IBM Application System/400 Advanced Portable Models

February 7, 1995
Announcement Number: 195-015


Document's Table of Contents:


Abstract

The new AS/400(R) Advanced Portable models provide AS/400 function with compact size and portability that allows for easy transportation of the system between work and other locations.

The new AS/400 Advanced Portable models are available in specially-priced packages. Each package is complete with hardware and selected software required by a majority of users. Two twinaxial packages are available, one for entry and one for growth. Entry and growth packages are also available as LAN-connected systems, either token ring or Ethernet. These packages are specially priced and enable easy ordering of the system.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable can be used for:

  • Development and testing of new applications
  • Training
  • Multiuser business applications
  • Remote, portable applications, such as kiosks
AS/400 software that currently operates on the IBM 9401, 9402, 9404, and 9406 also runs on the new AS/400 Advanced Portable models. This includes the more than 20,000 applications currently available for the AS/400 system.

The 840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit is a feature for the AS/400 Advanced Portable. It provides a lower-priced alternative and a convenient, smaller-sized tape cartridge than the traditional QIC devices.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable is approximately the size and weight of a fully-packed attache case, and is available with either a soft-sided or hard-sided carrying case. The soft-sided case holds the AS/400 Advanced Portable and a notebook computer, such as the ThinkPad(R). The hard-sided case, with the added benefit of wheels and a handle, may be checked as airline luggage. To meet the IBM protection standard for shipping, it is significantly larger than the soft-sided case.

AS/400 Advanced Portable is preloaded with Version 3 Release 1 (V3R1) of OS/400(R), Client Access/400, and Query/400.

Predefined Feature Packages:

                        Machine
                         Type/        Feature      Purchase
                         Model         Number       Price

T01 Package 9401/P03 0101 $ 7,100 T02 Package 9401/P03 0102 10,000 L01 Package 9401/P03 0103 7,100 L02 Package 9401/P03 0104 10,000

For ValuPak software prices, refer to Software Announcement 295-015, dated February 7, 1995.

Planned Availability Date: February 17, 1995

(R)   Registered trademark of International Business Machines
      Corporation
IN BRIEF . . .

+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                                                                   |
| o  Easy-to-order packaged offerings                               |
|                                                                   |
| o  Full OS/400 function                                           |
|                                                                   |
| o  Small, portable package                                        |
|                                                                   |
| o  A LAN-connected PC may be used as a system console             |
|                                                                   |
|    For availability dates, refer to Software Announcement         |
|    295-012, dated February 7, 1995.                               |
|                                                                   |
| o  Optional soft-sided or hard carrying cases                     |
|                                                                   |
| o  Token-Ring or Ethernet LAN packaged offerings                  |
|                                                                   |
| o  Preloaded with Version 3 Release 1 of OS/400, Client           |
|    Access/400 and Query/400.                                      |
|                                                                   |
+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
DESCRIPTION

AS/400 Function in a Compact Package

The AS/400 Advanced Portable provides full OS/400 function in a compact package and is designed to meet the needs of customers who require a single or multiuser system that is easily transportable and can also run a wide range of AS/400 applications.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable can also be used for development and testing of new applications, as well as training and customer support activities consistent with supporting multiple, remote or distributed systems. It is an ideal solution when portability outweighs the need for growth.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable's lightweight and compact carrying case allows it to be easily transported by car or airplane, thereby saving shipping costs and eliminating possible delivery delays. The AS/400 Advanced Portable is approximately the size and weight of a fully packed attache case. The optional soft-sided carrying case can hold both the AS/400 Advanced Portable and a notebook computer. A hard-sided carrying case, suitable for checking as luggage, is also available.

AS/400 ADVANCED PORTABLE PACKAGES

To simplify ordering, the AS/400 Advanced Portable is offered in predefined packages -- two twinaxial-based systems and two LAN-based systems.

Each package is a complete system, including preloaded software required by a majority of users (OS/400, CA/400, and Query/400). The package prices do not include the price of the software.

System capacities are indicated by the following table:

AS/400 Advanced Portable Packaged Offerings

.-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------. | Package |Entry |Growth | Entry |Growth | | Name |Twinaxial|Twinaxial| LAN | LAN | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| | Package | | | | | | Number | T01 | T02 | L01 | L02 | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| | Proc (RPR)| 2.5 | 3.3 | 2.5 | 3.3 | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| |Base Memory| 8MB | 8MB | 8MB | 8MB | | -Maximum | 24MB | 40MB | 24MB | 40MB | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| |Base DASD | 1.03GB | 1.96GB | 1.03GB | 1.96GB | | -Maximum | 2.99GB | 3.93GB | 2.99GB | 3.93GB | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| |Base Commn | 1 Line | 2 Lines |2 Lines*|2 Lines*| |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| | LAN | -- | -- | 1 | 1 | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| |Addr/Users | 7 | 14 | 16** | 16** | | |Twinaxial|Twinaxial| | | |-----------+---------+---------+--------+--------| |Power Cord | Will be provided based on country | |Specify | default | |-----------+-------------------------------------| | | |* On LAN packages one of the two communication | | lines must be used to provide system console | | support. The other line may be used for ECS | | or other communications. | | | |** Suggested number of LAN-attached users. | '-------------------------------------------------'

Optional Features
  • Memory -- 8 or 16MB increments on all packages
  • DASD -- 1.03 or 1.97GB increments on all packages (Note 1)
  • Tape recommended but not included in packages, select one:
    • 840MB QIC Mini (internal)
    • 840MB QIC Mini (external)
    • 3450 QIC (1.2GB) external
    • Refer to Note 1
  • Hard- or soft-sided carrying case
  • Transition Data Link
Note 1: If more than base DASD is configured, then the required tape device must be either the external QIC Mini feature tape or the external 3450 QIC tape device. Two DASD devices and internal QIC Mini tape are mutually exclusive.

Optional items may be added to the packages on the initial order or after installation.

Optional Devices

  • 3450 External QIC (1.2GB).
  • Battery backup is not part of the base unit and an uninterruptible power system (UPS) is recommended for production operations. Refer to the Device Support section for more information.
  • Displays and printers as listed in Device Support section.
Package conversions from T01 to T02 and from L01 to L02 are allowed. No other package conversions or model conversions are available.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable conforms to quiet-office acoustical environmental standards.

