08:46
Total virtual machines: 2
Virtual machine name: DMGR 0
Virtual machine display name: Development WAS Cluster cbvm-112 dmgr
Created from image: WebSphere Application Server 188.8.131.52
Virtual machine hypervisor: Ruth ESX | https://<hypervisor_host>/sdk
Virtual machine IP address: <ip_address>
Virtual machine name: Custom Node 1
Virtual machine display name: Development WAS Cluster cbvm-111 custom
Created from image: WebSphere Application Server 184.108.40.206
Virtual machine hypervisor: Ruth ESX | https://<hypervisor_host>/sdk
Virtual machine IP address: <ip_address>
Virtual system name: DB2 for development use
Created from pattern: DB2
Virtual system status: Started
Virtual system creation date: January 18, 2010 14:09:58
Total virtual machines: 1
Virtual machine name: DB2 Enterprise Server 32bit Trial 0
Virtual machine display name: DB2 for development use cbvm-113
Created from image: DB2 Enterprise 220.127.116.11 32-bit Trial
Virtual machine hypervisor: Ruth ESX | https://<hypervisor_host>/sdk
Virtual machine IP address: <ip_address>
I withheld IP addresses and host names above for obvious reasons, but if you ran the script against your environment you would see actual host name and IP address values. The script above is written once, and it can be subsequently run anytime you want an inventory of virtual systems running in your WebSphere CloudBurst cloud. There's other information available for virtual systems and virtual machines that I didn't show here, and you can retrieve it if necessary for your inventory report. In addition, I chose to print this information as regular text in a file supplied by the caller, but you might choose to generate the report in another format including XML, JSON, or anything else for that matter.
-- Dustin Amrhein
p.s. As with any sample code or script I provide here, the above is only a sample and offered as-is.
One of my favorite books from childhood is If You Give a Mouse a Cookie. Although targeted at children, the book illustrates a frequently occurring human behavior that is important for all of us understand. That behavior is the tendency for escalating expectations. The book offers this up by starting out with the simple action of giving a mouse a cookie. The mouse in turn asks for a glass of milk, various flavors of cookies, and on and on, until the mouse circles back to asking for another cookie.
Nearly all of us exhibit this same kind of behavior, and it can often produce positive results. In particular, in IT we always push for the next best thing or a slightly better outcome. Personally, I am no stranger to this behavior because I experience it from WebSphere CloudBurst users quite frequently. In these cases, it usually revolves around one particular outcome: speed of deployment.
Bar none, users of WebSphere CloudBurst are experiencing unprecedented deployment times for the environments they dispense through the appliance. The fact that we say you can deploy meaningful enterprise application environments in a matter of minutes is far beyond just marketing literature. Our users prove it everyday. However, just because they are deploying things faster than ever does not mean they are content to rest on those achievements. They want to push the envelope, and I love it.
For our users looking to achieve even speedier deployment times, I offer up one reminder and one tip. First, analyze all of your script packages to ensure you are using the right means of customization. If you have some scripts that run for considerably longer than most other script packages, you may want to at least consider applying that customization by creating a custom image. You still need to adhere to the customization principles outlined here, but you may benefit from applying the customization in an image once and avoiding the penalty for applying it during every deployment. You may also be able to break this customization out with a combination of a custom image and script packages. For instance, instead of having a script that installs and configures monitoring agents, you may install the agents in a custom image and configure them during deployment. Being selective about how and when you apply customizations can go a long way in improving your deployment times.
In addition to the reminder above, I also have a tip. Take a look at all of the script packages you use in pattern deployments and look to see if there are any that you can apply in an asynchronous manner. In other words, identify customizations that need to start, but not necessarily complete as part of the deployment process. Going back to our example of configuring monitoring agents during the deployment process, it may be important to kick off the configuration script during deployment, but is it crucial to wait on the results? Maybe not. If it is not, consider defining the executable argument in your script package in a manner that kicks off the execution and proceeds -- i.e. nohup executable command &. This approach can save deployment time in certain situations.
