The majority of my posts on this blog address using various features of WebSphere CloudBurst to build private cloud computing environments. Today though, I want to switch gears and instead of talking private cloud, let's talk public cloud. Specifically, let's take a look at the capabilities and services delivered via the IBM Smart Business Development and Test on the IBM Cloud (hereafter referred to as the IBM Cloud).
For some of you, the fact that IBM has a public cloud offering may be a little surprising. After all, if you listen to some uninformed critics you may hear that IBM only cares about private clouds for large enterprises. That is simply untrue. The IBM Cloud is an Infrastructure as a Service public cloud that delivers rapid access to services hosted on IBM infrastructure via a self-service web portal. The IBM Cloud offers multiple payment options, including usage-based billing and reserved capacity billing, and even features a cost estimator so you can confidently establish a monthly budget for your usage.
Regardless of whether you use a private or a public cloud, security should always be a chief concern. As such, IBM takes security very seriously in the IBM Public Cloud. The infrastructure that constitutes the cloud is subject to internal IBM security policies that include regular security scans and tight administrative governance. Your data and virtual machines stay in the data center to which you provisioned them, and physical security policies match those of internal IBM data centers. Additionally, you can optionally make use of the virtual private network option to isolate access to the virtual machines that you provision on the IBM Cloud. Rest assured that security in the IBM Cloud was a guiding design principle and not an afterthought.
With the basics out of the way, let's get on to the question I'm sure you have: What can I run on the IBM Cloud? To get you started, the IBM Cloud provides a nice list of public images in its catalog that are ready for you to provision. These images include WebSphere Application Server, WebSphere sMash, DB2, WebSphere Portal Server, IBM Cognos Business Intelligence, Tivoli Monitoring, Rational Build Forge, and many more. In addition to the public images provided by the IBM Cloud, you can build your own private images. Private images allow you to start with a base public image and then customize it by adjusting the configuration or installing new software. Once customized, you can store these private images on the IBM Cloud and provision them whenever needed. Whether you are using public or private images, you have a number of server configurations to choose from in order to host your environments.
While very brief, I hope this overview provides you with some of the more important details regarding the IBM Cloud. There are few, if any, service providers out there with the enterprise expertise of IBM, and I think you see that reflected in the IBM Cloud. If you are looking at public cloud options for your enterprise application environments, you should definitely take a closer look at the IBM Cloud.
When one uses IBM Workload Deployer (previously WebSphere CloudBurst) to deploy a virtual system pattern, they benefit from a completely automated deployment process. The automation includes the creation and placement of virtual machines, injection of IP addresses, initiation of internal processes, and invocation of included scripts. Most of these processes are straightforward and require little more than a brief overview. However, the placement of virtual machines stands out, and it's inner workings are the subject of quite a few questions when I discuss the appliance. With that in mind, I thought I would provide a little more information on how the placement algorithm in IBM Workload Deployer works.
The placement subsystem in IBM Workload Deployer considers three primary elements: compute resource, availability, and license optimization. Compute resource availability is the gating factor for placement. That means that IBM Workload Deployer first looks at the available CPU, memory, and storage resource in the collection of hypervisors making up the cloud group(s) you are targeting for deployment. If a particular hypervisor cannot provide enough resource based on the amount you requested for your deployment, then it is automatically taken out of the eligible hosts pool. It is important to note that IBM Workload Deployer will overcommit CPU, and it will overcommit storage if you direct it to do so. It will not overcommit memory because that could severely degrade the performance of the application(s) running in the virtual machines.
After choosing the pool of hypervisors that are capable of hosting the virtual machines in your deployment from a compute resource perspective, the appliance then considers high availability. To better understand this particular placement stage, let's consider an example. Consider you are deploying a pattern based on WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition and it contains two custom node parts. It is conceivable, and in fact likely, that these two custom node parts will host members of the same cluster, and thus the two nodes will support the same applications. As such, IBM Workload Deployer will attempt to place the two custom nodes on different physical machines in order to prevent a single point of failure. Of course, this depends on having two hypervisors with enough resource (CPU, memory, storage) to host the virtual machines, but the appliance makes that decision in the first placement stage.
