Tonight PBS plans to air Season 38, Episode 6 of NOVA, titled [Smartest Machine On Earth]. Here is an excerpt from the station listing:
"What's so special about human intelligence and will scientists ever build a computer that rivals the flexibility and power of a human brain? In "Artificial Intelligence," NOVA takes viewers inside an IBM lab where a crack team has been working for nearly three years to perfect a machine that can answer any question. The scientists hope their machine will be able to beat expert contestants in one of the USA's most challenging TV quiz shows -- Jeopardy, which has entertained viewers for over four decades. "Artificial Intelligence" presents the exclusive inside story of how the IBM team developed the world's smartest computer from scratch. Now they're racing to finish it for a special Jeopardy airdate in February 2011. They've built an exact replica of the studio at its research lab near New York and invited past champions to compete against the machine, a big black box code -- named Watson after IBM's founder, Thomas J. Watson. But will Watson be able to beat out its human competition?"
Craig Rhinehart offers
[10 Things You Need to Know About the Technology Behind Watson].
An artist has come up with this clever
Dr. Jon Lenchner from IBM Research has a series of posts on
[How Watson "sees", "hears", and "speaks"] and [Selected Nuances].
Like most supercomputers, Watson runs the Linux operating system. The system runs 2,880 cores (90 IBM Power 750 servers, four sockets each, eight cores per socket) to achieve 80 [TeraFlops]. TeraFlops is the unit of measure for supercomputers, representing a trillion floating point operations. By comparison, Hans Morvec, principal research scientist at the Robotics Institute of Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) estimates that the [human brain is about 100 TeraFlops]. So, in the three seconds that Watson gets to calculate its response, it would have processed 240 trillion operations.
Several readers of my blog have asked for details on the storage aspects of Watson. Basically, it is a modified version of IBM Scale-Out NAS [SONAS] that IBM offers commercially, but running Linux on POWER instead of Linux-x86. System p expansion drawers of SAS 15K RPM 450GB drives, 12 drives each, are dual-connected to two storage nodes, for a total of 21.6TB of raw disk capacity. The storage nodes use IBM's General Parallel File System (GPFS) to provide clustered NFS access to the rest of the system. Each Power 750 has minimal internal storage mostly to hold the Linux operating system and programs.
When Watson is booted up, the 15TB of total RAM are loaded up, and thereafter the DeepQA processing is all done from memory. According to IBM Research, "The actual size of the data (analyzed and indexed text, knowledge bases, etc.) used for candidate answer generation and evidence evaluation is under 1TB." For performance reasons, various subsets of the data are replicated in RAM on different functional groups of cluster nodes. The entire system is self-contained, Watson is NOT going to the internet searching for answers.
On ZDnet, Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols welcomes our new [Linux Penguin Jeopardy overlords]. I have to say I share his enthusiasm!
technorati tags: IBM, Nova, Watson, #ibmwatson, Jeopardy, POWER7, p750, supercomputer, TeraFlops, disk, SONAS, GPFS, SAS, Craig Rhinehart, Jon Lenchner, Hans Morvec, Carnegie Mellon University, CMU
“In times of universal deceit, telling the truth will be a revolutionary act.”
-- George Orwell
Well, it has been over two years since I first covered IBM's acquisition of the XIV company. Amazingly, I still see a lot of misperceptions out in the blogosphere, especially those regarding double drive failures for the XIV storage system. Despite various attempts to [explain XIV resiliency] and to [dispel the rumors], there are still competitors making stuff up, putting fear, uncertainty and doubt into the minds of prospective XIV clients.
Clients love the IBM XIV storage system! In this economy, companies are not stupid. Before buying any enterprise-class disk system, they ask the tough questions, run evaluation tests, and all the other due diligence often referred to as "kicking the tires". Here is what some IBM clients have said about their XIV systems:
“3-5 minutes vs. 8-10 hours rebuild time...”
-- satisfied XIV client
“...we tested an entire module failure - all data is re-distributed in under 6 hours...only 3-5% performance degradation during rebuild...”
-- excited XIV client
“Not only did XIV meet our expectations, it greatly exceeded them...”
-- delighted XIV client
In this blog post, I hope to set the record straight. It is not my intent to embarrass anyone in particular, so instead will focus on a fact-based approach.
- Fact: IBM has sold THOUSANDS of XIV systems
XIV is "proven" technology with thousands of XIV systems in company data centers. And by systems, I mean full disk systems with 6 to 15 modules in a single rack, twelve drives per module. That equates to hundreds of thousands of disk drives in production TODAY, comparable to the number of disk drives studied by [Google], and [Carnegie Mellon University] that I discussed in my blog post [Fleet Cars and Skin Cells].
- Fact: To date, no customer has lost data as a result of a Double Drive Failure on XIV storage system
This has always been true, both when XIV was a stand-alone company and since the IBM acquisition two years ago. When examining the resilience of an array to any single or multiple component failures, it's important to understand the architecture and the design of the system and not assume all systems are alike. At it's core, XIV is a grid-based storage system. IBM XIV does not use traditional RAID-5 or RAID-10 method, but instead data is distributed across loosely connected data modules which act as independent building blocks. XIV divides each LUN into 1MB "chunks", and stores two copies of each chunk on separate drives in separate modules. We call this "RAID-X".
Spreading all the data across many drives is not unique to XIV. Many disk systems, including EMC CLARiiON-based V-Max, HP EVA, and Hitachi Data Systems (HDS) USP-V, allow customers to get XIV-like performance by spreading LUNs across multiple RAID ranks. This is known in the industry as "wide-striping". Some vendors use the terms "metavolumes" or "extent pools" to refer to their implementations of wide-striping. Clients have coined their own phrases, such as "stripes across stripes", "plaid stripes", or "RAID 500". It is highly unlikely that an XIV will experience a double drive failure that ultimately requires recovery of files or LUNs, and is substantially less vulnerable to data loss than an EVA, USP-V or V-Max configured in RAID-5. Fellow blogger Keith Stevenson (IBM) compared XIV's RAID-X design to other forms of RAID in his post [RAID in the 21st Centure].