MODEL UPGRADES

The AS/400 Advanced Portable is not upgradeable to any other model of the AS/400. The 9401 Models P01 and P02 are not upgradeable to the new AS/400 Advanced Portable.

FEATURE DESCRIPTIONS

Main Storage Features

8MB Main Storage (#3117): This feature provides an additional 8MB of memory. It consists of two 4MB modules that plug into the base processor card on P03 models only.

16MB Main Storage (#3118): This feature provides an additional 16MB of memory. It consists of two 8MB modules that plug into the base processor card on P03 models only.

Disk and Tape Features

6606 -- Single Disk Unit (1.96GB): Additional 1.96GB Disk Unit.

6652 -- Single Disk Unit (1.03GB): Additional 1.03GB Disk Unit.

6335 External Conversion Kit (#1335): This conversion kit allows an internal QIC Mini tape drive (#6335) to be converted to be attached externally. When installed, the converted tape looks like the (#6365) external QIC Mini tape.

Maximum: One

840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit (#6335/#6365): The 840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit is a feature for the AS/400 Advanced Portable. It provides a lower-priced alternative and a convenient, smaller-sized tape cartridge than the traditional QIC devices. It can be used for save/restore, alternate IPL, software distribution, migration, and data interchange. Using the QIC-3040-MC recording format, tape cartridge capacity is 840MB. With hardware data compression, maximum tape cartridge capacity is up to 1.6GB. Sustained data transfer rate is 300KBps.

The QIC Mini Tape Unit may be internally installed with feature number 6335, or externally installed with feature number 6365 via a SCSI cable. Attachment of only one tape unit is allowed. OS/400 V3R1 is required. Attachment to AS/400 DXX, EXX, and FXX models is provided with RPQ 843859.

If the integrated tape option is chosen, one DASD slot is used thereby limiting the maximum DASD capacity to 2GB.

Maximum: One

Miscellaneous Features

Transition Data Link (#0059): The Transition Data Link (TDL) feature offers a twinaxial cable data path between IBM twinaxial systems, enabling easy migration of data from one system to another. The systems (an AS/400 and either an Advanced System/36(TM), a System/38(TM) or any other AS/400 with a twinaxial workstation controller) are connected via their respective local twinaxial workstation controllers. License programs 5727-MG1 for S/36 and 5714-MG1 for S/38 are required to drive the TDL. Software for AS/400 to AS/400 Data Transfer is automatically shipped as part of OS/400. The TDL provides for data send/receive functions between systems. Data is transferred at the system workstation controller data interchange speed.

Because this device requires a twinaxial workstation controller, it is available with the T01 and T02 packages only.

Maximum: One

Carrying Case -- Soft Cover (#0061): This feature is a soft-cover carrying case for use when hand carrying a 9401.

Carrying Case -- Hard Cover (#0062): This feature is a hard-cover carrying case for use when hand carrying a 9401. It provides more protection than feature number 0061 and should be used when checking the 9401 as luggage.

DEVICE SUPPORT

Tape Devices

3450 Model 001: The 3450 Model 001 is an external 1.2GB 1/4-inch tape drive that attaches to the AS/400 Advanced Portable via the base multifunction I/O processor and has an effective data rate of 300KB per second when operating using the QIC-1000 Data Cartridge media. It can be used for alternate IPL, save/restore, program interchange, and 1/4-inch cartridge tape interchange with other AS/400 systems. Full interchange of data is supported with all the standard and optional 1/4-inch cartridge tape units provided on the 9402, 9404, and 9406 system models. (The 3450 Model 001 is approved for operation in residential environments.)

To attach the AS/400 Advanced Portable to a 3450 Model 001 External 1/4-Inch Cartridge Tape Drive, the following cable attachment feature is required.

                                  Part                     Feature
Description                       Number                   Number

1.2 m System to Device Cable 21H0197 2856

Note: Cable features used with the 9401 Models P01 and P02 cannot be used with the AS/400 Advanced Portable.

7207 Model 012: Though the 7207 was supported on the 9401 Models P01 and P02, it is not recommended for use on the AS/400 Advanced Portable. Because this tape drive is an RS/6000(TM) product, there is built-in microcode that OS/400 may erase when doing an IPL. In some instances, it may be impossible to again update the microcode for RS/6000 compatibility. If you have previously IPLed the 7207 on a 9401 and do not anticipate a need for transferring use between the 9401 and RS/6000, you can continue to utilize the 7207 on the AS/400 Advanced Portable.

To attach the AS/400 Advanced Portable to a 7207 Model 12, the following cable attachment feature is required.

                                  Part                     Feature
Description                       Number                   Number

1.2 m System to Device Cable 21H0197 2856

Note: Cable features used with the 9401 Models P01 and P02 cannot be used with the AS/400 Advanced Portable models.

Remote Workstation Controllers

5251 Model 12: The 5251 Model 12 can be used to attach remote workstations. It is a workstation controller and communications unit for remote attachment of multiple display stations and printers. Client Access/400 access by personal computers, and Personal System/2s(R), attached to the 5251 Model 12 is not supported.

5394 Remote Control Unit: The 5394 Remote Control Unit attaches up to 16 5250 type displays, printers, personal computers, and Personal System/2s, and Personal System/55 (AP only) to an AS/400 via a communications link. The function provided will be similar to that provided to the local workstations via the 9172 or 9178 local twinaxial workstation controllers.

5494 Remote Control Unit: The 5494 Remote Control Unit manages the operation of workstations and workstation communications to the AS/400. The 5494-EXT replaces the 5494-001 and the 5494-002. The 5494 now has only one model to which features are added customizing the 5494 for operational needs.

The 5494-EXT supports the attachment of up to 28 twinaxial devices. With the 5494 Twinaxial Expansion Kit installed, up to 56 twinaxial devices can communicate to the AS/400 through a Type 2.1 connection.