After considering compute resource and high availability, IBM Workload Deployer moves to the last stage of placement: license optimization. In this stage, the placement subsystem attempts to place the virtual machines on hypervisors in a way that minimizes the licensing cost to you. The appliance can do this because it is aware of IBM virtualization licensing rules and takes those into account during this stage (if you aren't familiar with virtualization licensing rules and you are curious, ask you're sales representative to explain some time). During this stage, it will not violate any resource overcommit directives or rules in place, nor will it compromise system availability, but it will seek to minimize costs within these parameters.
At this point, I should make something clear that may already have occurred to you. You can override most of these placement rules by creating a cloud group containing only one hypervisor. In this case, IBM Workload Deployer will put all virtual machines on the single hypervisor until it runs out of compute resource (memory is likely to be the constraining factor). I would not suggest that you do this unless you have a good reason or you are in a simple pilot phase, but I do like to point out the art of the possible!
While not incredibly deep from a technical perspective, I do hope that this provided a few helpful details on what goes on during the placement stages of deployment. If you have any questions, do let me know.
When writing a new tool for the WebSphere CloudBurst samples gallery last week, I got the chance to use an API in the CLI that was new to me. Specifically, I got a chance to use the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI in order to retrieve an audit log from the appliance for a specified date period. In case this is new and interesting to you, I thought I would share what I found.
First off, let's take a look at the API I am talking about. It's pretty simple: cloudburst.audit.get(file, start, end). Here, start is the start date for the audit entries and (naturally) end is the end date for those entries. The file parameter simply denotes the location or file object you want to use to store the audit archive retrieved via the get method.
This is a simple enough API. The only wrinkle comes in dealing with calculating the start and end dates. According to the WebSphere CloudBurst Information Center, both the start and end times are 'specified as the number of seconds since midnight, January 1, 1970 UTC. Floating point values can be specified to indicate fractional seconds.' For my use case, I wanted to let a user or calling program pass the start and end times as arguments to the CLI script that retrieves the audit archive. Check out the relevant portion of my script below:
As you can see, the script takes in the start and end time in the MM/dd/yy HH:mm format (i.e. 05/20/10 15:30). It parses the value to produce a date, gets the long value of the date (which is in milliseconds according to the java.util.Date API), and divides that value by 1000. This is to account for the fact that the cloudburst.audit.get method expects you to express the start and end times in seconds. The script passes the converted dates along with the output file location to the get method. The result is a ZIP file that contains an appliance audit, license audit, and PVU audit file for the specified date range.
One of my favorite things about the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI is that it is Jython-based. This means I can leverage Java APIs from my CLI scripts, and that is huge for me because of my existing knowledge of the Java language. You certainly can substitute Python APIs for my use of Java APIs to handle the start and end date calculation. I hope this is helpful, and good luck with the WebSphere CloudBurst CLI!
One of the most exciting announcements at IBM IMPACT last week was that of the new WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition. This new virtual image allows you to provision complete WebSphere Process Server environments into your on-premise cloud using the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. Just like with the other environments you can provision using WebSphere CloudBurst (namely WebSphere Application Server, DB2, and Portal Server), you can stand up these WebSphere Process Server environments in a matter of minutes.
The WebSphere Process Server does not come pre-loaded on the appliance, but it does come with a cool utility that helps you get it on the appliance. The WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition loader provides a wizard-like tool that loads the image into the catalog of an appliance you specify. The tool is simple to use and is included as part of the image package that you download from Passport Advantage.
Not only does the loader above populate the WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition into the appliance's catalog, but it also creates a set of patterns for the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance. These patterns encapsulate golden topology environments for WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition. At the time of my post, the patterns created by the loader include the following:
Standalone server: This pattern represents a single server instance of WebSphere Process Server. Deployment of the pattern results in a single virtual machine that contains both the server instance and a DB2 instance.
Simulated environment: This pattern contains a single part called a 'Full function control node'. Deployment of the pattern results in the creation of a deployment manager, proxy server, DB2 environment, and three WebSphere Process Server clusters (application target cluster, support cluster, and messaging cluster), all in a single virtual machine.
Scalable environment: This pattern contains a deployment manager, 'Basic function nodes' part, DB2 part, and a proxy server. Deploying the pattern results in the same components as the pattern above, but in this case each component resides in its own virtual machine.
The announcement of the WebSphere Process Server Hypervisor Edition only serves to increase the applicability of WebSphere CloudBurst for constructing on-premise WebSphere clouds. If you have any questions, or want to learn more about this new virtual image, please let me know.