- Fact: IBM XIV is designed to minimize the likelihood and impact of a double drive failure
The independent failure of two drives is a rare occurrence. More data has been lost from hash collisions on EMC Centera than from double drive failures on XIV, and hash collisions are also very rare. While the published worst-case time to re-protect from a 1TB drive failure for a fully-configured XIV is 30 minutes, field experience shows XIV regaining full redundancy on average in 12 minutes. That is 40 times less likely than a typical 8-10 hour window for a RAID-5 configuration.
A lot of bad things can happen in those 8-10 hours of traditional RAID rebuild. Performance can be seriously degraded. Other components may be affected, as they share cache, connected to the same backplane or bus, or co-dependent in some other manner. An engineer supporting the customer onsite during a RAID-5 rebuild might pull the wrong drive, thereby causing a double drive failure they were hoping to avoid. Having IBM XIV rebuild in only a few minutes addresses this "human factor".
In his post [XIV drive management], fellow blogger Jim Kelly (IBM) covers a variety of reasons why storage admins feel double drive failures are more than just random chance. XIV avoids load stress normally associated with traditional RAID rebuild by evenly spreading out the workload across all drives. This is known in the industry as "wear-leveling". When the first drive fails, the recovery is spread across the remaining 179 drives, so that each drive only processes about 1 percent of the data. The [Ultrastar A7K1000] 1TB SATA disk drives that IBM uses from HGST have specified 1.2 million hours mean-time-between-failures [MTBF] would average about one drive failing every nine months in a 180-drive XIV system. However, field experience shows that an XIV system will experience, on average, one drive failure per 13 months, comparable to what companies experience with more robust Fibre Channel drives. That's innovative XIV wear-leveling at work!
- Fact: In the highly unlikely event that a DDF were to occur, you will have full read/write access to nearly all of your data on the XIV, all but a few GB.
Even though it has NEVER happened in the field, some clients and prospects are curious what a double drive failure on an XIV would look like. First, a critical alert message would be sent to both the client and IBM, and a "union list" is generated, identifying all the chunks in common. The worst case on a 15-module XIV fully loaded with 79TB data is approximately 9000 chunks, or 9GB of data. The remaining 78.991 TB of unaffected data are fully accessible for read or write. Any I/O requests for the chunks in the "union list" will have no response yet, so there is no way for host applications to access outdated information or cause any corruption.
(One blogger compared losing data on the XIV to drilling a hole through the phone book. Mathematically, the drill bit would be only 1/16th of an inch, or 1.60 millimeters for you folks outside the USA. Enough to knock out perhaps one character from a name or phone number on each page. If you have ever seen an actor in the movies look up a phone number in a telephone booth then yank out a page from the phone book, the XIV equivalent would be cutting out 1/8th of a page from an 1100 page phone book. In both cases, all of the rest of the unaffected information is full accessible, and it is easy to identify which information is missing.)
If the second drive failed several minutes after the first drive, the process for full redundancy is already well under way. This means the union list is considerably shorter or completely empty, and substantially fewer chunks are impacted. Contrast this with RAID-5, where being 99 percent complete on the rebuild when the second drive fails is just as catastrophic as having both drives fail simultaneously.
- Fact: After a DDF event, the files on these few GB can be identified for recovery.
Once IBM receives notification of a critical event, an IBM engineer immediately connects to the XIV using remote service support method. There is no need to send someone physically onsite, the repair actions can be done remotely. The IBM engineer has tools from HGST to recover, in most cases, all of the data.
Any "union" chunk that the HGST tools are unable to recover will be set to "media error" mode. The IBM engineer can provide the client a list of the XIV LUNs and LBAs that are on the "media error" list. From this list, the client can determine which hosts these LUNs are attached to, and run file scan utility to the file systems that these LUNs represent. Files that get a media error during this scan will be listed as needing recovery. A chunk could contain several small files, or the chunk could be just part of a large file. To minimize time, the scans and recoveries can all be prioritized and performed in parallel across host systems zoned to these LUNs.
As with any file or volume recovery, keep in mind that these might be part of a larger consistency group, and that your recovery procedures should make sense for the applications involved. In any case, you are probably going to be up-and-running in less time with XIV than recovery from a RAID-5 double failure would take, and certainly nowhere near "beyond repair" that other vendors might have you believe.
- Fact: This does not mean you can eliminate all Disaster Recovery planning!
To put this in perspective, you are more likely to lose XIV data from an earthquake, hurricane, fire or flood than from a double drive failure. As with any unlikely disaster, it is best to have a disaster recovery plan than to hope it never happens. All disk systems that sit on a single datacenter floor are vulnerable to such disasters.
For mission-critical applications, IBM recommends using disk mirroring capability. IBM XIV storage system offers synchronous and asynchronous mirroring natively, both included at no additional charge.
For more about IBM XIV reliability, read this whitepaper [IBM XIV© Storage System: Reliability Reinvented]. To find out why so many clients LOVE their XIV, contact your local IBM storage sales rep or IBM Business Partner.
technorati tags: IBM, XIV, DDF, RAID-5, RAID-10, RAID-X, RAID-6, RAID-DP, HP, EVA, HDS, USP-V, EMC, CLARiiON, V-Max, Disaster Recovery, HGST, UltraStar, A7K1000
Modified by TonyPearson
Well it's Tuesday again, and you know what that means? IBM Announcements!
