Modified on by LeslieEkas
One of the primary reasons that agile teams are “more productive” is that they work together closely to complete small batches of work frequently and continuously. The better the team is at working together, the better their productivity. However, teams struggle to improve their ability to work together, and so this becomes one of the most significant barriers to real agile success.
If you think about how work goes in a typical waterfall project, usually the first thing that happens is that the team decides what they are going to do and then very quickly they split into separate sub-teams to do the work. Generally the team does most of its coordinated work at the end of the project when they have to make it all work. This is the "hockey stick" effect of waterfall. From my days in waterfall I remember long hours, nights, and weekends working through problems with the rest of team. In fact I remember reconnecting with people that I had not worked closely with since the last “end of project march.”
Agile breaks this pattern by working closely together from the beginning of the project. The “end of project” style of coordinated team work in waterfall happens throughout every iteration. This is what makes agile so productive. However, “getting there” can be hard because working where your domain knowledge and skills are the strongest is where you want to work and where you know you will be the most productive.
As the software industry has progressed, software projects have become larger and more complex. With size and complexity, specialization typically follows. We have been encouraged to specialize in order to capitalize on our personal strengths and then use those strengths to produce better product capabilities. Specialized skills are critical so that we build the right solutions. However, learning new skills and increasing your technical breadth is also important. To make an agile team more productive, team members needs to be willing to broaden their skills so that they can help the rest of team get to “Done!” in addition to completing their own work.
This does not mean you have to become an expert at everything or even offer your help when it is not needed. When I was in school getting my Computer Science degree, our professors told us that “You are not a <insert favorite software language> developer, you are a software engineer.” We have to remind ourselves that, as engineers, we need to continue to expand our skills and knowledge, and be willing to try any job that needs attention. If everyone on the team assumes this attitude, the team will become more productive.
Here is the analogy that I think of when I am trying to explain this behavior. In the movie Apollo 13, after the initial oxygen explosion happens and disaster ensues, the mission commander asks that his team leaders to call in everyone on their teams to help figure out how to get the crew safely back to Earth. In the movie, teams that have not worked together are given hard problems to solve fast -- and they do solve them. This is the way very productive agile teams work together throughout the project.
Modified on by ScottWill
A while ago I started working with a team that had stopped having “standup” meetings altogether. Initially, the team started with the typical daily team meetings. After a little while they moved from having daily meetings to having them only three times a week. Subsequently they went to just once a week. When I asked why they had decreased the frequency of their meetings, and then ultimately stopped having them altogether, I was told that no one thought they were very useful and some of the team members had already stopped attending.
At one level, I applauded this team – they had taken one of the Lean Principles to heart, that of “Eliminating Waste.” Their attempts at having daily standup meetings weren’t providing any value, so they just stopped having them. However, at another level, I faulted this team. They held daily standup meetings because that’s what they thought they were supposed to do since they were now calling themselves “agile.” In essence, they had adopted a practice without understanding why they were adopting it, nor did they understand what benefit the practice was meant to provide.
What I have found in my years of coaching teams is that when teams reduce the frequency of the daily team meetings (or eliminate them altogether) it’s usually because the meeting has become just a status meeting. And, seriously, who wants to spend time every day reporting status as well as listening to others report status…? What you typically hear in such meetings are things like, “I’m doing the same thing today as I did yesterday,” “I’m still working on my code,” “I’m still finding defects,” and so on. Ugghhhh – what a waste.
So, if it’s not to report status, then what’s the purpose of the daily standup meeting? It’s meant to be a coordination and communication meeting for the team. And this type of meeting is very important. However, there are a couple of other things to cover first before I can show how the daily standup will be valuable – instead of daily waste of time.
Leslie and I recommend that, as much as possible, a team should be working together on one user story at a time. Additionally, the work items that team members tackle as part of implementing a user story (typically called “tasks”) should be small in size (a day or two at most). This means that small amounts of needed design, coding, testing, user documentation, automation, and so forth are being completed on a daily basis. For example, a developer could complete a coding task and, as soon as the build finishes, a tester can start running tests against that code. Thus there is a lot of “parallelization” taking place every day within the team. Perhaps you can now begin to see how important regular (daily) team communication is in such an environment. Conversely, you can see how the daily team meeting devolves quickly into a status meeting if everyone is working on their own thing and there’s no shared goal for the team.