In keeping with the impressive release pace, WebSphere CloudBurst 126.96.36.199 is now available for download from the IBM Support site. In some ways, this release is typical of what you may expect from a service release. In other words, there are defect fixes and other general enhancements in the new version of the firmware. However, this release is a bit more than your typical service release in that there are a couple of major additions of which you should be aware.
First, starting in WebSphere CloudBurst 188.8.131.52, you will be able to provision WebSphere CloudBurst patterns to IBM Power7 systems. We already supported both Power5 and Power6 systems, and this new addition allows you to take advantage of some of the significant enhancements in the IBM Power7 hardware. In addition, this means that from a single appliance you can provision environments to multiple different releases of VMware, IBM z/VM, and IBM PowerVM hypervisor technologies. The best thing about this is that WebSphere CloudBurst provides an effective abstraction layer over the underlying infrastructure so that no matter which of the hypervisor solutions you use, the end-user experience with the appliance remains the same. You get all of this from a single device!
The other major element in WebSphere CloudBurst 184.108.40.206 is the introduction of Environment Profiles. Traditionally, WebSphere CloudBurst controlled most of the pattern deployment process. While this allows the appliance to provide a lot of configuration activity without input from the user, it made some usage scenarios hard to accommodate. For instance, historically you have not been able to assign specific IP addresses to machines in your deployment, and you have not been able to deploy a pattern across multiple cloud groups. Now, with environment profiles you can. Environment profiles give you more control over deployment behavior, including the ability to assign IP addresses (as opposed to WebSphere CloudBurst automatically doing so), deploy parts across multiple cloud groups, and apply virtual machine naming standards. The use of these new resources is completely optional, so you can still use the traditional deployment model, but this provides you with flexibility if you so choose. You can learn more about this new capability by watching the short demonstration here.
As an aside to the above information concerning WebSphere CloudBurst 220.127.116.11, I should also point out new WebSphere Hypervisor Edition announcements detailed here. I encourage you to read the announcement, but to summarize there are two major pieces of information. First, when you buy PVUs of entitlement for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition or WebSphere Message Broker Hypervisor Edition, those entitlements also apply to WebSphere Application Server and WebSphere Message Broker respectively. You can use the Hypervisor Edition images and traditional software packages in any combination, up to the level of use based on your Hypervisor Edition entitlements. Second, there is a new licensing for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition called IBM HTTP Server for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition. This allows you to deploy IBM HTTP Server instances using the WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition without paying for the full Hypervisor Edition license. Again, for more details and term information, please read the announcement referenced previously.
There will be more to come about WebSphere CloudBurst 18.104.22.168, including an article on the use of environment profiles, but I wanted to give everyone a quick heads up. Let me know if you have any questions or feedback for us.
Yesterday, we kicked off a WebSphere in the Clouds campaign designed to connect you with IBMers that can help you to leverage WebSphere solutions to build clouds. The campaign consists of webcasts, podcasts, live Q&A sessions, and online JAMs. You can listen to replays and sign up for upcoming events by visiting the Global WebSphere Community website.
Next week, the campaign delivers a series of podcasts that discuss the WebSphere technologies that form the building blocks of clouds. These podcasts will discuss both the business and technical aspects of these solutions, and they will cover topics like application infrastructure in the cloud, policy-based workload management using application virtualization, hybrid cloud integration, and more. Over the past few days, I had the opportunity to catch up with the various presenters of these podcasts to ask them a few questions about their solutions. These interviews provide a nice sneak peak at what is coming in the podcasts, and I will be posting them here in the coming days.
To kick things off, I'm posting a video interview with Marc Haberkorn. Marc is the WebSphere Product Manager for WebSphere CloudBurst, WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition, and WebSphere Virtual Enterprise. My colleague, Ryan Boyles, caught up with Marc and got his thoughts on how these solutions enable virtualization and automation for your cloud environments. Enjoy!
When I talk to users familiar with both WebSphere CloudBurst and the IBM Systems Director VMControl offering, there is sometimes a bit of confusion. It is not surprising. Both WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Systems Director VMControl allow users to create and manage virtualized environments. That leads us to an oft-asked question: What is the difference between WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Systems Director VMControl?