(FCC Disclosure: This official launch also includes October 6 announcements. In any case, the usual disclaimer applies: I currently work for IBM, and this blog post can be considered a "paid celebrity endorsement" of the IBM products mentioned below.)
IBM announced various updates to its Spectrum Storage product line. Here is a quick recap.
- IBM Spectrum Virtualize 7.6
Spectrum Virtualize is the new name of the "storage hypervisor" code that resides in IBM SAN Volume Controller (SVC) and Storwize family products. When you buy an SVC, you will license Spectrum Virtualize software on it. It is NOT available separately as software-only that you can install on any other hardware. There are three major improvements:
- Software-based Data-at-Rest Encryption
Earlier this year, IBM delivered data-at-rest encryption for the Storwize V7000 and V7000 Unified. This week, IBM extends this support to other storage hypervisors.
Since this feature is based on the Intel processor that supports the Advanced Encryption Standard New Instructions (AES-NI), it applies only to the newer hardware: SAN Volume Controller 2145-DH8, the Storwize V7000 Gen2, FlashSystem V9000, and VersaStack converged systems that contain these. You can run Spectrum Virtualize v7.6 on older hardware models, but the encryption feature will be disabled.
Basically, by taking advantage of AES-NI commands, IBM can now offer data-at-rest encryption on any virtualized flash or disk arrays, eliminating the need for special "Self-Encrypting Drives", or SED.
The encryption keys are kept on USB memory sticks, that you can either leave in the machine, or stash away in some vault or safe somewhere.
- Distributed RAID
The other improvement is distributed RAID. Distributed RAID has been hugely popular on IBM XIV products, and has since found its way into the DCS3700, DCS3860 and Elastic Storage Server models.
With this new enhancement, storage admins can select "Distributed RAID-5" or "Distributed RAID-6" as alternate choices to traditional RAID ranks.
Why use it? All the drives are now active, eliminating idle spare drives that do nothing collecting dust and cobwebs waiting for an opportunity to spin up, and when they finally are used for a rebuild become a terrible bottleneck. Since all drives are reading and writing, the rebuild rate is an order of magnitude (5 to 10x) faster!
For those clients nervous about large 8TB drives and the number of days it would take to perform a traditional RAID rebuild, this should calm all of your fears.
- IP-based Quorum
This is one of those line-items that we have told clients that it was "just around the corner" and "coming soon, watch this space", and finally it is available. For clients using Stretched Cluster or HyperSwap across two buildings, best practices suggests keeping the quorum disk in a third building. This often met having to dedicate a single 2U disk system in a closet somewhere, with expensive Fibre Channel cables connecting to the other two buildings.
To address this, IBM now allows the quorum disk to be based on Internet Protocol (the IP portion of TCP/IP), which can be any bare-metal or virtual machine that is LAN or WAN attached. The "quorum disk" is just a little Java program. This can run on any cloud service provider as well, such as IBM SoftLayer, that both buildings have connectivity.
A minor improvement worth mentioning is that the IBM "Comprestimator" tool that estimates the capacity savings of Real-time Compression is now integrated into Spectrum Virtualize v7.6 command line interface (CLI), allowing you to run the tool on demand, as needed, on any virtual volume.
- IBM Spectrum Scale v4.2
IBM plans to offer all of its solutions in any of three flavors: software-only that you can deploy on your own server hardware, pre-built system appliances, and cloud services on IBM SoftLayer, IBM Cloud Managed Services or third-party cloud providers. Spectrum Scale is the software-only flavor, and Elastic Storage Server and Storwize V7000 Unified are pre-built systems based on that software.
- File and Object access
IBM published a "Redbook" on how to implement OpenStack Swift and Amazon S3 interfaces to an existing Spectrum Scale deployment. IBM supported it, but it was basically Do-it-Yourself DIY implementation. This has now been resolved, with full integration of OpenStack Swift and Amazon S3 object-protocol interfaces.
(For those unfamiliar with "Object storage", think of it like valet parking for your data. Before working for IBM, I was previously employed as a valet attendant, so I feel qualified to make this analogy.
If you park your car in a 10-story high parking structure, you have to remember where you parked to go find the car again. With valet parking, you hand over the keys to the valet attendant, the car gets parked, and you get a claim stub that you then use to get your car back. In the meantime, you don't know where your car is parked, and you don't care either!
Storing files in volume-level or file-level storage is like that 10-story high parking structure. You have to remember where you put it, which LUN or which sub-directory. With object storage, the system provides a "claim stub" in the form of an Universal Record Identifier, or URI, and simple HTTP commands like GET and POST can be used to upload and download the content.)
- Policy-driven Compression and Quality of Service (QoS)
If you want to differentiate the levels of service provided by files and objects stored in your infrastructure, look no further. Simple SQL-like language is used to set up policies that are invoked when needed.
- Hadoop Connector for File and Objects
The IBM Hadoop Connector allows Hadoop and Spark analytics applications to treat Spectrum Scale as a 100 percent compatible alternative to Hadoop File Systems (HDFS). Previously, this was only available for files, but now it has been extended to include objects as well.
- Advanced Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Based on the award-winning GUI that has been used for IBM XIV, SVC, Storwize and various other members of the IBM System Storage family, IBM announces an HTML5-based web-browser GUI for configuring and managing Spectrum Scale and Elastic Storage Server (ESS).
- Storwize V7000 Unified
The "file modules" that run IBM Spectrum Scale will get updated to R1.6 level, which supports SMB 3.0 and NFS 4.1 protocols. SMB support will now include both internal and externally-virtualized storage. You will also be able to use Active File Management to migrate to other Spectrum Scale implementations.