By working together on one user story at a time, and using small tasks to accomplish work, the daily team meeting becomes a meeting that you don’t want to miss because you’ll likely miss something critical to the work the team is focused on.
Modified on by ScottWill
Scott and I are thrilled to tell you about our new book called Being Agile: Eleven Breakthrough Techniques to Keep You From Waterfalling Backward. You can click on the link below to get access to the book or use the handy link in the Links section of this page.
Our goal for the book is to help teams that have adopted the standard practices and call themselves agile, but have not gained the real benefits that agile promises. We believe that adopting agile requires a change in thinking, not just adopting a set of practices. When teams don't get immediate results, they often fall back into old habits that will reduce their chances of success. Our book offers eleven breakthrough techniques to help overcome reflexive thinking so that you will start to respond with an agile mindset that prioritizes delivering customer value, ensuring high quality, and continuously improving.
The book consists of eleven chapters that focus on some of the critical topics for agile success. In each chapter we discuss the basic principles that are the foundation for the topic followed by the corresponding practices. Each chapter closes with a breakthrough technique to help teams achieve the real benefits of the aspect of agile covered in the chapter. It was not our goal for the book to be an agile primer or even to cover all of agile thoroughly as there are much better references for that. Our goal was to focus on principles critical to agile adoption with which teams struggle and for each area, give them the means to succeed via using an agile mindset.
Scott and I have both had our breakthrough moments and so have the teams that we have le
ad and coached. We share experiences from those teams to provide a real world context to the ideas. Most of what we have learned came from working with numerous teams and it is our hope that we continue the conversation with you. Please share your "A-ha!" moments on our blog so that we can all continue to learn together.
Being Agile (IBM Press)
Modified on by ScottWill
When a project is big enough to have two or more teams working on the same project, we recommend that each team have its own backlog of User Stories and each team size its own stories with Story Points. Of course, this inevitably raises the idea of having each team conform to some “story point standard” so that project progress and team progress can be tracked "uniformly." Doing this more or less means that teams have to normalize story points across all the teams so that, for example, a 5-point story for one team is the same as a 5-point story for every other team on the project; an 8-point story is the same for every team, etc., etc., etc.
All I have to say to this idea is: “Ugggghhh… What a collosal waste of time!" I’ve seen teams try to do this and the effort put into trying to ensure uniformity of sizings across multiple teams is enormous.
I’m happy to report that there’s an easier way that still allows for overall project progress to be easily seen as well as individual team progress. In essence, instead of normalizing based on story points we suggest “normalizing” based on the calendar. Let me explain: let’s assume, for example, there are two teams on a project, each having its own backlog that has been sized with story points. Team A has 2000 story points on its backlog and Team B has 500. In this case you would have three burndown charts to track progress: one that’s combined (showing 2500 total points), a second one for just Team A (showing 2000 total points), and a third one for just Team B (showing just 500 points). In order to determine relative progress for Team A and Team B, you base it on the number of points completed vs. the number of iterations... Thus, if you're half-way through the project (e.g., 5 of 10 planned iterations are complete), you would expect Team A to be ~1000 points complete (50% of its total) and Team B to be ~250 points complete (50% of its total).
Where things get to be a little more complicated is when you have numerous teams working on a project (for some enterprise application projects we’ve worked with, we’ve seen over 40 teams working on the same project). With two teams, it’s fairly easy to bounce back and forth between Team A’s release burndown chart and Team B’s release burndown chart. When you have more than that, you can create a very simple chart (using any spreadsheet tool) that shows “percent calendar complete” and “percent story points complete” for each team. Following are two examples that we’ve used (they show the same data, just in different formats):
You’ll notice in the first chart that the schedule is 60% complete (the black bars) and then each team’s relative progress is shown. In the second chart, a stacked bar is used to show overall te am progress. In this made-up example, Team 1 is slightly ahead, Team 5 is slightly behind, and the other teams are perhaps struggling...