The simple answer is that the difference in the two offerings is the degree to which they are purpose-built. IBM Systems Director VMControl equips users with broadly applicable capabilities to create and manage environments consisting of virtual machines. These capabilities extend to PowerVM, z/VM, VMware, and Microsoft Hyper-V hypervisor platforms. IBM Systems Director VMControl is not necessarily knowledgeable about the software running in the virtual machine, but it does allow the user to manage that asset effectively.
Compare and contrast that with the capabilities provided by WebSphere CloudBurst. The appliance also enables users to create and manage environments consisting of virtual machines. The difference is that WebSphere CloudBurst is purpose-built to provide you with the ability to create, deploy, and manage virtualized WebSphere environments quickly and easily.
What does that mean? Well, on one hand it means that WebSphere CloudBurst does not treat the virtual machines it creates like a black box. In fact, it knows quite a bit about the software running inside those machines, and provides users with out-of-the-box configuration and administration capabilities for said software. WebSphere CloudBurst knows how to interact with the software in the virtual machines to do things like federate WebSphere nodes into a cell, create application server clusters, configure environments for optimal performance, apply fixes and upgrades, and more. The best part is you do not need to supply any of your own scripts to do this. In short, the appliance ships with WebSphere intelligence.
Beyond this WebSphere intelligence, WebSphere CloudBurst enables users to create customized WebSphere environments (from the operating system up) and codify those customized environments in the form of patterns. These patterns, which represent your very own WebSphere application environments, enable you to deploy your applications rapidly, repeatedly and with extremely consistent results. In addition, the appliance allows you to define varying roles for users, each of those mapping to traditional data center responsibilities (i.e. customizing the operating system, building application infrastructure, carrying out middleware customizations, etc.). Again, WebSphere CloudBurst was purpose-built with WebSphere environments in mind.
It is not all about comparing and contrasting WebSphere CloudBurst and IBM Systems Director VMControl. In the case that you are using WebSphere CloudBurst to create and manage virtualized WebSphere environments on top of the PowerVM hypervisor platform, IBM Systems Director VMControl is actually a required component. In this scenario, the two offerings are complementary. WebSphere CloudBurst communicates with IBM Systems Director VMControl in order to create and configure the virtualized WebSphere environment requested by the user. This image below depicts how the two products work in conjunction in a PowerVM environment.
I hope this helps to shed light on how WebSphere CloudBurst compares to, contrasts with, and complements IBM Systems Director VMControl. Feel free to reach out to me on the blog or on Twitter (@damrhein) with any questions I did not answer here.
Not long ago I created a demonstration that highlighted the new support for the PowerVM platform introduced in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1. In that demonstration I showed how you can deploy to a PowerVM cloud by defining a new cloud group that interfaces with a VMControl instance to manage a pSeries cloud environment. However, in the demo I did not go into much detail about the components of a pSeries cloud used with WebSphere CloudBurst.
Since pictures help me out a lot, I thought I’d start the discussion with an image that depicts the components in the pSeries cloud environment and the workflow when using WebSphere CloudBurst to deploy systems to this environment.
The workflow begins when a user requests the deployment of a pattern and targets that deployment for a PowerVM cloud group. WebSphere CloudBurst first checks that the cloud group contains the compute resources necessary to deploy the pattern. After the resource checks are complete, WebSphere CloudBurst decides where to place each virtual machine that will be created from deployment using its intelligent placement algorithm. No matter the type of the cloud environment being utilized the appliance retains control over placement decisions, thus ensuring the virtual system has been deployed in a way that optimizes both performance and availability.
Once the placement decision has been made, WebSphere CloudBurst communicates with the VMControl instance, which in turn instructs the Hardware Management Console (HMC) to create LPARs on the targeted pSeries machines. These LPARs will host the virtual machines that represent the WebSphere Application Server nodes in your virtual system. After the LPARs have been created, WebSphere CloudBurst leverages VMControl to instruct the Network Installation Manager (NIM) to deploy virtual images to the necessary LPARs.
When the LPARs have been created and the virtual images have been deployed to those LPARs, the common process of virtual system creation can proceed. This process includes starting virtual machines, starting WebSphere Application Server components, and running any user-supplied scripts. The end result is a ready to use, virtualized WebSphere Application Server cell running on the PowerVM hypervisor platform.