- IBM Spectrum Control
As the former chief architect of IBM Tivoli Storage Productivity Center v1, I have been a big fan of the advancements and evolution of Spectrum Control. IBM offers three levels. The first level is "Basic Edition", entitled at no additional charge for IBM storage hardware clients. The second level is "Standard Edition" which offers configuration, provisioning and performance monitoring. The third level is "Advanced Edition", which includes advanced storage analytics, file-level reporting, storage tiering and data placement optimization.
You can imagine my skepticism when I was told that Spectrum Control was going to be enhanced to support Spectrum Scale. What could it offer? IBM Spectrum Scale already has built-in storage tiering and data placement optimization!
It turns out that having effective "management tools" was the #1 reason clients have stated were needed to implement and deploy Spectrum Scale. Since 1998, back when it was called General Parallel File System, or GPFS, the target market was High Performance Computing (HPC) familiar with Command Line Interfaces (CLI).
But IBM was to broaden the reach of IBM Spectrum Scale, to financial services, health care and life sciences, government and education, and a variety of other industries. They won't tolerate being limited to CLI interfaces.
For clients with multiple Spectrum Scale clusters, Spectrum Control can offer the following:
- Visibility across the capacity utilization (file systems, pools, file sets, quotas) and cluster health across all Spectrum Scale clusters in the data center
- Ability to specify alerts which are applied across all Spectrum Scale clusters, for things like relative or absolute free space in a file system, or inodes used, nodes going down, etc.
- Understand the cross-cluster relationships established by remote cluster mounts, and seamlessly navigate between them
- If external SAN storage is used, Spectrum Control shows the correlation between Spectrum Scale Network Shared Disks (NSD) and their corresponding SAN volumes, again with the ability to navigate between them; also it can provide performance monitoring for the volumes backing the NSD
- Ability to monitor file capacity usage in the context of applications, by adding Spectrum Scale "file set containers" to application groups defined in Spectrum Control
- Compare file system activity across Spectrum Scale clusters, with the ability to drill into file system and node performance charts
- Support for object storage on Spectrum Scale, determine which object-enabled clusters are closest to running out of free space
While the basic built-in GUI is great for smaller deployments, if you have a dozen or more Spectrum Scale clusters, or have Spectrum Scale clusters intermixed with traditional block-level and NAS storage devices, then Spectrum Control is for you!
It used to take weeks to deploy the original versions of Tivoli Storage Productivity Center, but now, Spectrum Control is now offered in the cloud, and you can deploy it in as little as 30 minutes.
Want to check it out? You can explore Spectrum Control Storage Insights cloud service as a [Live Demo], or [Start your free trial]! The reporting capabilities of Spectrum Scale are identical between the on-premise version of Spectrum Control, and this cloud service offering.
Here's a great quote from a leading IT industry analyst:
"In multi-petabyte, multivendor installations, overall storage costs of ownership for use of IBM Spectrum Storage solutions averaged 73 percent less than EMC, and 61 percent less than Hitachi equivalents" -- Brian Jeffery, Managing Director, International Technology Group, Naples, FL
As IBM continues its transition from a hardware-oriented company founded over a century ago, manufacturing meat scales and cheese slicers, to one more focused on higher value-add software and services, the Spectrum Storage software family will play a critical role of this transformation!
technorati tags: IBM, Spectrum Virtualize, data-at-rest, encryption, SVC, Storwize, Storwize V7000, FlashSystem V9000, VersaStack, storage hypervisor, distributed RAID, RAID-5, RAID-6, Spectrum Scale, Elastic Storage Server, OpenStack, OpenStack Swift, Amazon S3, HTTP, Compression, Quality of Service, QoS, Hadoop, Spark, Hadoop Connector, HDFS, GUI, XIV, DCS3700, DCS3860, Spectrum Control, Tivoli Storage, Productivity Center, TPC, CLI, NAS, Storage Insights, SoftLayer, IBM Cloud Managed Services,
It's Tuesday, and you know what that means? IBM Announcements! This week I am in beautiful Orlando, Florida for the [IBM Systems Technical University] conference.
This week, IBM announced its latest tape offerings for the seventh generation of Linear Tape Open (LTO-7), providing huge gains in performance and capacity.
For capacity, the new LTO-7 cartridges can hold up to 6TB native capacity, or 15TB effective capacity with 2.5x compression that for typical data. That is 2.4x larger than the 2.5TB catridges available with LTO-6. Performance is also nearly doubled, with a native throughput of 315 MB/sec, or effective 780 MB/sec effective capacity with 2.5x compression. The LTO consortium, of which IBM is a founding member, has published the roadmap for LTO generations to LTO-8, LTO-9 and LTO-10.
IBM will offer both half-height and full-height LTO-7 tape drives. All the features you love from LTO-6 like WORM, partitioning and Encryption carry forward. These drives will be supported on a variety of distributed operating systems, including Linux on z System mainframes, and the IBM i platform on POWER Systems.
The Linear Tape File System (LTFS) can be used to treat LTO-7 cartridges in much the same way as Compact Discs or USB memory sticks, allowing one person to create conent on an LTO-7 tape cartridge, and pass that cartridge to the next employee, or to another company. LTFS is also the basis for IBM Spectrum Archive that allows tape data to be part of a global namespace with IBM Spectrum Scale.
LTO-7 will be supported on the TS2900 auto-loader, as well as all of IBM's tape libraries: TS3100, TS3200, TS3310, TS3500 and TS4500. You can connect up to 15 TS3500 tape libraries together with shuttle connectors, for a maximum capacity of 2,700 drives serving 300,000 cartridges, for a maximum capacity of 1.8 Exabytes of data in a single system environment.