My advice to users of WebSphere CloudBurst: keep pushing your deployment process! Pare as many minutes off the process as you can. I hope that the tips above help in that regard, and be sure to pass along other techniques that you have found helpful.
When it comes to managing users and user groups within WebSphere CloudBurst, you can choose to manage all aspects of those resources within the appliance. Mainly this means that you can define and store user information (including login passwords) within the appliance, and you can define and maintain user groups and their associated membership list on the appliance. While you can do this and be sure that your information is extremely secure, you may instead want to integrate with an existing LDAP server that has some of this user and user group data. WebSphere CloudBurst certainly allows you to integrate with LDAP servers, but what does that mean for you?
For starters, when you integrate WebSphere CloudBurst with an LDAP server and enable the LDAP authentication feature, you no longer specify password information when defining users of the appliance. When users login, the password they specify will be authenticated against information stored in the LDAP server. Naturally, if you add a new WebSphere CloudBurst user with LDAP authentication enabled, that user must be defined in the LDAP server. Otherwise, WebSphere CloudBurst will prevent you from adding the user because it has no way to authenticate that person.
From a user groups standpoint, integrating with LDAP means you can no longer modify user group membership. User membership in groups is determined by information in the LDAP server. As a result, the same rule concerning adding new users applies when adding new user groups: You cannot define new user groups that do not exist in the LDAP server.
If you want to take a look at what LDAP integration looks like with WebSphere CloudBurst, I put together a short video. Let me know what you think.
Since bundles are such a core component of the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool, I thought it would help to take a closer, more thorough look at them than I did in my post last week (if you have not already, I suggest reading the overview post before continuing). To help us in our closer examination, we will consider an example bundle I built using the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool. The example bundle I built encapsulates the logic to install and configure WebSphere Application Server Community Edition. Let's take this step by step.
The first part of the bundle is the General section. This section allows you to provide a name and description for the bundle, the bundle ID and version, and the products represented by the bundle.
The next section of a bundle is the Requirements section. In this section, you can define the operating system and software requirements for your bundle. In the OS section, you specify the type, distribution, and version level of the OS your bundle requires. In the software section, you can indicate that your bundle requires other bundles defined in the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool. You do this by providing the bundle ID for required bundles.
Next, we move on to the Install section of the bundle. Two major subsections make up this section. The first subsection is the Files to Copy section. Here, you provide files, via a file upload dialog or by providing a URI, and you specify a destination directory. When you add a bundle to an image and initiate the synchronization process, the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool will automatically copy the files you list here to the specified destination directory on the virtual machine. In the sample WebSphere Application Server Community Edition bundle, I specify a single install.sh file to copy to the virtual machine.
The second major subsection of the Install section is the Command subsection. In this section, you will specify the installation command that the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool should automatically invoke during the synchronization process. Additionally, you can define variables that you want to make available to your installation scripts. The tool makes these available as environment variables for the process within which your script runs. In the sample bundle, I tell the Image Construction and Composition Tool to invoke the install.sh script specified above, and I define parameters that specify the location of the binaries to install, the location to install the binaries on disk, and more.
The next section in a bundle is the Configuration section. The configuration section allows you to define configuration operations that provide actions that execute for each deployment of an image containing the bundle. You can define 0 to N configuration operations in a bundle, and each configuration operation definition contains three major subsections. The first is the Files to Copy subsection. This subsection is similar to the Files to Copy subsection in the Install section. You provide files or file URIs and you provide a destination directory to which the tool will copy the file. The WebSphere Application Server Community Edition bundle contains a single configuration operation called ConfigWASCE. In the Files to Copy section, I define a single file to copy into the image's activation engine directory.