I hope this provides a nice overview of the underlying environment when PowerVM hypervisors are used with WebSphere CloudBurst. As for those users who are not WebSphere CloudBurst cloud administrators, the information above is nice to know but not necessary. The user experience with respect to building, deploying, and managing your virtualized application environments with WebSphere CloudBurst is consistent regardless of the type of your cloud platform.
A while back I had a four part FAQ series inspired by questions arising from customer visits discussing the first release of WebSphere CloudBurst. With the recent release of WebSphere CloudBurst 2.0, I think it is a good time to revisit an FAQ series with an entirely new set of questions.
For the first part of the series, I want to address a question we get all the time now: "What is the difference between WebSphere CloudBurst and WebSphere Virtual Enterprise?" This question was always fairly common, but now even more so because the new Intelligent Management Pack option for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition allows you to deploy WebSphere Virtual Enterprise cells using WebSphere CloudBurst.
Fundamentally, the difference between the WebSphere CloudBurst Appliance and WebSphere Virtual Enterprise is a complementary one. WebSphere CloudBurst provides a means to create your application environments, deploy them into a shared, cloud environment, and then manage them over time. In this respect, the appliance focuses on bringing cloud-like capabilities to the application infrastructure layer of your application environments. WebSphere CloudBurst does give you management capabilities for your running, virtualized application environments (i.e. applying maintenances and fixes), but for the most part those capabilities do not extend into the application runtime environment.
Now, you may ask why WebSphere CloudBurst does not extend its reach into the application runtime. The answer is simple: We already have a solution that does just that, WebSphere Virtual Enterprise. WebSphere Virtual Enterprise provides capabilities that allow you to dynamically and autonomically manage your application runtime. You can use WebSphere Virtual Enterprise to not only assign performance goals to your applications, but also to declare the importance of a given application meeting its goals relative to other applications in your organization. This enables the dynamic management of your applications and their resources such that your applications perform according to their goals and relative importance to your business. Simply put, you get an elastic runtime at the application layer of your application environments.
As I said, WebSphere CloudBurst and WebSphere Virtual Enterprise are complementary solutions. Both enable notions of cloud computing, but at different layers of your application environments. WebSphere CloudBurst hones in on the application infrastructure components, while WebSphere Virtual Enterprise zeros in on the applications running in those environments. The new Intelligent Management Pack for WebSphere Application Server Hypervisor Edition means that WebSphere CloudBurst can now dispense WebSphere Virtual Enterprise environments into your on-premise cloud. That means you can take advantage of these complementary solutions from a single and simple management plane.
I hope this helps to clear things up. As always, questions and comments are welcome!
If you read some of my entries from time to time, chances are you know that you can use WebSphere CloudBurst to apply interim fixes and fixpacks to your deployed virtual systems. When you choose to apply either a fix or fixpack, WebSphere CloudBurst temporarily stops the virtual system, takes a snapshot of the system (the entire WebSphere cell), applies the fix or upgrade, and then starts the system back up. The result is an updated, running WebSphere cell, and if you need to, you can rollback the virtual system to the previous configuration by simply clicking a button.
In WebSphere CloudBurst 1.0 the application of fixes and upgrades were applied via the web console which made it hard to automate this process. However, in WebSphere CloudBurst 1.1 you can use the command line interface to apply fixes and fixpacks to virtual systems. The appliance still takes the actions I described above, thus the process is still simple, safe, and fast. The only difference is the interface through which you drive the application of the maintenance.
What does it look like? Quite frankly, it's very simple. You can go through all of my virtual systems and apply both fixes and fixpacks with the seven line script below:
for virtualSystem in cloudburst.virtualSystems:
fixes = virtualSystem.findFixes()
if len(fixes) > 0:
upgrades = virtualSystem.findUpgrades()
if len(upgrades) > 0:
You can write this script once, save it as a Jython file, and run it with the CLI's batch mode anytime you want to roll out maintenance to your virtual systems. It's really amazing to me that the above SEVEN lines are capable of rolling out all fixes and all upgrades within your WebSphere CloudBurst catalog to every virtual system the appliance is managing. I can't think of an easier or safer way to automate the deployment of fixes/upgrades to your WebSphere environments.
Let me know if you have any questions. As always you can reach me on Twitter @WebSphereClouds.