In addition to LTO-7 support, the IBM TS4500 tape library was also enchanced. You can now grow it up to 18 frames, and have up to 128 drives serving 23,170 cartridges, for a maximum capacity of 139 PB of data. You can now also intermix LTO and 3592 frames in the same TS4500 tape library.
For comptability, LTO-7 drives can read existing LTO-5 and LTO-6 tape cartridges, and can write to LTO-6 media, to help clients with transition.
technorati tags: IBM, #ibmtechu, LTO, LTO-7, TS2900, TS2270, TS1070, TS3100, TS3200, TS3500, TS3310, TS4500
Modified by TonyPearson
This post was originally written as a guest post for VMware for VMworld 2015 conference. Read the full blog post [IBM Storage and the Beauty and Benefits of VVol]. The following is an exerpt:
Back in 2012, I had mentioned that VMware was cooking up an exciting new feature called VVol, short for VMware vSphere Virtual Volume.
Officially, the VVol concept was still just a "technology preview" in 2012, to be fleshed out over the next few years through extensive collaboration between VMware and all the major players: IBM, HP, Dell, NetApp and EMC.
In 2013 and 2014, IBM attended VMworld with live demonstrations of VVol support. VMware vSphere v6 was not yet available, but when it was, we assured them, IBM would be one of the first vendors with support!
When vSphere v6 was finally made available earlier this year, [only four vendors support VVols on Day 1 of vSphere 6 GA]! Keeping true to its promises, IBM was indeed one of them.
To understand why VVol is such a game-changer, you have to understand a major problem with VMware version 4 and version 5, namely their Virtual Machine File System, or [VMFS].
Here is a picture to help illustrate:
On the left, we see that VMFS datastore is a set of LUNs from the storage admin perspective, and a set of VMDK and related files from the vCenter admin perspective.
If there was a storage-related problem, such as bandwidth performance or latency, how would the two admins communicate to perform troubleshooting? For many disk systems, it is not obvious which VMDK file sits on which LUN.
There are also a variety of hardware capabilities that work at the LUN level, such as snapshots, clones or remote distance mirroring, and this would apply to all the VMDK files in the data store across the set of LUNs, which may not be what you want.
There are two ways to address this in vSphere v4 and v5:
- The first method is to have fewer VMDK files per datastore. By defining smaller datastores with just a few VMs associated with each, you can then have a closer mapping of VMDK files to datastore LUNs. Unfortunately, VMware ESXi has a 256 limit on the number of different datastores that can be attached, so this method has its own limitations.
- The other method around this is "Raw Device Mapping" (RDM) which allowed Virtual Machines to be attached to specific LUNs. Some of the earlier restrictions and limitations for RDMs have since been relaxed over the releases, but your disk system still needs to expose the SCSI identifiers of each LUN to make this work, and additional setup is required if you plan to cluster two or more systems together, such as for a Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS).
On the right side of the picture, using VMware v6, vCenter admins can now allocate VVols, which are mapped to specific "VVol Storage Containers" on specific storage systems. The storage admin knows exactly which VVol is in which container, so they can now communicate and collaborate on troubleshooting!
The vSphere ESXi host communicates to storage arrays via a new "virtual LUN id" called a "Protocol Endpoint". This is to allow FCP, iSCSI and FCoE traffic to flow correctly through SAN or LAN switches. For NFS, the Protocol Endpoint represents a "virtual mount point", so that traffic can be routed through LAN switches correctly.
Storage Policies can help determine which attributes or characteristics you want for your VVol. For example, you may want your VVol to be on a storage container that supports snapshots at the hardware level. The vCenter server can be aware of which storage arrays, and which storage containers in those arrays, through the VMware API for Storage Awareness, or VASA.
Different storage manufactures can implement their VASA provider in different ways. IBM has opted to have a single VASA provider for all of its supported devices, so as to provide consistent client experience. When you purchase any VVol-supported storage system from IBM, you are entitled to download the IBM VASA provider at no additional charge!
Initially, the IBM VASA provider will focus on IBM XIV Storage System, an ideal platform for your VVol needs. The XIV is a grid-based storage system, utilizing unique algorithms that give optimal data placement for every LUN or VVol created, and virtually guarantees there will be no hot spots. The XIV provides an impressive selection of Enterprise-class features, including snapshot, mirroring, thin provisioning, real-time compression, data-at-rest encryption, performance monitoring, multi-tenancy and data migration capabilities.
With the XIV 11.6 firmware level, you can define up to 12,000 VVols across one or more storage containers in a single XIV system. For more details, see IBM Redbook [Enabling VMware Virtual Volumes with IBM XIV Storage System].
Let me give some real world examples from Paul Braren, an IBM XIV and FlashSystem Storage Technical Advisor from Connecticut, who has been working directly with clients over the past five years:
"Many of my customers have clearly said they really want the ability to have a granular snapshot that grabs a moment in time of just one VM, rather than all the VMs that happen to be on the same LUN. They also want to delete VMs, and have the storage array automatically present that newly available space. Even better, with VVol, these SAN related tasks appear to be executed nearly instantly, leaving behind those legacy shared VMFS datastore limitations and overhead.
The same benefits of VVol are evident when cloning or deploying VMs. Imagine being to create a Windows Server VM with a 400GB thick-provisioned drive in under 20 seconds. Well, you don't have to imagine it! I recorded video of this actually happening over at IBM's European Storage Competence Center, featured in this 8-minute video: [IBM XIV Storage System and VMware vSphere Virtual Volumes (VVol). An ideal combination!]"
-- Paul Braren
In addition to XIV, all of IBM's Spectrum Virtualize products also support VVolLs, including SAN Volume Controller, Storwize including the Storwize in VersaStack, and FLashSystem V9000.
I am not in San Francisco this week for VMworld, but lots of my IBM colleagues are, so please, stop by the IBM booth and tell them I sent you!