I’m sure you can think of other, different ways of showing the data, so do whatever’s most helpful. The key is that this approach is so much easier and simpler than trying to normalize the sizing of story points across multiple teams.
“If you’re not better this month than you were last month, don’t tell me you’re Agile!”
I forget exactly where I heard that quote but it was from someone well known in the industry that came up during a webcast I was listening to several years ago. It caught my attention and helped me start to focus more on why Continuous Improvement is considered a foundational principle of agile. My research led me back to the Agile Manifesto, specifically to the principles of the Agile Manifesto where one of the principles reads:
“At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.” [emphasis added]
No doubt you’ve heard of, and hopefully engaged in, regular reflections (sometimes called “retrospectives”). If you haven’t done so, or have tried them and not gotten much value, then I’d like to provide a few ways to help make them valuable and to help you and your organization adopt a Continuous Improvement mindset. Conversely, even if you do regularly hold reflections and find them useful, the hope is that the following is something else you can add to your “bag of tricks” and make them even more valuable and compelling.
First, we recommend that reflections occur at the end of every iteration. These meetings are team meetings and shouldn’t take more than an hour (a half-hour seems to be fairly typical in our circles).
Next, the meetings are not meant to be “gripe sessions.” Yes, sometimes a little bit of griping can be cathartic, but the goal of a reflection meeting is more than just walking away happy that you had the chance to vent your spleen… The goal is to figure out a way to improve between now and the next reflection meeting.
The meeting facilitator should just go around the table and ask everyone to list the pain points that they’re facing. The facilitator keeps a list of all the pain points brought up and, after the last person has spoken, shows a list of all the pain points raised – ranked from those with the highest number of mentions down to those with the least. The item at the top of the list is what the team focuses on since that is the one that is having the biggest negative impact on the team.
Now that the biggest pain point for the team has been identified, the team brainstorms on some specific actions to take to improve in that one area and includes those actions as part of the iteration plan for the next iteration.
At the end of the next iteration, during the reflection meeting, the team determines whether that pain point has been resolved. If not, the team brainstorms on some additional actions to take in the next iteration. The key here is to NOT start trying to solve another pain point until the first one has been solved to everyone’s satisfaction. Once the biggest pain point has been solved, only then should the team move to the next biggest pain point on the list. Lather, rinse, repeat every iteration – and soon Continuous Improvement will be the norm…
I’ll have some additional suggestions in the next post. In the meantime, please comment on your experiences with reflections, as well as on any helpful practices you’ve discovered. Thanks!
Modified on by ScottWill
First of all we would like to wish everyone a Happy New Year! We trust that this year will be full of good challenges and significant achievements for each of you!
Regarding metrics, if it's one thing that engineers love, it's numbers... And if it's one thing that managers love, it's status. Put the two together and oftentimes you have teams that track tons of metrics across all facets of their projects.
While it may give the impression of being really thorough, and providing all sorts of deep insights, if you find yourself in an organization that tracks lots and lots of metrics, then I would encourage you to take a step back and limit the focus to just what's really important.
One of the principles of the Agile Manifesto reads, "Working software is the primary measure of progress." If you stop and think about it, that principle makes perfect sense. Customers aren't going to buy untested code and they're not going to be too happy if they buy something that falls down broken all the time because major defects haven't been fixed. All other metrics should pale in comparison to the one metric of having working software. Putting focus on this one metric will drive many of the benefits that agile promises -- three of which I'll touch on here.
First, focusing primarily on having working software provides a shared, common goal for the organization. This means that no one on the team gets any credit for his or her individual efforts which, in turn, provides plenty of motivation for helping each other out so that the team can take credit for having working software. A lot of the old "us vs. them" mentality of waterfall days is eliminated when focus is placed on working software as the primary measure of progress.