By installing the 5494 Token-Ring Adapter, the 5494-EXT has all the functional capabilities of the withdrawn 5494-002. It can communicate with an AS/400 system over a token-ring network while supporting up to 28 twinaxial devices, or can support token-ring attached devices while communicating with an AS/400 over an SDLC, X.21, or X.25 connection. In this configuration, the 5494 supports up to 80 devices of which up to 28 could be twinaxial-attached and the rest token-ring attached.

The Ethernet adapter supports IEEE 802.2 logical link control and IEEE 802.3 or DIX Version 2.0 frame format using a 10BASE2 (BNC), a 10BASE5 (15-pin D-SUB), or a 10BASE-T (RJ-45) connector. The 5494 Ethernet AUI Cable allows the attachment to an Ethernet Network using thick coaxial (10BASE5) cabling. Ethernet support allows the 5494 to be used as a gateway to an Ethernet LAN or attach to an AS/400 system via an Ethernet network.

The 5494 Utility Program allows the selection of concurrent diagnostics, configuration information, or to reset and restart the 5494 Remote Control Unit from a remote programmable workstation (PWS). The PWS no longer needs to be directly attached to a 5494 to provide access to remote 5494s from a central site.

The 5494 Release 3.0 microcode supports all the functions of the 5494 Release 2.0 microcode and the following enhancements:

  • Support of OS/400 Version 3 Release 1.
  • Support for AS/400 automatic configuration of non-programmable workstations (NWS) and printers attached to the 5494. The 5494 Remote Control Unit description can also be created automatically. (This function requires OS/400 Version 3 Release 1 be installed on the AS/400.)
  • Attachment capability to a SNA subarea network.
Multiconnectors

5299 Multiconnector and TTPA Adapter: The 5299 Multiconnector and Twinaxial-to-Telephone Twisted Pair Adapter (TTPA) may be used with appropriate telephone wiring.

Workstation Support

Twinaxial Displays: The following displays are supported by the Twinaxial Workstation Controller (9172 and 9178):

  • 3179 -- 2
  • 3180 -- 2
  • 3196
  • 3197
  • 3476
  • 3477
  • 3486
  • 3487
  • 3488
  • 3489
  • 5251 -- 011, 999
  • 5291
  • 5292 -- 1, 2
6250 X Terminal Family: The 6250 X Terminal offers high-performance, LAN-attached X terminals that provide a low-cost, desk-top platform for connectivity to the AS/400 and UNIX-based host platforms (such as the RISC System/6000(R)). The 6250 X Terminal supports multiple 5250 emulation sessions to one or more AS/400s using an X Windows interface. The X terminal can also access UNIX host applications using either the memory-efficient 6250 Window manager or the industry standard Motif Window Manager. Either window manager provides a superb graphics platform for applications in the X Window environment.

The 6250 X Terminal Family includes four models; color and monochrome Ethernet models, and color and monochrome token-ring models. They come with a base of 4MB of memory, expandable to 20MB or 16MB, depending on the model. The displays have a resolution of 1024 x 768 and the color models support 256 colors.

The 6250 X Terminal requires one AS/400 on the LAN to have the 6250 X Terminal Program for OS/400 (PRPQ 5799-QGP) installed. The X terminal down loads the X Window environment from the AS/400 and then can communicate with other hosts on the LAN.

The X terminals include an integrated, swivel display, keyboard, three-button mouse, and license to use the 6250 program. The X terminals have an easy-to-use setup menu for initial configuration and standard LAN connectors for the most popular Ethernet or token-ring connections.

Refer to Hardware Announcement 194-337, dated October 4, 1994, for planned availability and additional information.

Personal System/2 Support: The AS/400 supports the Personal System/2 models and the Personal Typing System. For information regarding attachment of specific Personal System/2 models, refer to the model Sales Manual description under "List of Supported Products" for AS/400 attachment hardware and under "IBM Software Compatibility" for supported AS/400 software.

The personal computer and the Personal System/2, when attached to the Twinaxial Workstation Controller, are supported for use as a system console and specific personal computer printers are supported as system printers.

Printer Support

Twinaxial Printers: The following printers are supported by the Twinaxial Workstation Controller. Those which are DBCS (Double-Byte Character Set) font capable are listed in the subsequent section.

Laser Printers (Includes all electrophotographic print technologies):

Device              Maximum
Type      Model     Speed     Datastream     Forms

3812 001* 12 ppm SCS, IPDS(TM) Cut 002* 12 ppm SCS, IPDS Cut 3816 01S* 16 ppm SCS, IPDS Cut 01D* 16 ppm SCS, IPDS Cut 3912 AS0 12 ppm SCS Cut AS1 12 ppm SCS, IPDS Cut 3916 AS0 16 ppm SCS Cut AS1 16 ppm SCS, IPDS Cut 3930 02S 30 ppm IPDS Cut 02D 30 ppm IPDS Cut 3935 001 35 ppm IPDS Cut 4028 AS1 10 ppm IPDS Cut

* Withdrawn from marketing
Impact Printers

Device Maximum Type Model Speed Datastream Forms

4210 001* 200 cps SCS Cont 4214 002* 200 cps SCS Cont 4224 101 200 cps IPDS Cont 102 400 cps IPDS Cont 1C2 400 cps IPDS Cont 1E2 400 cps IPDS Cont 1E3 600 cps IPDS Cont 4230 101 375 cps SCS Cont/Cut 1S2 480 cps SCS Cont/Cut 4S3 600 cps SCS Cont/Cut 1I1 375 cps IPDS Cont/Cut 102 480 cps IPDS Cont/Cut 4I3 600 cps IPDS Cont/Cut 4234 002* 410 lpm SCS Cont 008* 410 lpm IPDS Cont 012* 800 lpm IPDS Cont 4245 T12* 1200 lpm SCS Cont T20* 2000 lpm SCS Cont 5219 D01* 40 cps SCS Cont/Cut D02* 60 cps SCS Cont/Cut 5224 001* 140 lpm SCS Cont 002* 240 lpm SCS Cont 5225 001* 280 lpm SCS Cont 002* 400 lpm SCS Cont 003* 490 lpm SCS Cont 004* 560 lpm SCS Cont 5256 001* 40 cps SCS Cont 002* 80 cps SCS Cont 003* 120 cps SCS Cont 5262 001* 650 lpm SCS Cont 6252 T08 800 lpm SCS Cont T12 1200 lpm SCS Cont 6262 T12* 1200 lpm SCS Cont T14* 1400 lpm SCS Cont T22 2200 lpm SCS Cont 6408 CT0 800 lpm SCS Cont CTA 800 lpm SCS, IPDS Cont 6412 CT0 1200 lpm SCS Cont CTA 1200 lpm SCS, IPDS Cont