Modified by TonyPearson
Every year, March 31 marks "World Backup Day". Sadly, many people forget the importance of backing up their critical information. This is not just true for businesses, non-profit organizations and government agencies, but also for all of your personal information that you keep on computer devices.
My friends over at Cloudwards had developed an awesome infographic related to World Backup Day. Here it is.
(FTC Disclosure: I work for IBM, which has no business relationship with Cloudwards. Cloudwards does not itself provide backup services, but rather reviews services provided by others. This post should not be considered an endorsement of Cloudwards or their reviews.)
Courtesy of: Cloudwards.net
I hope you find this information helpful and informative!
Well it's Tuesday again, and you know what that means? IBM Announcements!
Today, IBM announced an exciting new addition to the IBM System Storage™ product line, [IBM Spectrum Storage™], a family of software defined storage offerings.
To understand its significance, I need to explain a few things first. Software defined storage is part of a larger concept of software defined environment.
How is software defined environment different than what you have now? In every data center, you need to map business requirements of an application workload with an appropriate set of IT infrastructure, including server, network and storage resources.
The traditional approach involves an application owner or database administrator reviewing the business requirements documented for the application, calling the server, network and storage administrators, who match those requirements to appropriate IT hardware and notify the folks in facilities to rack and stack the gear accordingly.
In a software defined environment, Application Programming Interfaces (API), Service Level Agreements (SLA) and Orchestration workflows can automate the request for the appropriate resources. This is referred as the "Control Plane".
Responding to these requests, the software can provision the appropriate server, network and storage resources required. Server, network and storage virtualization, standard interfaces and deployment technologies exist to make this practical. This is referred to as the "Data Plane".
Any time new a way of doing things is introduced into the world, there could be some resistance. Let's tackle the three most frequently stated objections:
"IT infrastructure resources are rare and expensive! Administrators need to control or approve how resources are doled out!" An objection to self-service automation is the fear that employees would take too much.
If you have a bank account, Automated Teller Machines (ATM) can restrict the amount of cash you can take out, based on what is appropriate per request, or per day, with an upper limit of what you have in your personal checking or savings account. You enter your debit card and PIN into the "Control Plane" keypad and out comes a stack of 20-dollar bills from the "Data Plane" slot. In a software defined environment, you can limit requests through quotas and resource pools.
"Some application workloads are more important than others! Another objection is that every workload will be treated in the same standard way, mission critical workloads and dev/test would be treated alike.
At the gas station, you can select different levels of octane gasoline. You enter your credit card and zip code into the "Control Plane" keypad and selected octane comes out of the "Data Plane" hose. In a software defined environment, resources can be provisioned with different Quality of Service (QoS) levels.
"Different applications require different combinations of resources!" Another objection is the fear that fixed combinations of server, storage and network resources will be stifling to innovation and productivity.
At the vending machine, you can choose which candy bar and which chips to have with whatever soft drink you choose for lunch. You enter your bills and coins into the "Control Plane" slot, select the row letter and column number for your snack of choice, and then fetch your purchases from the "Data Plane" flap. In a software defined environment, a Service Catalog can offer a virtual menu of different server, network and storage resources to be combined together as needed.
These concerns are addressed well enough in software defined environments, in general, and with IBM Spectrum Storage family of products, in particular.
(Nostalgia: I remember the days before self-service automation. At the bank, I had to stand in line at the bank until I could to talk to a human bank teller to get cash from my savings account. At the gas station, human gas attendants would come out and pump the gas for me, check my oil and wash my windshield. And at a restaurant, I felt like I waited an eternity from the time I ordered my meal to the time the human short-order cook had it ready and human wait staff delivered it to my table. These all seem silly today, doesn't it?)
technorati tags: BM, Spectrum Storage, Software Defined Environment, SDE, Software Defined Storage, SDS, Control Plane, Data Plane
This week, I am in Dublin, Ireland for the [IBM System x, IBM PureSystems and System Storage Technical University] conference.
Here are the sessions that I will be speaking at:
IBM Smarter Storage Strategy
Cloud Storage Options
What is Big Data? Architectures and Practical use cases
New Generation of Storage Tiering: Less management, lower investment and increased performance
IBM Archive Storage Solutions - Data Retention for Government Compliance and Industry Regulations
Meet the Storage Experts
Data Footprint Reduction - Understanding IBM Storage Efficiency Options
IBM Smarter Storage Strategy (repeat of Monday)
If you are at the conference, stop by and see me! You can also follow me on Twitter @az990tony and the hashtag #ibmtechu.
technorati tags: #ibmtechu, Smarter Storage, Cloud storage, Big data, Storage tiering, Archive storage, Data footrpint reduction, storage efficiency
Today, I attended the IBM Fast Data Forum. This was a special announcement event for press, analysts and IBM employees.
My fifth-line manager, [Tom Rosamilia], IBM Senior Vice President of Systems Technology Group, kicked off the ceremonies.
The world is changing fast, and technology has changed the way we live, and the way we work. For example, nearly [80 percent of people use their smart phone 22 hours a day]. Tom then introduced our first speaker, Jamie Thomas.
Jamie Thomas, IBM General Manager of Storage and Software Defined Environments
Jamie announced [IBM Elastic Storage], a new offering that is available as a software defined storage solution, based on IBM's General Parallel File System (GPFS) technology already deployed at 45,000 installations.
IBM Elastic Storage provides a global name view across data center locations. It can manage up to a Yotabyte of information, combining Flash, disk and tape resources. It supports OpenStack interfaces, Hadoop and standard POSIX file system conventions.
