- Example 1: Slow performance of database queries
- Example 2: Lock contention on the database
- Example 3: Read timeouts from network problems or slow database response
- Example 4: Package cache information and DB2 snapshots
- Example 5: DB2 in-memory monitoring
- Example 6: IBM Performance Analysis Suite
- Example 7: Instrumentation logs
- Downloadable resources
- Related topics
Solve IBM BPM performance issues with IBM DB2 examples
Learn common problem scenarios with IBM DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows
This content is part # of 3 in the series: IBM Business Process Manager database troubleshooting, Part 2
This content is part of the series:IBM Business Process Manager database troubleshooting, Part 2
Stay tuned for additional content in this series.
This series focuses on what you can learn from the BPMDB database
in IBM® Business Process Manager (BPM) to prevent problems and troubleshoot issues. The first two
parts of this series focus on IBM DB2. Part 1 describes tips for
database maintenance, statistics, and analysis for IBM DB2® for
Linux®, UNIX®, and Windows®. Now Part 2 shows seven examples of common troubleshooting scenarios
with IBM BPM and a
BPMDB database that uses IBM DB2 for
Linux, UNIX, and Windows. Part 3 focuses on tips for database maintenance, statistics, and
analysis for troubleshooting IBM BPM and a
BPMDB database that uses
In Part 1, you learned about database maintenance and statistics for IBM BPM and IBM DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, the number of process instances in the system, system tasks, the number of stored snapshots, JDBC driver versions, hardware and environment limitations and related performance testing, a detailed troubleshooting analysis, and a summary of data that is required to debug an issue with the BPMDB database. The database that stores the runtime data that is associated with business process definition (BPD) processing is named BPMDB by default. This series addresses the BPMDB database but does not address the CMNDB (messaging and BPEL processing) and PDWDB (Performance Data Warehouse) databases that also are part of IBM BPM.
With proper planning, it is possible to prevent issues that affect performance before they are reported by process participants and other end users. This Part 2 shows seven examples of some common cases so that you can prevent problems and troubleshoot issues with IBM BPM and a BPMDB database that uses IBM DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows. You can review examples of useful procedures for addressing commonly reported problems. In many situations, the steps in these examples are sufficient to gain sufficient insights into where problems are located and to actually solve the problems.
Example 1: Slow performance of database queries
Often when administrators find slow performance for database queries, they suspect that there is a delay on the database side. However, it's not always clear where the performance issues are coming from when you first investigate. Sometimes Process Portal users log in and the page does not build for a long time. Is this performance issue caused by a large number of entries in the database, a browser issue, a high load on the IBM BPM system, or something else?
If you think the problem might be related to the database, the best approach is to cover the IBM BPM and the database side. In the worst case, you might invest your time in collecting some data in vain. However, IBM teams that work with customers see scenarios where the focus was only on one side, and troubleshooting efforts went on for weeks. Based on this experience, it is worth your time to collect a larger amount of data so that you can find a quick resolution to your problem.
The following trace setting can help you find most of the problems between
the IBM BPM product and a database system:
If you already identified a slow-running query, you can run the
db2support command with the db2exfmt
option. As shown in the following example, you can run the
db2support command with the slow-running query as the
db2support output_directory -d database_name -sf sql_file -cl 1
-cl 1 enables collecting db2exfmt
information. See the Collecting Data for DB2 Compiler Issues support document.
The db2support command collects additional background information when the command is run, which can be very useful.
For example, from a db2exfmt output, you can see that a table scan was executed instead of an index access. Not every table scan is bad. If you require nearly all the data from a table, a table scan can be much more efficient than an index access. However, your approach depends on the scenario. In most cases with a well designed application, an index access is useful. The db2exfmt output example in Figure 1 shows the access path that the optimizer uses for a query to the LSW_BPD_INSTANCE_DATA table.
Figure 1. Example of db2exfmt output
If it is still unclear what is slowing down the system, consider using package cache or snapshot information to narrow down the problem to the IBM BPM product or the database system, which is described in following sections.
Consider additional warnings and considerations for working with indexes. IBM BPM includes several indexes. You might not see a benefit of a specific index included with the product, but you might not see the future scenarios where they are used. From a support perspective, all the indexes that are included with the product are expected to be in place. Deleting any of the default indexes results in performance issues, which cost an organization unnecessary time spent to realize that the indexes were removed, to get them back, and then to tune the system.
To improve the performance in a specific business case, it might be necessary to create more custom indexes. IBM BPM is used in several different scenarios, and an index that is introduced in one scenario might not apply in another. Therefore, it is up to organizations to determine what works best to apply on top of the product-shipped indexes. IBM cannot include all indexes for all situations, because although an index can improve read access, each additional index introduces an extra delay in updating entries.