* Withdrawn from marketing

Key to abbreviations:

  • Maximum Speed
    • cps (characters per second)
    • lpm (lines per minute)
    • ppm (pages per minute)
  • Datastream
    • SCS (SNA Character Set)
    • IPDS (Intelligent Printer Data Stream(TM))
  • Forms
    • Cut (Cut-sheet forms)
    • Cont (Continuous forms)
DBCS Printers: The following printers support DBCS (Double-Byte Character Set) fonts:

Twinaxial Attached

  • 3930 -- 02S, 02D (DBCS option required)
Personal Printers: The following personal printers are supported by the attachments indicated in the following table. Refer to Attaching IBM Personal Printers to IBM Systems (S544-4209) for attachment information. Also refer to the specific emulator product documentation for attachment information.
                    Device
Printer             Type    Model  Attachment Keys

Personal Series II/Plus 2380 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Personal Series II/Plus 2381 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Personal Series II/Plus 2390 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Personal Series II/Plus 2391 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 3812 PagePrinter 3812 1 2 3 6 7 12 3812 PagePrinter 3812 2 2 3 6 7 12 3816 Page Printer 3816 01S 2 3 3816 Page Printer 3816 01D 2 3 3912 PagePrinter 3912 AS0 2 3 7 12 3912 PagePrinter 3912 AS1 2 3 7 12 3916 Page Printer 3916 AS0 2 3 7 12 3916 Page Printer 3916 AS1 2 3 7 12 3930 Printer 3930 03S 2 3 12 3930 Printer 3930 03D 2 3 12 LaserPrinter 4019 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 LaserPrinter E 4019 E01 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 LaserPrinter 5E 4029 10 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 LaserPrinter 6 4029 20 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 LaserPrinter 10 4029 30 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 LaserPrinter 10E 4029 40 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 4037 5E Printer 4037 -- 2 3 4 7 10 11 12 LaserPrinter 4039 10R 2 3 4 7 12 LaserPrinter 4039 12R 2 3 4 7 12 LaserPrinter 4039 12L 2 3 4 7 12 LaserPrinter 4039 16L 2 3 4 7 12 4070 Printer 4070 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 ExecJet(R) 4072 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 ExecJet II 4076 -- 2 3 4 7 10 11 12 Proprinter(R) 4201 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter II 4201 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter III 4201 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter XL 4202 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter II XL 4202 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter III XL 4202 3 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter X24 4207 1 2 3 6 7 8 12 Proprinter X24E 4207 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter XL24 4208 1 2 3 6 7 8 12 Proprinter XL24E 4208 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Proprinter 24P 4212 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Personal PagePrinter 4216 10 2 3 4 5 6 12 4224 Printer 4224 301 12 4224 Printer 4224 302 12 4224 Printer 4224 3E3 12 4226 Printer 4226 302 2 3 4 5 6 7 12 4230 Printer 4232 4S3 2 3 4 5 12 4230 Printer 4232 4I3 2 3 4 5 12 4232 Printer 4232 302 2 3 4 5 12 4234 Printer 4234 9 12 4234 Printer 4234 13 12 4770 Ink Jet Printer 4770 -- 12 Quietwriter(R) 5201 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Quietwriter 5201 2 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Quietwriter III 5202 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Quickwriter(R) 5204 -- 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 12 Impactwriter(R) 6252 AS8 12 Impactwriter 6252 AS2 12 6408 Printer 6408 A00 2 3 12 6408 Printer 6408 CTA 2 3 12 6412 Printer 6412 A00 2 3 12 6412 Printer 6412 CTA 2 3 12

Non-IBM Personal Printers: The following non-IBM personal printers are supported by the attachments indicated in the following table. Refer to Attaching IBM Personal Printers to IBM Systems (S544-4209) for attachment information. Also refer to the specific emulator product documentation for attachment information.
                                             Attachment
Printer                                      Keys

COMPAQ PageMark 15 2 12 COMPAQ PageMark 20 2 12 HP DeskJet 500 2 12 HP DeskJet 520 12 HP DeskJet 550C 2 12 HP DeskJet 560C 12 HP LaserJet Series II 2 12 HP LaserJet IID 2 12 HP LaserJet IIP 2 12 HP LaserJet III 2 12 HP LaserJet IIID 2 12 HP LaserJet IIIP 2 12 HP LaserJet IIISi 2 12 HP LaserJet 4 12 HP PaintJet 12 HP PaintJet XL 12 HP PaintJet XL300 12 Epson ActionPrinter 2250 2 12 Epson ActionPrinter 3250 2 12 Epson ActionPrinter 5000 2 12 Epson ActionPrinter 5500 2 12 Epson DFX-5000 2 12 Epson DFX-8000 2 12 Epson EPL-7000 2 12 Epson EPL-8000 2 12 Epson FX-850 2 12 Epson FX-870 2 12 Epson FX-1170 2 12 Epson LQ-510 2 12 Epson LQ-570 2 12 Epson LQ-860 2 12 Epson LQ-870 2 12 Epson LQ-1070 2 12 Epson LQ-1170 2 12 Epson LQ-2550 2 12 Epson LX-810 2 12 Epson SQ-870 2 12 Epson SQ-1170 2 12 NEC P2 Pinwriter 2 12 NEC P2200 Pinwriter 2 12 NEC P2200 XE Pinwriter 2 12 NEC P5200 Pinwriter 2 12 NEC P5300 Pinwriter 2 12 NEC P6200 Pinwriter 2 12 NEC P6300 Pinwriter 2 12 Okidata Microline 184 Turbo 2 12 Okidata Microline 320 2 12 Okidata Microline 321 2 12 Okidata Microline 390 Plus 2 12 Okidata Microline 391 Plus 2 12 Okidata Microline 393 Plus 2 12 Okidata Microline 590 2 12 Okidata Microline 591 2 12 Okidata OL400 LED Page Printer 2 12 Okidata OL800 LED Page Printer 2 12 Okidata OL810 LED Page Printer 2 12 Okidata OL820 LED Page Printer 2 12 Okidata Pacemark 3410 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1123 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1124 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1124i 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1180 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1180i 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1191 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1624 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1654 2 12 Panasonic KX-P1695 2 12 Panasonic KX-P2123 2 12 Panasonic KX-P2124 2 12 Panasonic KX-P2180 2 12 Panasonic KX-P2624 2 12 Panasonic KX-P4410 2 12 Panasonic KX-P4420 2 12 Panasonic KX-P4430 2 12 Panasonic KX-P4450i 2 12 Panasonic KX-P4451 2 12 Xerox 4215/MRP 12 Xerox 4219/MRP 12 Xerox 4220/MRP 12 Xerox 4235 Laser Printer 12 Xerox 4700 II Color Document Printer 12