Next, having the focus on working software means that teams will actually achieve working software much earlier in a project than was typical with waterfall projects. Having working software provides plenty of opportunities to involve customers earlier in the project since customers can actually see demos of the functionality while it is being implemented and can even download it and test-drive it in their own environments. Getting customer feedback early is a huge benefit, especially if customers tell you you're going down the wrong path since you'll be able to make mid-course corrections prior to releasing the product.
Finally, having working software enables teams to move into the DevOps space where automation takes on an even more significant role, where releases are more frequent (up to multiple times a day for some Software-as-a-Service offerings), and where opportunities for doing things like "A/B" testing can be pursued. None of this is possible without having working software.
To conclude, if you agree that focusing on working software as the primary measure of project progress makes sense, but you're not quite sure how to ditch many of the metrics you may be currently tracking, I'll leave you with this analogy that Leslie uses with teams when dealing with this very issue. Think of cleaning out your closet -- you pull everything out and then put back only those things you wish to keep. Everything else is either thrown away or donated to charity. So, start with a "clean slate," put working software at the top of the list, and then add only those additional metrics that are absolutely necessary to ensure project success. Tracking anything else beyond just what's absolutely necessary should be considered a waste.
We would be interested in your thoughts and comments, especially if you've already made the transition to tracking working software as your primary metric. Thank you!
Modified on by ScottWill
This week I thought I'd re-post an article that appeared earlier on DeveloperWorks.
Early on, when I first started coaching teams on their transition to Agile, it was quite common for teams to come to me and tell me that they hadn't completed any User Stories by the end of an iteration. Initially, teams wanted to use this as a reason to increase the length of their iterations (I recommend two-week iterations – and teams always seem to want longer iterations). What they were failing to realize is that there were fundamental reasons why they weren't completing stories, and iteration length by and large had nothing to do with it. Let me explain....
One of the first questions I'd ask a team in this situation was if they were assigning User Stories to team members with the idea that each member was responsible for completing his or her User Story independently of others on the team. Almost invariably, the answer was “Yes, but how did you know that...?” What was happening in these situations was that each member of the team would work on his own User Story and, at the end of an iteration, the team would have six, or seven, or eight partially-completed User Stories. In this case, nothing was completely “Done!” by the end of the iteration – just a bunch of partially-completed stories. Since each team member was focused on completing his own story, there was no “incentive” for someone to jump in and help another team member get a story done because everyone was focused on completing his own story.
In this situation, we would remind the team about the importance of the Agile practice of “whole teams.” Part of this practice recommends that a team should try to work together on one User Story at time, complete it, and then as a team move on to the next story on the backlog. This way, the team is constantly completing User Stories and will have, at most, one unfinished User Story at the end of an iteration.
In order to pull this off, there's another practice that we recommend teams adopt – and that is the creation of small implementation tasks for each User Story. At the beginning of an iteration, the whole team goes through the process of creating the various tasks needed to complete a story (development tasks, test tasks, user documentation tasks, automation tasks, code review tasks, etc.). These task sizes should be small in size (on the order of 4 hours, 8 hours, to no more than 16 hours), which then allows for a lot of “parallelization” of the work. The concept is, for example, instead of having one developer work on a coding task for five days, you could put five developers working in parallel on five one-day development tasks and, at the end of a single day, have all the coding completed that otherwise wouldn't have been complete until the end of five days. Additionally, there should be corresponding documentation, test, automation, and code review tasks for each of the development tasks. This way, a team achieves a very tight integration between dev, doc, and QA throughout each User Story (not to mention each iteration), and the team also always has working code as the team completes one User Story before moving on to the next. By the way, this approach is not something that comes naturally to a team (especially if they're just beginning the transition to Agile), but give the team time and encouragement to try it out – the effort is worth it.
A few closing comments: obviously, piling everyone on a scrum team onto one story won't always work, especially with very small User Stories. The goal – even with a very small User Story – should be to put two or three engineers on that story while the rest of the team works on an additional story. Keep the number of stories being worked on at the same time by the team to the smallest number possible. This should go a long way to helping you consistently finish User Stories at the end of every iteration.
We welcome any comments and suggestions you may have -- thanks!