To determine potentially missing indexes, use the DB2 Design Advisor (the
db2advis command), as shown in the following example.
The db2advis command can provide index recommendations.
-d), file with a SQL statement (
and a time limit (
-t) of 5 minutes are given in the example.
Be especially careful when you delete indexes. The db2advis
command focuses on the query that is provided as input. There
might be other queries used that show delays because indexes were dropped
because of recommendations from the db2advis command.
Before you delete an index, thoroughly check for those kinds of
The following example shows how to run the db2advis command for index recommendations:
db2advis -d BPMDB -i MySQLstatement.txt -t 5
It's important to understand that IBM BPM contains internal constructs like "select for update" to prevent any modifications on corresponding rows. In some cases, a long-running "select for update" is an indication that something in the process design is not working as expected. For example, you call an external service synchronously and this service has a long response time, which keeps the statement in place until the final commit can be run. In this situation, running the explain command on the database server does not find any further information, so check the IBM BPM trace for what was actually triggered.
Example 2: Lock contention on the database
A number of scenarios exist that can lead to a lock contention on the database system. To correlate the activities that are done on the IBM BPM system and the database server, you need to track both sides.
IBM DB2 provides the lock event monitor, which provides a good overview of what statements are involved with the lock contention. To ease the matching between IBM BPM and DB2, use the option with history and values so that the passed parameters are caught. How to set up the DB2 lock event monitor is described in the Lock events for DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, Part 3 developerWorks tutorial.
An example output is shown in Figure 2. The lock event monitor output example shows the lock holder and requester. Further details about the statements that ran are displayed below the output that is shown in Figure 2. In some situations, the involved statements can help you determine the root cause.
Figure 2. A lock event monitor output example
From the IBM BPM system side, a trace with the following settings can give insight into what operations are triggered:
With the IBM BPM product trace, you can associate the database operations to activities on the IBM BPM server. Because the focus is on the BPMDB database in IBM BPM, these examples do not go into details for BPEL applications. However, the following trace settings can be helpful when you look for lock contention for BPEL applications:
A common lock event monitor error scenario is a custom query that runs against the IBM BPM product database tables in the BPMDB database. Because the query is very complex, it blocks corresponding tables for a long time. This kind of query is not covered by the IBM BPM product tracing, but it shows up in the lock event monitor data collection. It is always good to see both sides of the equation.
Note that it is not supported and not recommended to run custom
queries against the IBM BPM product database tables, unless the IBM
support team requests it for diagnostic reasons. The example
statements that are provided as examples in this tutorial series are for
diagnostic purposes only. Use the examples to get a better understanding
of the data distribution. The example statements normally do not have a
significant impact on the system performance, but to prevent lock
contention, run the statements in an
isolation level (provide the
with UR parameter at the end of
uncommitted read reads entries that are not
yet committed, which has the following advantage: the statement does not
cause a lock on selected rows. Slight differences in the result set for
uncommitted rows that are later revoked are not relevant for
Example 3: Read timeouts from network problems or slow database response
When you connect an IBM BPM system to a database, normally a network also involved. Because the communication between IBM BPM and IBM DB2 support teams is typically close, considering both systems makes it easy to identify problems in the network layer. When structural barriers exist between departments, or a different database vendor is used, consider the following approach for identifying problems in the network layer.
Since anything might be a potential problem, tracking all sides is recommended, especially because problems can change over time and might not always have the same root cause. A network trace can help to identify if a request was sent out or received. Several products are useful tools for capturing and analyzing a network trace, including Wireshark.
Consider an example in Figure 3 where a network packet is sent out and the destination address was obfuscated for security purposes. A Wireshark trace can show if a packet was sent out or not. For a production system, the data volume can become significant, and corresponding filtering can help limit the qualifying data. You can filter on known issues that can be barriers to successfully completing database operations, for example, packet resubmissions.
It's important to be aware of the system topology because everything between the IBM BPM system and the database system is a potential root cause of performance issues. Three components that might be easily overlooked are firewalls, network switches, and antivirus software. Also, consider hardware problems like a defective network adapter or a broken cable.
Figure 3. Example of a Wireshark trace that shows a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) request sent
Example 4: Package cache information and DB2 snapshots
You can use the DB2 database package cache information to analyze performance problems and identify problematic statements without a major impact on the system. The developerworks article Mining your package cache for problem SQL in DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows by Ember Crooks provides some sample queries that can be used to identify bottlenecks.