The second major subsection in the configuration operation definition is the Command subsection. Like the Command subsection in the Install section of the bundle, you specify a command to execute and optionally associate variables with the command. There is a key difference between the command definition for configuration operations as opposed to installation operations. The Image Construction and Composition Tool invokes the command you specify for installation operations exactly ONCE at image creation (synchronization) time. On the other hand, commands you specify in the configuration operation definition execute EACH time someone deploys an image containing your bundle. In the sample bundle, my ConfigWASCE.sh script will automatically execute for each deployment. The tool will package the image in such a way that ensures the automatic passing of parameters defined in the Arguments list (including num_servers, WASCE_HOME, and more) to the ConfigWASCE.sh script.
The final major subsection of a configuration operation definition is the Dependencies section. This allows you to define other services on which your configuration operation is dependent. This can include other configuration operations in the same or other bundles, and it can include general operating system services. The WebSphere Application Server Community Edition sample bundle includes a few dependencies.
The Install and Configuration sections are really the meat of your bundle, but there is more. There is a Firewall section that allows you to define port ranges and associated protocols that the IBM Image Construction and Composition Tool should ensure are open when provisioning an image containing your bundle. Currently, the tool supports firewall configuration data when building images for the IBM Cloud. The Reset section of the bundle allows you to define tasks that should execute when capturing the image back into the Image Construction and Composition Tool (after synchronziation completes). This allows you to clean up the state of the image after the install completes. Reset configuration is not currently available in the alphaWorks version of the tool. Finally, there is a License section where you can define software licenses associated with your bundle. The tool automatically adds these licenes to the constructed image's metadata, thereby allowing deployment tools to prompt the user to accept all pertinent licenses. The WebSphere Application Server Community Edition sample bundle defines a product license.
Of course, once the bundle definition is complete, you can leverage it to compose and produce an image that you can use in WebSphere CloudBurst, Tivoli Provisioning Manager, or on the IBM Cloud. In the case of the WebSphere Application Server Community Edition sample bundle, I used it to create an image that I loaded into WebSphere CloudBurst and used to build patterns.
I hope this helps to provide a better idea of what bundles are all about in the Image Construction and Composition Tool. Don't forget to take a look at the overview demo and stay tuned for more to come about this new tool!
Customization capabilities have been very important to the design of IBM Workload Deployer going back to the beginning with WebSphere CloudBurst. Having the ability to quickly spin up environments in a cloud really does little good if those environments are not customized according to your needs. If you look at the virtual system pattern capability, it is why we always had the notion of custom images, custom patterns, and custom scripts. We give you a strong foundation, and you tweak it here and there to create what you want.
Customization is not a concept unique to virtual system patterns. The virtual application model in IBM Workload Deployer supports many different mechanisms for you to tailor your cloud-based environments. You can start with the virtual application pattern types that we ship and use any components in those patterns to build a custom environment. The patterns you build can include your own configuration (within the set of configurable parameters) and include policies that you need for your environment. In looking at just the IBM Workload Deployer Pattern for Web Applications and the IBM Workload Deployer Pattern for Databases, there are quite a number of scenarios you can support with your cloud. However, what happens when you want to go a little further and color outside the lines of what we provide?
At some point you may have heard or read that the entire virtual application pattern model resides on a pluggable architecture. In effect, this means that everything about a virtual application pattern type, from the elements that show up when building a pattern to the management interface you interact with after deployment, is customizable. The fundamental unit of customization for a virtual application pattern type is a plugin. Plugins provide the know-how in terms of installing, configuring, integrating, and managing the application types supported by a given pattern. Plugins also provide metadata that control what users see as they build and manage these patterns. In short, plugins are the source of truth for virtual application patterns!
If you looked in IBM Workload Deployer, you would find the collection of plugins that support the virtual application pattern types shipped with the offering. While that is interesting, you should also know that you can supply your own plugins. That's right. You can develop a plugin, and load it directly into the appliance. This allows you to do two very important things. First, you can extend the virtual application pattern types that come with IBM Workload Deployer with any kind of functionality you deem important. This may be additional monitoring, integration with external systems, or any number of other extensions. Second, you can create new virtual application pattern types that support your desired workloads. You can support the workloads with the software of your choosing so long as you can supply the necessary know-how in your plugins. In either case, you contribute the plugin, and your customized components become first class members of the IBM Workload Deployer landscape.