IBM Elastic Storage provides automated tiering to move data from different storage media types. Infrequently accessed files can be migrated to tape and automatically recalled back to disk when required. Unlike traditional storage, it allows you to smoothly grow or shrink your storage infrastructure without application disruption or outages.
IBM Elastic Storage software can run on a cluster of x86 and/or POWER-based servers, and can be used with internal disk, commodity storage, or advanced storage systems from IBM or other vendors.
IBM partnered with various clients in different industries in a special beta program. Jamie led a client panel to discuss their experiences with IBM Elastic Storage:
Alan Malek, Director of IT, Cypress Semiconductor.
"Total cycle time is key". Over the past 31 years, they bought whatever file storage was available. Now, with IBM Elastic Storage, the performance was very consistent for their engineering workloads with full load balancing.
Russell Schneider, Principal Storage Consultant, Jeskell.
Russell's company works with a lot of federal agencies, "Big Data has become Bigger Data". For example, research on Global Warming and Climate Change requires a large amount of storage across agencies.
In another example, when the tsunami hit Japan a few years ago, an agency here in the USA realized they had 14PB of data stored as a single copy in a data center at sea level less than a mile from the coast. They realized they needed to have a secondary copy, and an option to cache to a third location depending on regional disasters.
Matthew Richards, Products, OwnCloud.
For those not familiar with OwnCloud, it provides a Dropbox-like file sharing service, but in the Enterprise, with on-premise storage. It has been fully tested and certified with IBM Elastic Storage to provide a secure file sharing platform.
With IBM Elastic Storage, they were able to scale linearly up to 20,000 users, and are now testing 100,000 users. The need to have intelligent access to files at scale is what Matthew likes about IBM Elastic Storage.
Dr. Michael Factor, IBM Distinguished Engineer at IBM Research
Michael started out explaining there are three areas for storage: block, file and object. The fastest growing type of data is unstructured fixed content with associated metadata. This is ideal for object storage. Michael has been working with OpenStack Swift, an open source interface defined for object storage. He defined "storlets" as follows:
Storlets extend an object store by moving computation to the data -- filtering, transforming, analyzing -- instead of bringing data to the computation.
Storlets have been deployed on a variety of European Union research projects. For example, in partnership with Phillips, a pathology storlet can count the number of cancer cells in an image. By bringing the computation to the data, it eliminates having to transfer large amounts of data over the network.
Storlets can run on-premise and on IBM's SoftLayer IaaS cloud offering.
Bruce Hillsberg, IBM Director of Storage Systems at IBM Research
Bruce led another panel discussion, this time of IBM storage experts:
Vincent Hsu, IBM Fellow and CTO of Storage.
The problem is the isolation of data into "storage silos". Isolation causes problems in managing large amounts of data at scale, and costs more as storage is not fully utilized. IBM Elastic Storage brings everything together, eliminating storage silos.
IBM Elastic Storage can scan [10 billion files on a system in 43 minutes].
Dr. Michael Factor, IBM Research.
Michael explained how IBM works with clients all over the world to ensure that storage solutions meet client requirements. For example, storlets can be used to use rich metadata to manage photographs, and display them based on GPS satellite location, or other content that makes it easier to manage these images.
IBM Elastic Storage will support OpenStack Cinder and Swift interfaces. IBM is a platinum sponsor of OpenStack foundation, and is now its second most prolific contributor, with hundreds of full-time employees working on this.
Tom Clark, IBM Distinguished Engineer, Chief Architect, Storage Software, Cloud & Smarter Infrastructure.
Storage Management is a critical piece of Software Defined Storage. This is done in three ways:
The use of analytics to optimize the deployment of storage, based on workload requirements. Storage admins set policies, and then IBM Elastic Storage analytics gather metrics and then optimize data placement and movement based on these policies. IBM Elastic Storage has 70 percent lower TCO that competitive offerings.
The focus on backup services. Backups are not just for data protection, but rather can be used to duplicate or replicate data for testing, for training, and for other purposes. IBM Elastic Storage is fully supported by IBM Tivoli Storage Manager.
Being able to support Hybrid Cloud environments, where some data can be on-premise, and other data off-premise. Storage Management challenges will need to deal with this possibility. IBM Elastic Storage is well positioned for this.
Carl Kraenzel, IBM Distinguished Engineer, Director of Watson Cloud Technology and Support.
Watson is ground-breaking technology, and IBM Elastic Storage technology was at the heart of the Watson that was first introduced in 2011.
To consider IBM Elastic Storage based on lower-cost and higher-scalability is not the full picture. Rather, this is an important platform for Cognitive Computing, which we are just at the tip of the iceberg in exploring. IT systems need to be aware of the context of what we are doing.
While the Grand Challenge demonstration on Jeopardy! was exciting, it is time we stop playing games and apply IBM Elastic Storage to business, to help with health care and medical research, and other problems in society. IBM has already deployed this at Anderson Cancer Center and Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, for example.
Tom Rosamilia provided closing remarks. IBM Elastic Storage is not just for new workloads in Cloud, Analytics, Mobile and Social (CAMS) but also traditional workloads as well. IBM Elastic Storage provides "data democracy" and allows for "better rested storage administrators" that make fewer mistakes.
Tom opened the floor for questions from the audience:
Q1. Data integrity, not just security but also quality? IBM Elastic Storage has end-to-end data integrity checking built-in.
Q2. How does IT transition from full control to auto-pilot? IBM allows you to tap into existing storage. This is not rip-and-replace. With storage virtualization, IBM hides the complexity that normally requires full control over specific assets.
Q3. Storage admins would rather have a root canal without Novocaine than move their data. What is IBM doing to offer automation to help storage admins move to this new infrastructure? IBM storage virtualization breaks that hard link between applications and specific storage devices. IBM Elastic Storage eliminates application downtime previously associated with data movement.