For this tutorial, adjust the
master query #1 of the example
in the Ember Crooks' article slightly. With the
substr(SQL_TEXT,1,20) notation, only the first 20 characters
of the SQL statement are printed, which might not be enough for an IBM BPM
system, so replace the string with the
SQL_TEXT column name
This approach is critical in identifying the SQL statements that most often cause performance problems.
There is no major delay in the example that is shown in Figure 4 because the average execution time is less than 2 seconds. Of course, there is still some room for improvement. In most performance critical situations in the real world, the numbers are much larger.
Figure 4. Example output of package cache statement in the DB2 Control Center
An alternative to using the package cache is using DB2 snapshot information.
See the GET SNAPSHOT command topic in the IBM DB2 documentation on IBM Knowledge Center for details about DB2 snapshots.
You can use the following example steps for creating a database snapshot, which can be very useful for troubleshooting. Complete the following steps to collect a database snapshot to identify long running queries. It is essential that timing is enabled, which is the default.
- Enable the monitor switches and reset the monitor data with the
following DB2 commands:
db2 update monitor switches using timestamp on db2 update monitor switches using lock on db2 update monitor switches using bufferpool on db2 update monitor switches using sort on db2 update monitor switches using statement on db2 reset monitor all for DB BPMDB
- Let the problem that you are investigating occur. Normally this process completes over a few hours. The impact is not significant because there is not a large amount of data recorded.
- At the end of the problem recreation get the snapshot to a file by
running the following
db2 get snapshot for all on BPMDB > snapshot-for-all.txt
db2 "SELECT * FROM SYSIBMADM.TOP_DYNAMIC_SQL ORDER BY
AVERAGE_EXECUTION_TIME_S DESC FETCH FIRST 20 ROWS ONLY" > top20sqls.txt
- Turn off the monitor switches again with the following commands:
db2 update monitor switches using timestamp off db2 update monitor switches using lock off db2 update monitor switches using bufferpool off db2 update monitor switches using sort off db2 update monitor switches using statement off
The database snapshot information typically provides sufficient data to identify long running queries. Discuss further steps with the database administrator if there are any indications of delay for the database. In some cases, indexes can help. In other cases, it is also necessary to check data distribution or the query in question. For example, process participants in your IBM BPM application aren't able to watch 20 million data sets that are requested from a database, so it doesn't make sense to query that many data sets. If you modify the query, you can reduce the impact on the database system and on IBM BPM, which needs to process the data that is returned from the query.
The SYSIBMADM.TOP_DYNAMIC_SQL database administrator view was implicitly included in the snapshot collection example. There are many more views to help analyze problems. See Supported administrative SQL routines and views in the IBM DB2 documentation.
Example 5: DB2 in-memory monitoring
DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows V9.7 introduced a new in-memory monitoring concept to replace the traditional snapshot generation. Several configuration parameters affect the behavior. This tutorial provides a short overview of these features, but you can see more in the IBM DB2 documentation.
You can use the following two SQL statements for querying in-memory monitoring:
- db2 "call monreport.dbsummary(300)", which is a database summary for 300 seconds monitoring interval
- db2 "call monreport.pkgcache(30)", which is a query for all dynamic and static SQL statements that are updated in the last 30 minutes
Figure 5 shows a portion of the
dbsummary report for an idle
system. The example output is for the in-memory monitoring call for a
dbsummary of the last 300 seconds, extracted from the IO, the
buffer pool, and locking section only.
Figure 5. Example dbsummary report
An advantage is that you need to run only one command to get a complete overview on the system use of input and output, buffer pools, locking, and other parameters that are not shown in the example. Running the command is rather simple and is especially useful for several system problems, including limitations with database hardware or locking behavior.
Here's an example from the real world. IBM teams worked with an
organization that observed a problematic SQL statement that was easily
identified with the in-memory reporting and used up 60% of the complete
DB2 server CPU time during multiple executions:
select t0.USER_ID,t0.USER_NAME,t0.FULL_NAME,t0.PROVIDER from LSW_USR_XREF t0 where UPPER(USER_NAME) = UPPER(?)
The main problem for the query is the
UPPER() function, which
requires a table scan. In this specific case, it is possible to create a
generated column in the table that can be accessed by an index. (Note that
the database table cannot be accessed during this procedure.) To solve
that example problem, first back up the database and then run the
db2 "reorg table LSW_USR_XREF use tempspace1"
db2 "set integrity for LSW_USR_XREF OFF NO ACCESS CASCADE IMMEDIATE"
db2 "alter table LSW_USR_XREF add column USER_NAME_UP VARCHAR(256) generated always as (UPPER(USER_NAME)) NOT NULL"
db2 "set integrity for LSW_USR_XREF immediate checked FORCE GENERATED"
db2 "create index username_up_idx ON LSW_USR_XREF (USER_NAME_UP)"
After you run the commands, queries use an index scan instead of the table scan that was used in the previous example.