Okay, so I admit that this is not necessarily news. We have supported user-contributed plugins since the release of IBM Workload Deployer. However, there is something new that significantly lowers the barrier to entry in the custom plugin game. Early last week, IBM announced the IBM Workload Plugin Development Kit. This kit provides a set of tools and samples designed to make the construction and packaging of custom plugins a simple process. In my opinion, this reiterates our commitment to an extensible, application-centric cloud approach, and it represents a huge step forward in the industry as a whole. Be sure to check this out, and don't be shy with the comments and feedback!
If you frequently find yourself setting up and tearing down application environments that run on offerings from the WebSphere portfolio (like WebSphere Application Server or WebSphere Process Server), I have little doubt that you see the benefit of WebSphere CloudBurst. The appliance allows you to setup these environments with unprecedented speed and extreme simplicity. In fact, WebSphere CloudBurst makes it so simple and fast to setup these environments, it would be surprising if you did not spin up more WebSphere application environments with WebSphere CloudBurst than you did before your adoption of the appliance. Soon, you will find yourself faced with another challenge: that of managing and governing an increasingly growing ecosystem of your application environments.
From the beginning, WebSphere CloudBurst focused on the complete lifecycle for WebSphere application environments in an on-premise cloud. Therefore, in addition to easily creating and deploying these environments, the appliance delivers many features that help you manage and govern the dispensed virtual systems. This includes capabilities such as usage monitoring, fix and upgrade application, and virtual system state management. In the recently announced WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0, management capabilities go a step further, and now you can manage software license usage for your on-premise cloud.
What does it mean to be able to manage your software licenses? Well, in the new version of the appliance (firmware released planned for June 18th), as you dispense environments, WebSphere CloudBurst will keep track of the PVUs you are consuming for the particular IBM software you are instantiating. In doing this, it accounts for the physical machine architecture on which the supporting hypervisor sits, and it takes into account the IBM subcapacity/virtualization licensing policy. This means you can get an accurate view of your PVU usage at any point, and the appliance can produce a highwater mark report for any product over a date period you specify. This is license counting made easy!
In addition to simply tracking your PVU usage, you can optionally configure enforcement behavior. Enforcement behavior tells the appliance what to do when you exceed your PVU threshold for a particular product. You have three basic options: Ignore, Warn, Enforce. In Ignore mode, nothing happens when you exceed your PVU entitlement for a given product. Deployments that use those products continue to deploy as usual. In Warn mode, deployments for products for which you have exceeded your PVU entitlement continue as usual, but appliance administrators receive an email warning them of the situation. Lastly, in Enforce mode deployments that will put you over your PVU threshold for a given product simply fail. This prevents you or deployers using your appliance from overstepping your entitlement.
The software license management features in WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0 really add to the overall management capabilities of the appliance. I want to be sure to reiterate that the configuration of enforcement behavior, specifically the Warn and Enforce modes, is optional. It is not required from IBM. The software license management capabilities delivered in WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0 are purely meant to enhance your capability to manage and govern environments in your on-premise cloud. If you are interested in seeing this in action, check out this short video.
During the week of IMPACT this year, we announced the launch of the WebSphere CloudBurst Samples Gallery. You can go to this gallery to find and download sample script packages, CLI scripts, and other tools that we hope help you in your endeavors with the appliance. The samples are free to use and offered in an "as-is" fashion.
While I certainly will not write about each and every sample we post out there, I did want to bring your awareness to a new one I just put up today. The new sample is neither a CLI script nor a script package, though you will find it in the script packages section of the gallery. Instead, the new sample is a tool that you can run to produce WebSphere CloudBurst script packages.