Tom Rosamilia assured the audience that IBM is fully committed to its storage portfolio. IBM Elastic Storage is not just about the profoundness of what IBM announced today, but also where IBM is investing in the future of storage.
technorati tags: IBM, Fast Data Forum, #fastdata, Tom Rosamilia, STG, Jamie Thomas, Software Defined Storage, Software Defined Environment, Elastic Storage, Alan Malek, Cypress Semiconductor, Russell Schneider, Jeskell, Matthew Richards, OwnCloud, Michael Factor, storlets, Bruce Hillsberg, IBM Research, Anderson Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering, Tom Clark, Carl Kraenzel, Novocaine, data democracy
Modified by TonyPearson
March 31 is [World Backup Day]!
Recently, a client asked how to backup their IBM PureData System for Analytics devices. IBM had [acquired Netezza in November 2010], and later renamed their TwinFin devices as the IBM PureData for Analytics, powered by Netezza.
The [IBM PureData System for Analytics] is incredibly fast for performing deep, ad-hoc analytics. However, the people who use them are "data scientists", not backup experts.
Likewise, there are backup administrators who may not be familiar with the unique characteristics of this expert-integrated system to know what backup options are available.
As with the rest of the IBM PureSystems line, the IBM PureData System for Analytics (or, PDA for short) has a combination of servers, storage and switches inside.
In a full-frame PDA, there are two servers in Active/Passive mode, these coordinate activity to FPGA-based blade servers, which have parallel access to hundreds of disk drives, storing nearly 200 TB of compressed database data. A system can span up to four frames.
But what do you backup? And why? You don't need to worry about backing up the Linux operating system or NPS server code, that is considered firmware and if anything every got corrupted, IBM would help restore it for you. System-wide metadata, such as the host catalog and global users, groups, and permissions should be backed up periodically to protect against data corruption.
There are a number of reasons to backup your user databases:
- As part of firmware upgrade/downgrade
- To transfer data to another system
- Protect against hardware failure / disaster
- Protect against data corruption
The PDA has three backup formats. You can backup the entire user database in compressed format, backup individual tables in compressed format, or export to a text-format file.
Compressed format is faster, but can only be restored to the same PDA, or a PDA that has the same or higher level of NPS firmware. The text-format is slower, but can be used to restore to lower levels of NPS firmware, or to other database systems.
There are basically two methods to backup your PDA. The first is called the "Filesystem" method. Basically, you can attach an external storage device to the NPS server, and use the built-in command line interface (CLI) to store the backups onto its file system.
On NPS version 6, the nzhostbackup will backup the /nz/data directory which stores the system tables, database catalogs, configuration files, query plans, and cached executable code for the SPU blade servers.
(I have heard that the nzhostbackup will get deprecated in NPS version 7, but I only have access to version 6. As always, [RTFM] for your specific NPS code level.)
- nzbackup -users
The nzbackup with the users parameter will backup the global users, groups and permissions. This is included in the /nz/data backup contents from the nzhostbackup command, but you may want to backup and restore these separately.
- nzbackup -db
The nzbackup with the db parameter will backup a user database in compressed format. To backup individual tables, use the CREATE EXTERNAL TABLE command, which can create compressed or text-format exports.
You may find that your databases are so large, they will exceed the limits of the filesystem on the external storage device. For SAN or NAS deployments, I recommend the IBM Storwize V7000 Unified with IBM General Parallel File System (GPFS). However, if you are using something else, you may need to use the "nz_backup" scripts provided which split up the backup images into smaller pieces that most other filesystems can handle.
The PDA comes with 10GbE Ethernet ports that you can attach a NAS storage device over a Local Area Network (LAN), or add Fibre Channel Protocol (FCP) ports and connect over a Storage Area Network (SAN). To keep things simple, I will refer to whichever network you decide as the "Backup Network" in the drawings.
The second method for backup is called the "External Backup Software" method. As you have probably guessed, it involves sending the backups to a supported software product like IBM Tivoli Storage Manager (or, TSM for short).
In this case, the PDA acts as a client node, similar to a laptop, desktop, or application server with internal disk. Backup data is sent over the LAN to the designated TSM server, and the TSM server in turn writes over the SAN to its storage hierarchy of disk, virtual tape and/or physical tape resources.
Backups can be done by command "on demand", or automated on a schedule. For the /nz/data directory, direct the nzhostbackup command to send the backup copy to local disk, then use TSM's dsmc archive command to transfer this backup copy to the TSM server.
For nzbackup with the users or db parameters, you can send the data directly to the appropriate TSM server by specifying the connector and connectorArgs parameters.
To reduce traffic on the TSM Server, an intermediary "TSM Proxy Node" can be put in between. In this case, the PDA sends the backup to the Proxy Node, the Proxy Node uses a "LAN Free Storage Agent" to send the backups directly to the virtual tape and/or physical tape, and then notifies the TSM Server to updates its system catalog to record which tape holds these new backups.
Another configuration involves installing the TSM LAN Free storage agent directly on the PDA. While this will require FCP ports to be added and consume more CPU resources on the NPS server, it eliminates most of the LAN traffic, allowing the PDA to send its backups directly to virtual or physical tape.
To learn more about this, see my full presentation [Backup Options: IBM PureData System for Analytics, powered by Netezza] on the IBM Expert Network powered by SlideShare, or attend the upcoming [IBM Edge 2014] conference in Las Vegas, May 19-23. I will be there!
technorati tags: IBM, Netezza, PureData, PureData for Analytics, PDA, World Backup Day, Backup, NPS, nzhostbackup, nzbackup, expert-integrated, Tivoli, Tivoli Storage Manager, TSM, dsmc, #ibmedge, Slideshare