There are trending computing concepts and definitions which at times are a bit confusing. This blog provides definitions to technical concepts currently trending and used in this computing era. The goal behind this blog is to help you understand concepts you often hear or read, and also provide links with additional information to help you find information about solutions focusing on these technical definitions.
There are more and more signs of artificial intelligence, cognitive computing, and machine learning into many aspects of our daily lives. For example, these technologies can be seeing at hospitals, medical research facilities, automobiles, aircrafts, law offices, financial advisors, accounting offices, and even in banks. These are just a few among a vast array of areas these technologies have been implemented to assist specialists have another point of reference or to help you while driving your vehicle. You have seen the commercials when newer vehicles brake for you when sensing something in front of the vehicle.
These technologies are here to help and assist to make our lives easier, and to allow the specialists and providers in many areas to focus on you, the client.
The following definitions illustrate some of the current technical concepts found in today’s communication channels:
Artificial Intelligence, sometimes also referred to as Machine Intelligence, refers to a broad set of methods, algorithms, and technologies that enable systems, either in software or embodied forms, to display aspects of intelligent behavior in a way that may seem human-like to an outside observer.
At IBM, we are guided by the term Augmented Intelligence rather than Artificial Intelligence. It is the critical difference between systems that enhance and scale human expertise rather than those that attempt to replicate all human intelligence. We focus on building practical Augmented Intelligence applications that assist people with well-defined tasks, and in the process, expose a range of generalized Augmented Intelligence services on a platform to support a wide range of new applications.
We call our approach to Augmented Intelligence Cognitive Computing. Cognitive Computing is a comprehensive set of capabilities based on technologies such as:
- Machine learning, reasoning, and decision technologies
- Language, speech, and vision technologies
- Human interface technologies
- Distributed and high-performance computing
- New computing architectures and devices
When purposely integrated, these capabilities are designed to solve a wide range of practical problems, boost productivity, and foster new discoveries across many industries. This is what we bring to market today in the form of IBM Watson (https://ibm.co/2FXRqQt).
As part of Augmented Intelligence and Artificial Intelligence, machine learning refers to a wide variety of algorithms and methodologies that enable systems to improve their performance over time as it obtains more data and learns from it.
Essentially, machine learning is about recognizing trends from data or recognizing the categories that the data fits in so that when the machine-learned system is presented with new data, it can make proper predictions. Machine learning systems train under supervision, learning from examples and feedback, or in unsupervised mode.
Machine learning techniques span a wide array of architectures, models, and techniques including neural networks, deep learning, support vector machines, decision trees, self-organizing maps, case-based reasoning, instance-based learning, hidden Markov models, and regression techniques.
Deep learning is a type of machine learning that employs a multi-layer hierarchical neural network architecture and an end-to-end approach to training where the system is trained by a set of input data and desired output with learning happening in the intermediate layers.
The system learns to adjust weights of the interconnections in the training process. Deep learning architectures are not new, but the advances in high-performance computing and the availability of large labeled data sets have driven the recent success of these architectures in speech and visual recognition applications.
Natural Language Processing (NLP)
Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a branch of Augmented Intelligence or Artificial Intelligence concerned with analyzing, understanding, and generating natural human languages to interface with machines, both in written and spoken forms.
Internet of Things
Internet of Things (IoT) – Instrumented, interconnected, and intelligent solutions that collect, distribute, manage, and/or analyze large amounts of data in near real-time captured through a network of physical objects that contain embedded technology (for example: sensors, kiosks, maters, PDAs, and appliances) to drive actions or to create insights.
Cognitive IoT (CIoT) – CioT drives the next generation of data analytics and technical capabilities. CIoT infuses intelligence and decision making into the physical world to continually transform businesses and enhance the human experience in real-time using IoT technologies.
These technologies are evolving, learning, digesting information, analyzing data, and maturing as you read this blog. However, there are professionals behind these technological marvels that continue to connect them to new sources of data lakes looking for new insights and new frontiers.
At the end of the day, these technologies among other, are helping our society learn how fight diseases, find cures for cancer, discover new medications, predict weather patterns, and help professionals and specialists focus on new discovery areas not possible before.
At IBM, we continue to work and enable these technologies to help you with your most challenging business problems. We are your technology partners enabling solutions to run your workloads, generating and cleansing the data to render simulations looking for new discoveries.
Refer to the IBM Redbooks website for technical content related to cognitive, analytics, IBM Watson Services, and many more:
Refer to the following IBM website for information about solutions in many areas defined above:
Happy reading and have a nice day.
IBM Redbooks Project Leader
The Open Group Certified Distinguished Technical Specialist