Specifically, the tool runs against a target WebSphere cell to produce a WebSphere CloudBurst script package that encapsulates that cell's configuration. The tool works by running the backupConfig command against the target cell. It packages the ZIP file that results from running the command into a special WebSphere CloudBurst script package that you can include in patterns which match the source cell in node quantity and type.
The script package produced by the tool packages logic to run the restoreConfig command using the backed up configuration from the source cell. This will apply the source configuration to a new WebSphere Application Server cell created as the result of deploying a pattern. In addition, the script package contains logic to handle the possibility of changing cell, node, and host names in the target environment.
The tool’s purpose is to help you accelerate the process of importing your existing WebSphere Application Server environments into the appliance as patterns (which is a problem I believe many of you would like to solve). It certainly does not handle everything you need to do to import environments. In fact, it has the same limitations as the backupConfig/restoreConfig utilities in WebSphere Application Server. However, I do believe that it makes it a little easier to start moving your existing environments into the appliance as new WebSphere CloudBurst patterns.
Check out this video to see a quick overview of the tool, and then go download it for free from the samples gallery. The ZIP file that you download has a readme file that gives specific detail about how to use this sample tool. As always, please let me know if you have any questions or feedback.
I hardly ever have a conversation about WebSphere CloudBurst, or generally cloud computing for application middleware, without the topic of databases coming up. Databases are such an important piece of nearly every application middleware environment, so users want to be sure that whatever they do for their application servers, they can also do for the databases on which their applications rely. That is why the capability to deploy DB2 from WebSphere CloudBurst has been around for as nearly as long as the capability to deploy WebSphere Application Server.
Even though DB2 deployment capability has been around for a while, there are still some common misconceptions regarding the offering. First, I have talked to a fair number of users who are under the impression that we only offer a trial version of DB2 for deployment via WebSphere CloudBurst. While that was true for the first few months of the offering, that is no longer the case. For several months now, a fully supported, 64 bit, production-ready DB2 image has been ready for use in WebSphere CloudBurst. If you were waiting for a DB2 image that you could go live with, wait no longer!
The other misconception, or rather, point of confusion, arises from the fact that the DB2 image for WebSphere CloudBurst is not, by name, a Hypervisor Edition image. I can assure you that is in name only. The DB2 image looks like and behaves like any other IBM Hypervisor Edition image once you load it into the appliance. You can use it to build and deploy patterns in the same way you use other images in WebSphere CloudBurst. You may just have trouble finding it if you search for 'DB2 Hypervisor Edition' as opposed to 'DB2 Server for WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance.'
Instead of going into further detail, I want to refer you to a blog entry from a fellow IBMer, Leon Katsnelson. Leon is a program director for DB2 and is responsible for the team that develops and delivers the DB2 image for WebSphere CloudBurst. In his most recent post, he provides a nice overview of the image and gives good information for those looking to use DB2 and WebSphere CloudBurst (there is also a bit on cloud computing at the beginning that I think is spot on). Check out Leon's post, and let us know what you think!
Maybe you remember, but not long ago I wrote a post about scenarios when WebSphere CloudBurst and Rational Automation Framework for WebSphere (RAFW) combine to form quite the pair. You can read that post for details, but the basic scenarios were configuring and capturing, importing existing environments into WebSphere CloudBurst, and migrating from virtual to physical installations. Well, after talking with customers and colleagues lately, you can add another scenario to the list: version-to-version WebSphere Application Server migrations.
I want to be clear here about one thing before I go further. I am in no way advocating against the use of the migration tooling that ships with WebSphere Application Server. It is an excellent tool that can make migrations simple and fast. I am merely pointing out that when it comes to version-to-version migrations you have options, and you should survey them all before making a decision.
With that understanding, let's take a look at WebSphere CloudBurst and RAFW in the context of a version-to-version migration. This integrated approach to migration is ideal if you are amenable to moving up to a newer version of WebSphere Application Server in a cloud-based environment. Using both products makes migrations fast and easy, and you can be very confident that the configuration of the migrated environment is faithful to the original. The figure below shows the basic flow of the migration and breaks it down into a set of discrete steps.