IBM and Non-IBM personal printer attachment keys:
  1. Attachment via the AS/400 ASCII Workstation Controller
  2. Attachment via a PC or PS/2(R) utilizing AS/400 PC Support Workstation Function (DOS)
  3. Attachment via a PC or PS/2 utilizing OS/2(R) Extended Edition Version 1.3, or later
  4. Attachment via the 3477 InfoWindow(R) Display or 3486/3487/3488 InfoWindow II Displays
  5. Attachment via the 3197 Display Station
  6. Attachment via a PS/2 utilizing the S/36/38 Workstation Emulation Program
  7. Attachment via a PC or PS/2 utilizing the Enhanced 5250 Emulation Program
  8. Attachment via a PC or PS/2 utilizing the Remote 5250 Emulation Program
  9. Attachment via the 5208 Model 1 ASCII-5250 Link Protocol Converter
  10. Attachment via RUMBA/400**
  11. Attachment via OS/2 Communications Manager/2
  12. Attachment via OS/400 Host Print Transform function
LAN-attached ASCII Printers: IBM and non-IBM ASCII printers can be attached directly to the AS/400 via a LAN connection using the 4033 LAN connection product. Ethernet and token-ring connections are supported. The ASCII printers that are supported through this attachment method are the same printers supported using the OS/400 Host Print Transform function. Refer to the previous charts for a list of IBM and non-IBM ASCII printers supported with the Host Print Transform function.

The 4039 LaserPrinter can also be attached directly to the AS/400 via a LAN network connection using the 4039 integrated network adapter option.

LAN-attached IPDS Printers: The following Advanced Function Print (AFP(TM))-capable page printers are supported on token ring and SDLC as specified. The Print Services Facility(TM)/400 (PSF(TM)/400) feature of OS/400 Version 3 Release 1 is required for the attachment of these printers.

Device
Type           Model     Speed     Attachment

3935 1 35PPM Token ring, SDLC

The following page printers are supported on token ring (using Remote Print Manager or PSF/2 Version 1.10, or later) and SDLC as specified:
Device
Type           Model     Speed     Attachment

3820 1* 20PPM Token ring, SDLC 3825 1 58PPM Token ring 3827 1 92PPM Token ring 3828 1 92PPM Token ring 3829 1 91PPM Token ring 3835 1 88PPM Token ring 3835 2 91PPM Token ring 3900 1 229PPM Token ring 3900 DUP 300PPM Token ring

* Withdrawn from marketing

Ordering Information: The following products are required for printer attachment using Remote Print Manager or PSF/2 Version 1.1, or later.

Hardware:

  1. PS/2 or PC AT Personal System/2* Model 30-021 or Model 30-E21
    • Memory: 640KB
    • Storage: 20MB Fixed Disk
    • Diskette Drive: One double-sided, 3.5-inch 720KB
    • Keyboard: Enhanced Personal Computer Keyboard
    • Display: Monochrome or color display (80-column)
    or Personal Computer AT
    • Memory: 640KB
    • Storage: 20MB Fixed Disk
    • Diskette Drive: One high-density, 5 1/4-inch 1.2MB
    • Keyboard: Either an Enhanced Personal Computer Keyboard or a Personal Computer AT Keyboard
    • Display: Monochrome or color display (80-column)
  2. 4Mbps Token-Ring Network Subsystem Feature or IBM 16/4Mbps Token-Ring Network Subsystem Feature
  3. 8228 Multistation Access Unit
  4. Token-Ring PC Cable (#3390 for machine 8530)
  5. Token-Ring PC Network Adapter II (#9858 for machine 8530)
  6. S/370(TM) Channel Emulator Card and Cable (#3200 for machine 8530)
  7. S/370 Channel Terminators: Bus, P/N 2282675; Tag, P/N 2282676
  8. The 3820 Printer requires the 3820 S/370 Interface Attachment (3055)
Software:
  1. DOS 3.3, or later
  2. Personal Computer APPC/PC Version 1.11 (Program 75X1047), with most current PTFs applied, or later releases
  3. Token-Ring Network PC Adapter Support Interface (provided on the Network PC Adapter II card), or Local Area Network Support Program Version 1.1 (93X5683)
  4. Remote PrintManager(TM) Version 2.0.3 (25F5944)
Miscellaneous Devices

5259 Migration Data Link: The 5259 Migration Data Link is a stand-alone device that offers a cabled data path between the System/36(TM) or System/38 and the AS/400 system. Systems are connected through their respective workstation controllers.

The Migration Data Link, together with programming support provided by the AS/400 System/36 Migration Aid (5727-MG1), or the AS/400 System/38 Migration Aid (5714-MG1), and the Operating System/400(R) Version 3 Release 0.5, or later, provides for data send/receive functions between systems. In addition, the Migration Data Link provides access between systems by providing hot key availability from up to seven workstations per Migration Data Link.