It is important to verify the changes. In some situations, you might need to run integrity checks on other tables so that the tables are not blocked, which would prevent SQL statements on the affected tables from running successfully.
See IBM BPM fixes for JR51631, which can reduce the number of executions for the query.
Example 6: IBM Performance Analysis Suite
The IBM Performance Analysis Suite tool can help you better understand database-related information about configuration and runtime data. Tools do not eliminate the need to understand the basis of performance troubleshooting, but they can help to more quickly see potential problem areas. There are several options to analyze database product settings. This tutorial focuses on two simple examples.
The following example uses a SQL statement to read package cache
information, querying package cache information for analysis with the IBM
Performance Analysis Suite:
select * from table(mon_get_pkg_cache_stmt('d',null,null,-2)) as t where t.num_exec_with_metrics <> 0
This output can be imported into the IBM Performance Analysis Suite and the output is shown in Figure 6. It shows the IBM Performance Analysis Suite window that is loaded with the output of the package cache statement. Critical values for the Average Index Logical Read are marked. These values are good indicators that an index is missing or poorly designed for how it is used.
The field of the rows read is marked in red for one of the captured statements. This marking makes it easy to see large result sets and then dig deeper for the reason. In some cases, large result sets are not required, but they occur because they are not explicitly considered. You can see that the execution time of this statement is also rather large compared to the typical queries in the IBM BPM context.
Figure 6. Example of output package cache statements in IBM Performance Analysis Suite
The next example shows how the IBM Performance Analysis Suite can connect to a database system and check corresponding settings (see Figure 7) and object information (see Figure 8). In the object information example, the statistics for LSW_SYSTEM_SCHEMA are not collected. Missing statistics are marked in red.
Figure 7. Connecting to a database system and checking the configuration in IBM Performance Analysis Suite
Figure 8. Connecting to a database system and reading table information in IBM Performance Analysis Suite
Example 7: Instrumentation logs
Instrumentation logs are another tool to help you troubleshoot performance issues. IBM Support document #1613989 describes how to use instrumentation logs.
The example in Figure 9 shows long running database queries that are visualized with the Instrumentation Log Report Tool for IBM BPM (IRLT) written by Andy Fedotov, which eases the interpretation of the instrumentation log data. Identifying specific statements might still require a trace. In the example output from the IRLT tool, you can see that several database requests use the most total time. It needs to be determined (for example, by a trace) why there are so many requests, or if the performance of specific statements can be improved.
Figure 9. Example output from the IRLT tool with sample data from this tutorial
You reviewed seven examples of troubleshooting the BPMDB database in IBM BPM. Nearly all of these examples can be used in other situations.
The statements in this series apply to all IBM BPM releases through IBM BPM V8.5.6, the current release at time of publishing. Future releases might require adjustments to the SQL statements, although no major changes are expected.
To learn about troubleshooting in environments with an Oracle database, see Part 3.
The authors want to thank Richard Metzger and Torsten Wilms for their review and suggestions for this tutorial. Any included error is the fault of the authors only.
The authors also acknowledge the work of Ember Crooks, who wrote Mining your package cache for problem SQL in DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, and Andy Fedotov who wrote the Instrumentation Log Report Tool for IBM BPM.
- Lock events for DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, Part 3: Use the lock event monitor in DB2 9.7 to solve concurrency issues
- Mining your package cache for problem SQL in DB2 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows
- DB2 Tuning Tips for OLTP Applications
- Influence query optimization with optimization profiles and statistical views in DB2 9
- Purging data in IBM Business Process Manager
- IBM Performance Analysis Suite (developerWorks community)
- 5 Things to Know About IBM BPM Performance Tuning (developerWorks blog)
- Collecting Data for DB2 Compiler Issues (IBM Support document)
- Reading and decoding instrumentation files for WebSphere Lombardi Edition (WLE), and IBM Business Process Manager (BPM) products (IBM Support document)
- Tuning connection pools (IBM WebSphere Application Server documentation on IBM Knowledge Center)
- Business Process Management Performance and Scalability: Best Practices and Lessons Learned (Impact 2014 presentation)
- ILRT - Instrumentation Log Report Tool for IBM BPM on GitHub (contributed by Andy Fedotov)
- BPM system performance evaluation basics (BP3 website)
- IBM Business Process Manager V8.5 Performance Tuning and Best Practices: An IBM Redbooks publication
- IBM Business Process Manager V8.0 Performance Tuning and Best Practices: An IBM Redbooks publication
- IBM Business Process Manager V7.5 Performance Tuning and Best Practices: An IBM Redbooks publication