Demistifying zOS Include files
vpaprots 270000DK3T Comments (2) Visits (8899)
This is my first post on our C/C++ Cafe that has been long in coming.
If you are like me, then you are a new zOS programmer. The learning ride has been quite turbulent and there are ways to go yet. If you are a devoted programmer then you feel quiet excitement of your new program almost working, tempered by the chance of another large manual being 'thrown' at you. zOS is one of those products that has too much of a good thing, that is there is a LOT of documentation. This fact very quickly becomes an advantage as one gains more experience.
No matter what design patterns you use, almost as soon as you start writing code, you will need to include other files, be it either your own include files or third party libraries. For efficiency purposes, these files will in all likelihood reside in datasets. To make things more interesting, the documentation might instruct to use directory based (HFS) #include, confusing the new-comers as to where files reside.
I want to discuss two tasks that come up when dealing with include files:
If the compiler already found the include file (i.e. successful
compile) and you are interested where the file is located (i.e. which version of the library you are actually using), both -qlist and
-qsource produce an includes section.
#Will list all included files:The grep command might not return anything because of some zOS specific file translations, hence be careful:
xlc -qsource -c foo.c | sed -n '/I N C L U D E S/,/E N D O F I N C L U D E S/ p'
#Will list the path to NAME_OF_INCLUDE:
xlc -qlist -c foo.c | grep NAME_OF_INCLUDE
If you are using V1R11 compiler, there is a new feature, -qmakedep (on USS only) that will produce a list of all included files. It is much easier to remember then the sed command above. For example if you compiled:
# previus invocation: 'xlc -c foo.c'For previous releases of zOS compiler, have a look at the makedepend utility. It contains some other options that might be useful for include file debugging.
# Append -qmakedep
xlc -c foo.c -qmakedep
-qshowinc is another particularly useful option, if you already have the include files. It shows the the contents of the included files. It is similar to what PPONLY (-E equivalent) option does, except it outputs to the listing and does not strip preprosessor directives. However, be ready to pipe the output to other programs to filter out the thousands of lines of code produced. Most of the time I use less and its search features. sed and grep sometimes are also be useful.
If you are trying to include a file, and the compiler cannot find it, there is more research involved. In a general case, the include files can be found, top to bottom in these places:
SEARCH and LSEARCH both contain a list of directories and partial dataset qualifiers. The topic is discussed in detail in our Compiler User Guide in 'Chapter 7: Using include files'. I personally found the flowcharts in Chapter 7 and the Examples in the LSEARCH option explanation cleared up most of the most dataset questions that I had. It is worth noting for newcomers that terms 'z/OS Unix files' and 'HFS files' are equivalent and refer to directory based files (i.e. similar to organization Linux and Windows file systems) (as opposed to DATASETs that can be sequential or PDS in this discussion)
-qlist, -qsource options and -V and -v c89 and xlc flags provide a quick way to find out what the values of LSEARCH and SEARCH are.
As Visda has discussed before in her blog post, NOSEARCH() and NOLSEARCH() reset the respective option value back to empty.
Last topic I wanted to touch was preprocessor macros and what options are available when dealing with them.
Michael Wong has posted a way to find compiler predefined macros on AIX using the SHOWMACROS option. zOS unfortunately does not have this option till V1R11. The best equivalent is to use the makedepend utility -Wm,list option and then view depend.lst. It will contain a list of predefined compiler macros. However, makedepend utility is being deprecated since V1R11 in preference to built-in -qmakedep option.
Nevertheless most macros should be mentioned in the zOS manuals related feature sections. Here is a small list from the manual.
If you already have the macro name you wish to use, have a look at the -qEXPMAC option. This option will show you the value of the macro in the source listing. It is most useful when combined with -qshowinc.
I hope this gets you started on the right track.