8228 Multi-Station Access Unit: The 8228 Multi-Station Access Unit, or equivalent, may be required to attach the AS/400 Advanced Portable to your token-ring network. The 8228 is a compact device that can be mounted in a standard 19-inch wiring closet rack, or placed wherever you have space. It provides for attachment of up to eight devices to your LAN, and can be used in multiples to accommodate all your devices. The 8228 is designed for smaller token-ring LANs and does not support network management programs and alerts.

9910 Uninterruptible Power Systems: This uninterruptible power system (UPS) significantly improves system uptime by minimizing the impact from power fluctuations and outages. The UPS will protect both the hardware and software assets and provide power for a limited period of time, when required. If the power outage continues, the UPS notifies the AS/400 to start a controlled shutdown that helps save the customer's data. The AS/400 Advanced Portable does not contain an internal battery backup unit (BBU) and therefore an external UPS is recommended. The UPS has roughly the equivalent cost of a BBU while providing additional function.

The UPSs offered are manufactured by Best Power Technology, Inc., and Exide Electronics, Inc., and offer a two- or five-year warranty (UPS and battery), dependent on the model and manufacturer.

The following UPSs are available with the AS/400 Advanced Portable:

Models 9910-B08, 9910-EP0, and 9910-B03.

The 9910-B08 is the recommended or default UPS model. For additional information on these UPSs, refer to Hardware Announcements: 194-112, dated May 3, 1994, for Model 9910-B08; 194-316, dated October 4, 1994, for Model 9910-EP0; and Hardware Announcement 195-016, dated February 7, 1995, for Model 9910-B03.

External Devices Not Supported by the AS/400 Advanced Portable:

  • 1255 MICR
  • 3203 Printer
  • 3262 Printer
  • 3370 DASD
  • 3410/3411 Tape Units
  • 4245 -- 012, 020 (Note)
  • 5211 Printer
  • 5224-012 Printer (Japan only)
  • 5225-011, 012 Printer (Japan only)
  • 5251-001, 002 Display
  • 5251-012 Display/WS Controller (AS/400 Office and PC support only)
  • 5252 Display
  • 5255 Display (Japan only)
  • 5424 MFCU
  • 6157 Cartridge Tape Unit
  • 62PC Disk Drive
  • 6580 Displaywriter as a printer device
  • 6670 Document Processor
  • 8809 Tape Drive
  • Digital Data Service Adapter (DDSA)
  • Diskette Magazine Unit
  • Initial 5250 Emulation Adapter for Personal Computer (6072534)
Note: RPQs are available to convert Models 012 and 020 to Models T12 and T20, which are supported by 9402.

PRODUCT POSITIONING

The AS/400 Advanced Portable gives customers the advantage of AS/400 technology without the size and weight of other AS/400 Advanced Series models. The AS/400 Advanced Portable is capable of running all AS/400 application software.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable is targeted as a system for users requiring a limited number of users, attached via either LAN or twinaxial connections. Twinaxial and LAN connections are mutually exclusive. The new system can be used for development, testing, demonstrations, kiosks, and where its small size, low price, and portability are more important than the ability to upgrade and expand the system.

Other AS/400 Advanced Systems should be considered if the limited number of users allowed on the AS/400 Advanced Portable is insufficient, if growth of the system is expected, or when portability of the system is not important.

PUBLICATIONS

The following publications are supplied with AS/400 Advanced Portable models:

                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

AS/400 Problem Analysis SY44-3961 AS/400 Repair and Parts SY44-3962 AS/400 Safety Inspection SY44-3963 AS/400 9401 Customer Install SA41-3141

OS/400 Version 3 Release 1

With OS/400 Version 3 Release 1, softcopy publications are shipped on machine-readable tape media. These softcopy manuals can be displayed, read and searched using the new InfoSeeker program that is shipped at no charge with OS/400 Version 3 Release 1. They can also be read with the Library Readers or the Book Manager READ family of licensed programs.

The following publications are available in hardcopy and will be supplied automatically with OS/400:

                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

Publications Ordering SC41-3000 InfoSeeker -- Getting Started SC41-3001 Software Installation SC41-3120 Local Device Configuration SC41-3121 Getting Started with AS/400 SC41-3204 System Startup and Problem Handling SC41-3206 Backup and Recovery -- Basic SC41-3304 Software Installation -- Automatic SX41-3128

Client Access/400

A basic set of hardcopy manuals is available for each Client Access/400 product (DOS, Windows, OS/2).

The following base set of hardcopy manuals and softcopy publication features can be ordered with the initial order. The default for the publication features is to not ship any publications. You must select each feature you plan to use.

Client Access/400 hardcopy publications (choose one feature at no charge):

                                                  Feature
Title                                             Number*

Client Access/400 for DOS with Extended Memory 7573 Client Access/400 for OS/2 7574 Client Access/400 for DOS 7575 Client Access/400 for Windows 3.1 7576 Client Access/400 Optimized for OS/2 7583

* See below for detail of publications included in each feature.
DOS with Extended Memory -- Publications Feature 7573:

Order Title Number

Client Access/400 Setup for DOS with Extended Memory SC41-3500 Client Access/400 User's Guide for DOS with Extended Memory SC41-3501 Client Access/400 Setup for DOS with Extended Memory (DBCS) SC41-3502 Client Access/400 User's Guide for DOS with Extended Memory (DBCS) SC41-3503 Client Access/400 Getting Started for DOS with Extended Memory SC41-3504 Client Access/400 Quick Installation for DOS SX41-3505

OS/2 -- Publications Feature 7574:
                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

Client Access/400 Setup for OS/2 SC41-3520 Client Access/400 User's Guide for OS/2 SC41-3521 Client Access/400 Setup for OS/2 (DBCS) SC41-3522 Client Access/400 User's Guide for OS/2 (DBCS) SC41-3523

DOS -- Publications Feature 7575:
                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

Client Access/400 Setup for DOS SC41-3556 Client Access/400 User's Guide for DOS SC41-3557 Client Access/400 Setup for DOS (DBCS) SC41-3558 Client Access/400 User's Guide for DOS (DBCS) SC41-3559

Windows 3.1 -- Publications Feature 7576:
                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