Modified on by ScottWill
Just a quick plug for the upcoming IBM Rational Innovate Software Engineering Conference next week in Orlando at the Disney Swan & Dolphin Resort. I'll be leading the Agile Track Kickoff Session on Monday, 2 June, at 11am, and following that up with a book signing from 12noon to 1pm at the book table. It promises to be a great conference again this year! Please stop by and say "Hi!" if you'll be attending!
Main conference website: http://www-01.ibm.com/software/rational/innovate/
Agile Track Kickoff Session: https://www-950.ibm.com/events/global/innovate/agenda/preview.html?sessionid=DAG-2459
Podcast (12 minutes) covering the Agile Track: http://public.dhe.ibm.com/software/info/television/swtv/Rational_Software/podcasts/rttu/gist_moore_innovate_scaleagile_enterprise-2014-0520.mp3
Thanks -- and hope to see you there!!
Modified on by ScottWill
Velocity is a great tool for agile teams but it is easy to "over-engineer" the concept -- or even misuse it. Velocity is a mechanism to understand the pace of a team that uses story points to size their user stories.
First, a quick comment regarding story points – Leslie and I advocate the usage of “unit-less” sizings of user stories, meaning that story points are not associated with any measure of time. Story points are simply an assignment of size relative to other user stories that a team works on. Thus, a 3-point story should take approximately 3 times the amount of effort for the team as a 1-point story -- irrespective of how long it takes to complete either one. Note that story point sizings are just relative sizings and they work no matter how long it takes to actually complete a given story of a given size.
Back to velocity… Velocity, simply put, is the term used to describe a team’s observed capacity for completing work. Velocity is calculated by taking the average number of story points a team completes each iteration. For example, if a team completes 8 story points’ worth of user stories in its first iteration, 12 in the second, and 10 in its third, then the team’s velocity is 10 (the average of 8, 12, and 10). Note that several iterations had to be completed first in order for the team to determine its velocity (we advocate a minimum of three iterations before starting to use velocity for project planning and tracking).
Even though the concept is simple, I’ve seen teams misuse velocity and, as a consequence, reduce its value. I’ll address three of the most common misuses in the following paragraphs:
First, velocity is incorrectly used as a "report-card" each iteration. Assume the example I used above where the team has a velocity of 10. Let’s say that their next iteration they complete 6 story points. In organizations where velocity is not understood, the team will likely be called on the carpet and asked to explain what happened (the thought being that their productivity dropped by 40%!). Given that the assignment of story points is an estimation technique and not something to be measured to 26 digits of precision, there should be an understanding that the number of points a team completes each iteration will vary from iteration to iteration. Perhaps in this iteration the team is working on a story that they underestimated. Big deal… Chances are in a subsequent iteration they’ll work on a story that was overestimated. Over the course of several iterations, the team's velocity will average out. Please do not use the number of story points a team completes in any given iteration as a report-card. Use the average and save everyone a lot of headaches from micromanagement.
Secondly, and closely related to the first, is teams erroneously claiming "partial credit" for a story. When teams are seeing the number of story points completed in a given iteration used as report-card, they tend to start trying to claim partial-credit for an incomplete story. In this scenario a team might say, “We got the code done, so that’s worth 2-points out of this 5-point story.” Even though the testing, defect fixing, automation, etc., hasn’t yet been completed, they're just trying to boost the total number of points claimed in the iteration. Unfortunately, this approach defeats a number of benefits of adopting agile. First, it breaks down team synergy by reverting back to an us-vs.-them mentality. When the whole team gets “credit” for completing a user story when it’s actually complete, then the team is motivated to help each other out. If partial credit is allowed, then this can pit parts of the team against other parts. The second problem with this approach is that it violates the agile principle of working software as the measure of progress. Code that has been written, but is untested, is not “working software.” Code that has been written and tested, but where defects haven’t been fixed, is not “working software.” Working software should be the focus for the team… And let me close this section with another simple example: let’s say a team is targeting completion of two 5-point stories this iteration (their velocity has been ~10 points an iteration, so targeting 10 points’ worth of stories makes good sense). Let’s say they complete the first story and are almost complete with the second. If the team tries to take partial credit, they might claim 4 of the 5 points for the second story and, thus, their story point totals for this iteration would be 9. Next iteration, they’d plan to finish off the last bit of the second story and then, most likely target and additional 10 points' worth of new stories (since they have been averaging 10 story points so far and they almost completed 10 points last iteration). Let’s say they complete all that work in the next iteration for a total of 11 points. What’s their velocity for the two iterations? It’s 10. Now let’s take the “no partial credit” approach. The team would get 5 story points for its first iteration and 15 for its second. What’s the velocity for the two iterations calculated this way? Right, it’s also 10. This is why focusing on velocity as an average is so liberating for teams – they’re not constantly under the microscope and don’t feel compelled to play games with partial credit.
