Well, I have always looked at Workplace Forms as an eco-friendly product line since, after all, it does dramatically cut down on the use of actual paper, which cuts down on the cutting down of actual trees. But, this post is actually quite a bit more technical than that. In this case, we're going to talk a little about the the *Workplace Forms Designer 2.7* (part of the 2.7 GA release this week) and the three wizards it includes to help form authors with creating dynamic tables and the components and formulae that make them dynamic. The focus, of course, will be the new wizard in 2.7.

The first *Table Wizard* helps you to create a repeating set of user interface controls over some data. You get a chance to set up nice presentational features like column headers, column dividers and row highlighting, and you also get Add and Delete buttons for the table. The second *Row Operation Wizard* allows the form author to express a formula over two columns of a table, with the result being placed into a third column. The formula is defined on the underlying data, of course, via an XForms calculate. The wizard is ideal for setting up that "line total = quantity * unit price" formula that shows up in every purchase order. It could also be used as the starting point for setting up the XForms constructs for a more complex calculation.

Although we've made improvements to these wizards in 2.7 (and will do so again in the future), the new kid on the block is the *Column Summation Wizard*, which is ideal for setting up a summation over a column of data, e.g. for taking the subtotal of a purchase order. The XPath expression written by this wizard is very interesting and relates to the title of this post. All you do as the form author is gesture at the user interface object in the column to be summed and at the user interface object where the result will go. Here is a sample of the underlying XPath calculate that results:

`if(string(sum(instance('X')/items/item/total[.!='']))='NaN','',sum(instance('X')/items/item/total[.!='']))`

This formula requests the summation of all the line "total" values on each row of a purchase order form, and if the result is not a number (NaN) for some reason such as bogus user input, the formula produces an empty string result rather than the summation value.

This is helpful in and of itself because XPath, XML Schema and other W3C technologies thend to regard an empty string as not a number. So if you try to add or multiply a data node that has no value yet (like the quantity of items desired), then NaN starts to percolate through your form unless you take special measures.

But the really special sauce is the XPath predicate shown here: `[.!='']`

. An XPath predicate is used to filter out nodes that have some undesirable property. In this case, we want to get rid of the empties and only sum up the data nodes that have a non-empty value. The dot means "this node", so the expression in square brackets says "this node must be not equal to the empty string".

Suppose for a moment that we didn't add this extra tidbit to ignore the empties. Suppose a user has a partially filled out purchase order form with three or four rows of data leading to a non-empty column total. If the user then adds one or more empty rows to add more data, then at that moment the column total formula would update itself to calculate the total over rows that included empties, which would result in a NaN, which the 'if' part of the expression converts to an empty string result. So the user would get treated to this odd experience of having the column total disappear each time he tries to add another row to the purchase order. The extra predicate created by the *Column Summation Wizard* says to ignore the empties so that the user will have a chance to fill in a row of data before it contributes to the column summation.

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