Client Access/400 Getting Started for Windows 3.1 SC41-3530 Client Access/400 Setup for Windows 3.1 PC 5250 SC41-3552

Optimized for OS/2 -- Publications Feature 7583:
                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

Client Access/400 Optimized for OS/2 Getting Started SC41-3510 Client Access/400 Optimized for OS/2 PC 5250 Setup SC41-3555

Client Access/400 Publications Available for Purchase:
                                                  Order
Title                                             Number

Client Access/400 API Reference for DOS, OS/2 SC41-3562 Client Access/400 Technical Reference for DOS, OS/2 SC41-3563 Client Access/400 RUMBA/400 Tools SC41-3551 Client Access/400 API Reference for Windows 3.1 SC41-3531 Client Access/400 PC 5250 Reference Guide SC41-3553 Client Access/400 PC 5250 Programmer's Guide SC41-3554 Ultimedia(R) Facilities Installation and Administration SC41-3540 Ultimedia System Facilities User's Guide SC41-3541 Ultimedia System Facilities Programming SC41-3652 Graphical Operations Setup SC41-3122 Graphical Operations Getting Started SC41-3202

Other hardcopy publications are available for a fee. They can be ordered from your IBM representative, through the System Library Subscription Service (SLSS), or by calling IBM Direct at 800-IBM-CALL (426-2255). Publications are subject to change.

TECHNICAL INFORMATION

Specified Operating Environment

Physical Specifications:

  • Weight: 10 Kg (22 lbs maximum configuration)
  • Height: 32 cm (13 inches)
  • Depth: 40 cm (16 inches)
  • Width: 10.5 cm (4 inches, excluding pedestal)
  • Width: 16.5 cm (6.5 inches, including pedestal)
Operating Environment:
  • Temperature: 10(degs) C to 38(degs) C (50(degs)F to 100(degs) F)
  • Relative Humidity: 8% to 80%*
  • Max Wet Bulb: 23(degs) C (73.4(degs) F)
       *     The 3450 Model 001 tape drive and the new QIC Mini Tape
             cartridge have a relative humidity range of 20 to 80%.
    
  • Acoustics: AS/400 Advanced Portable system units are acoustically designed for use in "quiet office" areas such as private offices, libraries, classrooms, and conference and meeting rooms. The AS/400 Advanced Portable should always be used with a grounded AC outlet. It is the customer's responsibility to ensure a properly grounded outlet is available.
  • Voltage: The 9401 Unit can operate at either of two nominal voltage ranges: 100-127 V AC or 200-240 V AC. The appropriate system power cord will be supplied automatically based on the three-digit country code.
The AS/400 Advanced Portable Models must be in a vertical position to operate properly.

The operation and reliability of the AS/400 Advanced Portable Models can be adversely affected by exposure to extreme temperature conditions, such as those that might develop within an automobile.

The following table can be used for acclimation times if the system has been in a hot environment, in the soft-sided case, for an extended period of time.

       .--------------------+-------------------.
       |      Temperature   | Acclimation Time  |
       |(in soft-sided case)|                   |
       |--------------------+-------------------|
       |        104 F       |   0.25 hours      |
       |        (40 C)      |                   |
       |--------------------+-------------------|
       |         122 F      |   1.5 hours       |
       |         (50 C)     |                   |
       |--------------------+-------------------|
       |         140 F      |   2.5 hours       |
       |         (60 C)     |                   |
       '--------------------+-------------------'
"Temperature" is the temperature that the machine is allowed to heat up to. "Acclimation Time" is the time required for the system to reach a point below the allowable maximum operating temperature. Since condensation is not a concern, when bringing a hot system into a cooler environment, the carrying case should be removed.

In addition, if the machine is moved between places with very different temperature and humidity levels, condensation can build up and damage the equipment. When traveling, allow sufficient time for the equipment to adjust to environmental changes before unpacking or connecting AC power.

The approximate acclimation times for a cold AS/400 Advanced Portable Model in the carrying case are:

       .------------------+----------------------.
       |    Temperature   |   Acclimation Time   |
       |                  |(in soft-sided case)  |
       |------------------+----------------------|
       |      10 C        |     0 hours          |
       |      (50 F)      |                      |
       |------------------+----------------------|
       |       0 C        |     2.5 hours        |
       |      (32 F)      |                      |
       |------------------+----------------------|
       |      -10 C       |     3.5 hours        |
       |       (14 F)     |                      |
       |------------------+----------------------|
       |      -30 C       |     5.5 hours        |
       |     (-22 F)      |                      |
       '------------------+----------------------'
"Temperature" is the temperature that the machine is allowed to cool down to before bringing it indoors. "Acclimation Time" is the time required for the machine's temperature to rise above the room dew point temperature in a room at 68 degrees Fahrenheit and 40-45% relative humidity. (The machine will not actually be at room temperature, but will be warm enough that condensation will not occur.) The machine should be left in the carrying case during this time.

For rooms with higher then 68 degrees Fahrenheit, dew point temperatures, a combination of temperature and relative humidity that yields higher levels of airborne moisture, the acclimation times will need to increase.

Failure to permit sufficient time for the AS/400 Advanced Portable Models to acclimate itself, per the previous tables, constitutes system misuse and will void the warranty.

If other than the default option of 120-volt power cord is required, specify 2961 for the 240-volt power cord.

Hardware Requirements: To maintain the system unit, a system configuration is needed that consists of the AS/400 Advanced Portable system unit and a system console. The system console may include any supported display,

Note: The PCMCIA adapter (92G5360) is not included.

In order to support the system console requirement for purposes of service on portable or personal computers, a terminal emulator program is required (for example, DP5250). Client Access/400 provides this function. The console should be located within six meters (20 feet) of the system control panel, which must be readable from the console. Although required, the system console is not a component of the base system unit.

A printer is not required for service, however, IBM's ability to diagnose the system is greatly enhanced when a printer is available.

The AS/400 Advanced Portable model requires a 3450 Model 001 or QIC Mini Tape Unit for removable media functions and when an alternate IPL device is required.

Software Requirements: The AS/400 Advanced Portable is designed to operate with OS/400 Version 3 Release 1.