The last abuse of story points and velocity that I’ve seen is that teams get their velocity "dictated" to them. They’re told to achieve some level of velocity before even knowing what their velocity is. Remember, as mentioned at the opening, velocity reflects the team’s observed capacity to complete work each iteration. Typically, when teams are dictated a velocity, its in “fixed content/fixed date” projects (which are anathema in agile). Teams wind up working tremendous amounts of overtime to meet their dictated velocity (which is also anathema to agile).
Finally, there are legitimate ways to go about increasing velocity, as well as illegitimate ways. The most prevalent illegitimate way is forcing a team to do overtime – this is not sustainable and will only cause problems down the road. The legitimate ways to increase velocity is to pursue what I call “enabling” practices: increasing test automation, improving builds by adopting continuous integration, adopting test-driven development and pair-programming, automating provisioning of test environments, automating deployments, and many others. Yes, putting effort into maturing these practices may mean you slow down the amount of functionality you produce in the short run, but the long-term benefits (such as sustained velocity improvements) will be well worth the initial investment. Velocity is simple - keep it simple. Increasing velocity is where the hard work is.
Modified on by ScottWill
In my previous post I mentioned how to use end-of-iteration reflection meetings to determine what a team should focus on for improvement in the next iteration. In this post I want to briefly cover two different ways that a team can tackle those improvement actions.
In the first – and simplest – case, let’s say a team needs to fix a problem with their automation framework that is causing some instability. So far, the team has just addressed the immediate symptoms in order to get the automation back up and running, but there’s a sense within the team that the problem runs deeper and needs some focused effort. In this case, the team needs to set aside some dedicated time during the next iteration in order to solve this problem at its root so that it doesn’t keep coming back time and time again, and continually costing the team. Some teams I’ve worked with have simply written a user story and put it on their backlog of user stories to ensure that the dedicated time actually occurs. In this case, the story goes to the very top of the backlog – the team addresses it at the outset of the next iteration (since it’s now #1), fixes their automation problem, and only then starts working on the next story on their backlog. Whether you choose to write a user story or not is up to you – the KEY is that you set aside time to handle smaller issues.
The second case involves larger problems – problems that will take time to solve and that can be quite complex. A simple example of this may be that the automation framework that the team has been using for years may no longer be supported, and now the team has to move to a brand new automation framework. This undertaking isn’t going to be able to be handled in a day or two – even with the whole team focused on helping. Since there’s always pressure to get new features and functionality out the door as quickly as possible, the team most likely isn’t going to be able to hit the “pause button” for four weeks while they switch over to the new framework. What we suggest here is a bit of a compromise: create a small team of automation folks and dedicate them 100% of the time to moving the current automation to the new automation framework. The remaining team members continue to focus on new feature work. The important thing with this suggestion is that you’re getting your new automation framework implemented while still getting new feature work completed (albeit at a somewhat slower pace) – but you’re doing so without having engineers multitask across different sets of responsibilities. This approach honors the lean principle of working on one thing at a time.
Just to recap – if your tackling a small improvement action, dedicate time. If it’s a larger improvement action, dedicate a team.
As always, please feel free to respond with any additional advice, insights, experiences, and/or questions that you may have. Thanks!