Now, for a quick break down of each step:
Extract config & apps from old environment: The first step involves pointing RAFW at your existing configuration, the one you want to migrate from, and using an out-of-the-box action to import all of the configuration into a RAFW environment. You can also import your application binaries in this step.
Store config & apps from old environment: In step two, you will store the extracted configuration and application binaries in a source control repository or some backup location separate from your RAFW server. This is an optional, but recommended step.
Analyze and update apps: Before migrating your applications to the newer version of WebSphere Application Server, you can use the completely free Application Migration Toolkit to analyze the source code of your applications. This toolkit will recommend any required updates to ensure your application continues to behave as expected when moving to the new version. Again, this is an optional step, but the toolkit is free and very handy. So, why not?
Deploy new version of the environment: Step four starts by building a new WebSphere CloudBurst pattern. This new pattern matches the topology of the environment you are migrating from, and you build it from an image containing the version of WebSphere Application Server to which you want to migrate. Once built, you deploy it to your private cloud and you have a running environment in minutes.
Apply stored config and deploy updated apps: Now that you have your new environment up and running, use RAFW to apply the configuration you extracted from your old environment. RAFW inherently understands any configuration translation that needs to occur to apply the old configuration to your new environment, and it can also deploy your updated applications for you.
That's the basic overview for version-to-version migrations when you are moving to a cloud-based environment. In time, I will be posting more information about this process to shed a little more light about what is going on under the covers. In the meantime, you know how to reach me if you have questions!
For the next installment of this series of FAQs, let's move from product positioning and integration, square into the land of operational procedure. For this post, we will consider you are getting ready to deploy a pattern based on the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition. During the deployment process, you provide configuration information, which includes a password for a user named virtuser.
You read the documentation, and you understand that virtuser is both an operating system user and the user that WebSphere CloudBurst configures as the primary administrative user for WebSphere Application Server. Naturally, this user owns the WebSphere Application Server processes that run in the virtual machine. While it is convenient that this is all pre-configured for you, you want to know one thing: "Can I define a user besides virtuser?"
It certainly would not be the first time this question came up. The short answer to this is yes, but there are of course caveats. You can define another user and have that user own the WebSphere Application Server processes, but you cannot completely remove the virtuser user, nor should you remove virtuser as the primary administrative user. The reason for this is that WebSphere CloudBurst relies on virtuser when it carries out certain actions such as applying maintenance, applying fixes, or otherwise interacting with the WebSphere Application Server environment.
All that being said, I recently put together a script package that allows you to utilize a user other than virtuser. I hope to put the script package in our samples gallery soon, but here's a basic overview of using the script package and what it does:
Attach the script package to all parts in a pattern that contain a WebSphere Application Server process.
Deploy the pattern and provide the necessary parameter values. These include the name of the new user, a password, a common name, and a surname. The last two bits are necessary when creating a new administrative user in WebSphere Application Server.
During deployment, the script package first creates a new OS user with the specified password.
The script adds the new user to the existing OS users group.
The script creates a new WebSphere Application Server user with the same username and password and grants administrative privileges to the user.
The script shuts down the WebSphere Application Server processes.
The script changes the runAsUser value for all servers to the empty string and sets the runAsGroup value for those servers to users. This allows members of the OS users group to start the WebSphere Application Server process.
The script starts the WebSphere Application Server processes.
There are a few other activities in the script, but that should give you a basic overview. Again, note that the script does not remove the virtuser user or change that user's OS or WebSphere Application Server permissions in anyway. I would also point out that if you use WebSphere CloudBurst to apply maintenance to the WebSphere Application Server environment, it will do so as virtuser and it will restart processes as virtuser, so plan accordingly.
I hope this sheds some light on a very common question. I hope to get the sample up soon, and as always let me know if you have any questions.