Limitations: The AS/400 Advanced Portable is not upgradeable to any other AS/400 model, nor are the 9401 P01 or the P02 upgradeable to the AS/400 Advanced Portable.

Note: Though the 7207-012 was supported on the 9401 Models P01 and P02, it is not recommended on the AS/400 Advanced Portable. (Refer to Feature Support section.)

Planning Information

Customer Responsibilities: The customer is responsible for the system setup and the installation of external cables, associated displays, printers and external tape drives. Installation information is contained in Application System/400(R) 9401 Customer Information (SA41-0028), shipped with the system unit. Customers who request IBM service personnel to perform these activities are subject to a charge.

Customer responsibilities include:

  • Receiving, unpacking, and placement of the 9401 system unit
  • Installing the 9401 system unit
  • Installing and maintaining cables and associated parts for attaching devices to the workstation controllers
  • Using and following the problem determination procedures in the operator's guide
  • Running the OS/400 problem determination procedures before requesting service
The customer is also responsible for providing an external tape drive, cable (if no internal tape drive is installed), and media containing the model or feature unique Licensed Internal Code (MULIC/FULIC) and Licensed Internal Code (LIC) for CE servicing. Additional service time resulting from failure to promptly provide the required tape drive and media may result in charges for the additional service time at current rates and minimum charges.

Cable Orders: No cable orders required.

Accessories and/or Supplies: Tape cartridges:

  • The 840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit uses the MC3000XL Data Cartridge (840MB), part number 16G8592 (U.S. and Canada) and part number
  • 16G8594 (Non-U.S. and Canada) or equivalent.
Cleaning cartridges and kits:
  • The 840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit uses the QIC Mini Cleaning Cartridge, part number 16G8576 (U.S. and Canada), and part number 16G8585 (Non-U.S. and Canada) or equivalent.
  • QIC Mini Data Cartridge media and QIC Mini Cleaning Cartridges can be purchased by calling the following phone numbers:
    • Distributors, call 800-854-0033
    • End-user customers call 800-695-5678
Security, Auditability, and Control

User management is responsible for evaluation, selection, and implementation of security features, administrative procedures, and appropriate controls in application systems and communications facilities.

TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Orders for an AS/400 Advanced Portable will be taken through IBM Direct Telesales at 800-IBM-CALL (426-2255). Business hours are 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. eastern time. The fax number is 800-2IBMFAX (242-6329). Have your IBM customer number available.

Orders involving multiple units may be assigned sequential shipment dates.

HARDWARE TERMS AND CONDITIONS

This product is available for purchase under the terms of the IBM Customer Agreement (ICA).

IBM Credit Corporation Financing: Term leases and installment payment plans are available for commercial and state and local government customers.

Warranty Period: One year

The AS/400 Advanced Portable comes with a one-year hardware warranty. As a complement to our international travelers, hardware warranty service will be provided worldwide. After the warranty period expires, the IBM hardware maintenance service contract entitles you to IBM's international traveler's hardware maintenance service accommodation. For further details contact your IBM representative.

Failure to permit sufficient time for the AS/400 Advanced Portable to acclimate itself constitutes system misuse and will void the warranty. Refer to acclimation tables in the Operating Environment section.

Warranty Service: IBM On-Site Repair (IOR)

Maintenance Service: IOR

IBM Hourly Service Rate Classification: Two

IBM Warranty Service, Maintenance Service or IBM Hourly Service may be obtained by calling 800 IBM-SERV (426-7378). IBM Hourly Service is available at the applicable rate and terms, including element exchange price if applicable.

Product Availability Status: New product available

Field-Installable Features: Yes

Model Conversions: No

Customer Setup: Yes.

Graduated Charges: The announced product is in Processor Group P05 for software.

Licensed Internal Code: Yes.

Educational Allowance: No

SOFTWARE TERMS AND CONDITIONS

Refer to Software Announcement 295-015, dated February 7, 1995, for the software terms and conditions, which apply.

OS/400 and Client Access/400 are provided with unlimited users.

CHARGES

Predefined Feature Packages

                        Machine
                         Type/        Feature      Purchase
                         Model         Number       Price

T01 Package 9401/P03 0101 $ 7,100 T02 Package 9401/P03 0102 10,000 L01 Package 9401/P03 0103 7,100 L02 Package 9401/P03 0104 10,000

Priced Features
                        Machine                           Feature
                         Type/        Feature      PurchasRemoval
Description              Model         Number       Price Charge

System Unit 9401

Transition Data Link P03 0059 $ 995 Carrying Case -- Soft Cover P03 0061 159 Carrying Case -- Hard Cover P03 0062 425 T01 Performance Enhancement P03 0106 1,600 L01 Performance Enhancement P03 0107 1,600 Convert Internal to External Tape P03 1335 400 3450 SCSI 1.2 m Attach Cable P03 2856 95 8MB Main Storage P03 3117 2,160 $145 16MB Main Storage P03 3118 4,320 145 Backup Tape for Preloaded SW P03 5006 257 840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit -- Internal P03 6335 1,100 145 840MB QIC Mini Tape Unit -- External P03 6365 1,500 145 Single Disk Unit (1.96GB) P03 6606 3,275 145 Single Disk Unit (1.03GB) P03 6652 1,900 145

No Charge (N/C) Features
                                                           Feature
                                      Feature    Purchase  Removal
Description              Models        Number       Price  Charge

Software Preload P03 5000 N/C MES Fastpath P03 5008 N/C Special Handling/ Scheduling P03 5009 N/C Alternate IPL Spec for QIC-3040 P03 5502 N/C Alternate IPL Spec for QIC-1000 P03 5516 N/C Token-Ring Cable (2.44 m) P03 9024 N/C $ 65 Ethernet Cable AUI (3 m) P03 9025 N/C 65 Base Ethernet IOA P03 9174 N/C Base Token-Ring IOA P03 9175 N/C Select QIC 3040 Cartridge FULIC P03 9504 N/C

                                                Minimum
                                                Maintenance
                         Machine                Charge
Description              Type      Model        (Monthly)

System Unit 9401 P03 $100

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      mark of others.